INDEX

VOL 8  PUBLISHED ESSAYS
1929-1933



Absolute monarchy, 39, 114-15
Acknowledgment, 10-11, 90, 91-92,
    94-96, 112, 114-15
Administrative order, 122-23
Aeternitas, 212
Affizieren (influence), 197
Agriculture. See Farms
Aktelement (act element), 29
Alcoholic beverages, 83
America. See United States
"American Theory of Due Process of
    Law and Freedom" (Voegelin), 14,
    72-88
"American Theory of Property"
    (Voegelin), 63-71
Ananke (necessity), 146
Anerkennung (acknowledgment),
    l0-11, 90, 91-92, 94-96
Animal nature, 183
Anne, Queen, 51n25
Anschauung (intuition), 214n44
Anschluss (1938), 21
Anthropology, 185
Antigone, 48
Aphrodite, 139
Apollo, 139
Application of law, 98-99
Art of Thinking (Dimnet), 21-23,
    228-38
Aufbau (structure), 123
Aufschlussbeziehung (mutually
    informing relation), 203
Aufschlusserlebnis (information
    experience), 205, 223
Aufschlussfrage (informing question),
    205
August, Karl, 141
Augustine, St., 212
Ausführungsgesetz (executory law), 100
Austin, John, 27, 43n16
Austria: Administrative and
Constitutional Courts in, 156, 158- 59, 161, 173-74, 178; annexation of, to Germany, 151-52, 179; and Anschluss (1938), 21; Catholicism in, 154-55, 164, 177-78; Chamber of States in, 159; Christian-Democratic Party in, 155n4; Christian Socialist Party in, 154, 154n3, 165, 166, 171n14, 174, 175-76, 178; constitutional history of, 150-51; Federal and National Councils of, 105, 156, 161-66, 170-72; Federal Assembly in, 165; federalism in, 153-60, 155n4; Home Defense Force movement in, 167-69, 167n10, 168-70nn12, 13, 172, 174-79; Homeland Alliance in, 169; Jews in, 155, 167, 169; lack of national solidarity in, 21; local elections in, 166; as not nation state, 148, 149-50, 177-78; overthrow of monarchy in, 151, 152; Parliament in, 161-62; Party for a Greater Germany in, 173; path of legislation in, 105; and peace negotiations after World War I, 153-54; police in, 163, 164, 164n6; political party system as boss system in, 168n11, 174-76; presidential elections in, 165, 165n9; provinces ( Länder ) of, 153-60, 163-66; Renner in, 15202, 153, 155n4, 175, 178; Social Democratic Party in, 154-55, 156, 160, 163-68, 170, 171n14, 174-75; Supreme Court of, 172-73; toll roads in,111; Vienna's position in, 157-58, 159, 160, 163, 164-67, 170, 177. See also Austrian Constitution
Austrian Administrative Court, 156,
    158-59, 173-74
Austrian Constitution: Administrative
and Constitutional Courts, 156, 158-59, 173-74, 178; amendment process for, 166; budgetary law, 171; care for deceased and funeral services, 166, 178; Chamber of States, 159; citizenship rights, 157; distribution of powers between federation and states, 157-60, 163-66; emergency ordinances, 162-63, 164n7, 170-71; Federal and National Councils, 105, 156, 161-66, 170-72; Federal Assembly, 165; and federalism, 153-60, 155n4; history of, 150-54; and internal tariff boundaries, 111; local elections, 166; of 1920, 150-57, 152n2, 161, 163, 166; and "on the basis of laws," 103; and ordinances and administrative acts, 103-4; and parliamentarianism, 161-62, 168; and path of legislation, 105; police powers, 163, 164, 164n6; and political particular interests, 166-67; presidential elections, 165, 165n9; presidential powers, 161-63, 171-72; and provincial laws, 100-101; reform of 1929, 21, 148-79; Renner on, 152n2; Seipel on, 175-76; Senates for Administration, 170; State Council, 165; Supreme Court, 172-73; taxation power, 157, 163, 170; Urban School Council, 164; and Vienna, 157-58, 159, 160, 163, 164-67, 170. See also Austria
Austrian Constitutional Court, in,
    156, 158-59, 172, 173, 174, 178
"Austrian Constitutional Reform of
    1929" (Voegelin), 21, 148-79
Austrian Supreme Court, 172-73
Authentic self, 199, 204-7, 209, 215,
    222-23, 226
Authoritarian State (Voegelin), 6

Bakery trade, 85
Basic norm, 112-13, 115-18
Begehrungsvermogen (capacity for
    desire), 196
Belieben (inclination), 197
Bentham, Jeremy, 27
Bergson, Henri Louis, 56, 131, 235, 236
    Bible, 189
Bierling, Ernst: on acknowledgment,
    10-11, 91-92, 94-96, 112, 114-15;
    on basic norm, 112; on democracy,
    10-11; gradation theory of, 89-94, 98,
    104, 114; on legal transaction, 94,
    98; positivism of, 10; and "purified"
    theory of law, 8, 9-11; and type
    concept of the state, 116; on unity of
    the law, 89-96, 98
Bigamy, 108
Bismarck, Otto von, 143
Bodin, Jean, 233
Bouglé, Célestin Charles, 233
Bourgeoisie, 187
Britain: culture of, 132; and Dimnet's
Art of Thinking in, 22, 233; and due process, 77-81; Labour Party in, 132; law in, 51n25; and Magna Carta, 77, 80; monarchy in, 77; national unity of, 20-21, 131, 132; national values of, 136; as nation state, 148, 149; Parliament in, 51n25, 77-81; and unity of law, 124; Voegelin's views of, 20
Bundeskanzler (federal chancellor), 105
Bundesrat (Federal Council), 105, 156

Categorical imperative, 183, 225-26
Catholicism, 154-55, 164, 177-78, 228,
    234. See also Christianity
Causation: and Bierling's gradation
    theory, 92; breakdown of, 19; and
    juristic sovereignty, 35-36; Kant on
    causality, 208, 210-15, 217, 223
Chance (prospect), 125, 125n37
Charisma, 141, 144
Charity, 233
Chignola, Sandro, 1n1
Childhood, 236
Child labor, 76
Christian community, 229-30, 232, 234
Christian-Democratic Party, 155n4
Christianity, 132, 134, 141, 229-30,
    232, 233. See also Catholicism;
   Protestantism
Christian Socialist Party, 154, 154n3,
    165, 166, 171n14, 174, 175-76, 178
Christian solidarity idea, 4, 22, 233
Citizens and citizenship, 149, 157, 187,
    237-28
Civil law, 33, 46, 93-94, 108, 121-22
Cleverness, 184
Closure and unity of the law, 112-18
Coercive acts, 26, 59-62, 108-11, 116,
    224-25
Common-law tradition of property,
    64-65
Commonsense philosophy, 183, 186
Commons, John R., 53
Communism, 148, 152, 155
Community: and acknowledgment,
95; Christian community, 229-30, 232, 234; Christian solidarity idea, 4, 22, 233; Dimnet on, 233; of equals, 64, 233, 238; Kant on community law, 224-25; Kant on formation of, 230; political community, 6, 14, 21, 237-38; types of, 64
Comprehension, 236-37
Compulsion, 202, 205, 208, 223-26
Comte, Auguste, 149
Concept formation, 41-42n13
Concretization, 100-102
Congress, U.S., 39, 78
Consciousness of consciousness,
    196-97
Consciousness of kind, 234
Constitutional law, 51, 51n25, 99, 103-
    5. See also Austrian Constitution;
    United States Constitution
Constitutional monarchy, 39, 114
Constitutional norms, 115
Constitutional order, 122-23
Constitutions: and courts for review of
laws, III; establishment of, 124; of federal states, 100-101, 105; French constitution, 99; and immanent meaning of legal forms, 150, 163; Kant on, 218; and legal transactions, 94; of nation states, 148-49; norm of state constitution, 45; and political particular interests, 150-51, 166-67; provincial constitutions, 100-101. See also Austrian Constitution; United States Constitution
Context, unity of, 96-102, 105, 112-14
Contract: freedom of contract, 76-77,
    81; in Germany, 127
Cooper, Barry,1n1, 2
Coppage v State of Kansas, 86-87
Corbin, Arthur L., 33
Courts. See Austrian Supreme Court;
    United States Supreme Court
Creative Evolution (Bergson), 56n2
Creator and creatura, 212
Criminal law, 98, 101-2, 108, 121-22
Criterion of positivity theory, 112-13,
    117
Critique of Judgment (Kant), 184, 188
Critique of Practical Reason (Kant),
    193-94, 198, 203-5, 221-22
Critique of Pure Reason (Kant), 16-18,
    195, 210-11, 217, 219
Crito, 48
Cromwell, Oliver, 132

Dauerstrom (duration), 236
Davidson v City of New Orleans,
    78-79, 78n8
Death, 55, 56, 58, 60
Debtors, 110
Delegation, 98
Democracy: Bierling on, 10-11; and
education, 228; in France, 231-32; and like-mindedness, 5, 14, 233- 34; and nation state, 148-49; and political life-form of citizen, 21; and politicizing of citizens, 237-38; property and freedom in, 71, 72-75; rule versus, 88; as unique, 10; Weber on, 144
Dempf, Alois, 23
Der sinhaffte Aufbau der sozialen Welt
    (Schütz), 19
Descartes, René, 131, 235, 236-37
Dewey, John, 5, 14, 234-35, 237
Dickinson, John: on causation and
juristic sovereignty, 35-36; comparedwith Kelsen, 31-33, 41-44; on hypostasis, 36, 37; in improvement of the state, 47; institutionalism of, 8, 11, 18, 28, 34-35, 37-38, 40, 47; on international law, 37, 40-47, 42-47; on juristic sovereignty, 35-38, 47; on justice, 48; on legal norms, 30, 32-36, 38-40, 43-44, 46; on legislative organs, 38-39; on location of supreme, sovereign organ, 38-40; on misinterpretations of sovereignty, 35-38; on multiplicity of legal orders in a state, 42-47; on openness of legal system, 8-9, 51-52; on psychologism, 35, 36; on regime of law, 47; on state, 36-38, 39; on statesmanlike virtues, 14, 18; summary on theory of sovereignty of, 29-30; on supervision of sovereign, 50-51; and theory of sovereignty and the pure theory of law, 7-9, 11, 18, 27-52; writings by, 7-8n16
"Dickinson's Theory of Sovereignty and
    the Pure Theory of Law" (Voegelin),
    6, 7-9, 11, 18, 27-52
Dictatorship, 144, 150
Dimnet, Abbé, 21-23, 228-38
Dinghofer, Dr. (President of Austrian
    Supreme Court), 173
Direct acknowledgment, 91, 114-15
Disraeli, Benjamin, 231
Distentio animi, 212
Division of labor, 232, 234
Dogma (doctrine), 190
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 149
Due process, 77-82, 87-88
Durkheim, Eéémile, 232
Duty, 193-94, 198, 204, 222. See also
   Obligation

Economics, 53, 54, 56, 134
Education, 22-23, 228-29, 231, 236
Eigengesetzlichkeit (internal and
    unique autonomy), 90, 118
Eigentliche Selbst (authentic self), 199
Élan vital (urge to live), 56
Empfindungen (sensory perception),
    200
Empirical I versus intelligible I, 206,
    216-17
Empiricism, 219
Employment. See Labor
Engels, Friedrich, 231
England. See Britain
Enlightenment, 76
Epistemology, 16-18, 217
Equality, 68, 187
Erfolgsethik (consequentialist ethics),
    185
Erleiden (suffering), 60
Er-Mächtigen (empowerment), 197
Eros, 141
Erscheinung (phenomenon), 206
Es Selbst (It Itself), 209
Ethics: of Kant, 185, 192, 211, 217, 222;
    of Weber, 19, 139-40
Ein Etwas (a something), 188
Evil, 189, 190
Executory law, 100
Existentialerlebnisse (existential
    experiences), 2, 4, 6

Farms, 57, 58, 63, 67-68, 74, 83, 84
Federalism and federal state, 39,
    l00-101, 105, 153-60, 155n4
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 149
Fifth Amendment, 73, 78
Finanzreferent (financial adviser), 165
Finanzverfassungsgesetz (constitu-
    tional law governing finances),
    157
Flaubert, Gustave, 235
Formal layer of meaning, 112-14,
    118-21
Fourteenth Amendment, 64, 71, 73, 77,
    78-79, 82
France: constitution of, 99; culture
of, 131-32, 139; and culture of personality, 235-36; Declaration of 1789, 148, 187; democracy in, 231-32; and Dimnet's Art of Thinking, 22, 233; and division of labor, 232, 234; and freedom, 131-32, 232-33, 237; National Assembly in, 131; national unity of, 20-21, 131-32; national values of, 136; as nation state, 148, 149, 231-32, 234; parliament of, 99; philosophy in, 235; and solidarism, 4, 22, 233; Third Estate of, 187; Third Republic of, 231
Freedom: and citizenship, 187;
and due process, 14, 77-82; and economically weak, 75; and economic circumstances, 87; eighteenth-century theory of, 87; and France, 131-32, 232-33, 237; German view of, 232; and justice, 63; Kant on, 17, 187, 193, 202-3, 205, 210-12, 214, 216-19, 224-25; Locke on, 11, 12, 14; and moral law, 202-3; and property, 71, 72-75, 84-85; sphere of, 69-70, 74-75; and spontaneity, 205-6, 210-13, 215; Weber on dialectic of necessity and, 137, 144-45
"Freedom and Responsibility in
    Economy and Democracy" (Voegelin),
    20
Freedom of contract, 76-77, 81, 83-84
Free will, 132. See also Will
Frontier and pioneer ideal, 12-13, 57,
    58, 62, 63, 67-68, 84, 233
Fundamental norm, 113, 115-18

Garment industry, 76
Geist (spirit), 180
Geltung (validity), 106, 129
Geniessen (use/enjoyment), 56
Genussfähigkeit (capacity to use), 13,
    56
George, Stefan, 20, 133, 141, 231
German Reich, 114
Germany: annexation of Austria to,
151-52, 179; aristocratic idea of humanity in, 230, 231, 237; and Bismarck's death, 143; collapse of, after war of 1870, 137; compared with other European nations and United States, 20; contracts in, 127; culture of, 133-34, 135, 136, 139; and Dimnet's Art of Thinking, 229; and freedom, 232; friendships in, 141; individual responsibility in, 133-34, 137, 139-40; lack of national solidarity in, 21-22; as nation state, 149, 231-32; Parliament in, 143; as part of the West, 131n1; philosophy in, 181; and Prussia, 20, 134; Weber on, 141-43; Weimar Germany, 20, 154; and World War I, 131, 143, 147
Gesamtsinngebilde (total structure of
    meaning), 123
Geschehen (event), 135
Gesinnungsethik (ethics of intention),
    19
Gesollt-Seins (obligatoriness), 130
Gesolt (obligatory), 222-23
Giddings, Franklin Henry, 234
God, 207, 212
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 41, 229
Government, function of, 49
Gradation theory, 89-94, 98, 104
Gradual completion of norm-contents,
    102-4
Granger cases, 70
Great Britain. See Britain
Greece, 139
Greene, Theodore M., 195n24
Grossdeutsche Partei (Party for a
    Greater Germany), 173
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of
    Morals
(Kant), 184, 185, 194, 200-201,
    205, 210, 216, 218/248, 220, 221, 224,
    225

Handel (action), 13, 56
Handlungen (actions), 214
Hegel, G. W. E, 234
Heimwehrbewegung (Home Defense
    Force), 167-69, 167n10, 168-70nn12,
    13, 172, 174-79
Herder, Johann, 141
Herrenvolk (ruling people), 142
History: Kant on, 189, 193, 224; Weber
    on, 135-37
History of Political Ideas (Voegelin), 4,
    23
Hitler and the Germans (Voegelin), 18
Hobbes, Thomas, 27
Hohfeld school of civil law, 33
Holden v Hardy, 82-84, 85, 87
Holiness, 198
Holland, Sir Erskine, 27
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 32-33, 49,
    49-50n24
Home Defense Force ( Heimwehrbewe-
    gung
), 167-69, 167n10, 168-70nn12,
    13, 172, 174-79
Homonoia, 4-5
Hoover Institution, 1
Human nature: and authentic self,
204-7, 209, 215, 222-23, 226; British views on, 182-83, 185, 186, 193; and compulsion, 202, 205, 208, 223-26; and corporeality, 55; and death, 55, 56, 58, 60; and duty, 193-94, 198, 204, 222; empirical and intelligible character of, 216-17; German aristocratic idea of, 230, 231, 237; Kant on, 181-93, 199, 206-9, 213-16, 219-22; metaphysical concepts of the person, 56; and moral sentiment, 200-205, 208, 210; and reason, 182-85, 189, 190- 92, 197-200, 205, 206, 207, 209, 221-22, 224-25; Reid on, 181-82; Rousseau on, 181, 188-89; Schiller on, 231-32; and sensory sphere and sensuousness, 182, 183-85, 188-93, 195, 197-201, 205, 206, 209, 215, 222; and spontaneity, 205-6, 210-13, 215, 223, 225-26; understanding human conduct in terms of interpretive schema, 96-97; and will, 132, 194- 201, 204-5, 207-9, 216, 223. See also Reason
Hungary, 155
Hurtado v California, 79-81, 79n10
Hypostasis, 36, 37
Hypothetical imperative, 225-26

ICC. See Interstate Commerce
    Commission (ICC)
Ideas: Kant's idea of the state, 18,
    217-19; political ideas, 4
Des Identischen (of the identical), 209
Illinois, 76, 85
Immigrants, 21
Indirect acknowledgment, 91-92, 114,
    115
Individuation of law, 99
Inequalities, 68-69
Inescapability, 145-47
Innerzeitlichkeit (internal temporality),
    131
Instanz (site), 202
Institutionalism: of Dickinson, 8, 11,
    18, 28, 34-35, 37-38, 40, 47; and
    transaction, 5 3-62; and United States,
    28
Intellektuel (intelligible), 217
Intelligible I versus empirical I, 206,
    216-17
Intentio, 212
International law, 37, 40-47, 45-46n19,
    94
Interstate Commerce Commission
    (ICC), 65, 68
Intuition, 214, 214n44
Islam, 134
Israel and Revelation (Voegelin), 18n53

Jews and Judaism, 134, 155, 167, 169
Job, Book of, 134
Judaism. See Jews and Judaism
Justice: American view of, 63-64, 72;
    and coercion in transactions, 61-63;
    equality versus, 68; fundamental
    principles of, 82; law versus, 48-51;
    and property, 66-75, 84-85. See also
    United States Supreme Court

Kansas, 76, 86-87
Kant, Immanuel: on antinomies,
210-11, 218-19; on authentic self, 199, 204-7, 209, 215, 222-23, 226; on bourgeoisie, 187; on categorical imperative, 183, 225-26; on causality, 208, 210-15, 217, 223; on citizenship, 187; on community law, 224-25; on consciousness of consciousness, 196-97; on difference between objects and persons, 215-16; on duty, 193-94, 198, 204, 222; and epistemology, 16-18; ethics of, 185, 192, 211, 217, 222; on evil, 189, 190; formality of, 18; on formation of community, 230; on freedom, 17, 187, 193, 202-3, 205, 210-12, 214, 216-19, 224-25; on guiding threads ( Leitfaden ) of instinct, 188; on history, 189, 193, 224; on holiness, 198; on human nature, 181-93, 199, 206-9, 213-16, 219-22; on hypothetical imperative, 225-26; on idea of state, 18, 217-19; "insofar as" in philosophizing process of, 208-9; on intelligible I versus empirical I, 206, 216-17; on intuition, 214, 214n44; on knowledge, 210-11, 213, 215; on man and society, 224-25; on moral laws, 185, 191, 198-200, 202-5, 210, 211, 219-23; on moral sentiment, 200-205, 208, 210; on nobility, 186, 224; on noumena, 17, 188, 192-93, 211, 213; on reason, 189-92, 197-200, 205-7, 209, 221-22, 224-25; on skillfulness, cleverness, and morality, 184; on spontaneity, 205-6, 210-13, 215, 223, 225-26; on supra-sensory nature, 222; on technical imperative, 226; theory of obligation (ought) of, 15-18, 180-227; on thing in itself, 213-15; vagueness of, 206-10, 213; on will, 194-201, 195n4, 204-5, 207-9, 216, 223
—works: Critique of Judgment, 184,
188; Critique of Practical Reason, 193-94, 198, 203-5, 221-22; Critique of Pure Reason, 16-18, 195, 210- 11, 217, 219; Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 184, 185, 194, 200-201, 205, 210, 216, 218n48, 220, 221, 224, 225; Metaphysics of Morals, 184, 185, 186, 195-98, 201-2, 216, 224-25; Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone, 184; "Speculative Beginning of Human History, " 189-92
Kaufmann, Felix, 112-13, 117
Kelsen, Hans: and Austrian
Constitution of 1920, 151; on basic norm, 112, 115-18; on closure, 115-18; on coercive acts, 109; compared with Dickinson, 31-33, 41-44; on federal state, 39; on individuation and concretization, 100-102; on international law, 41-42; on legislative organs, 39; Merkl-Kelsen theory of levels, 33; and ought, 180; on positive law, 116; on punishment, 109; and pure theory of law, 2, 3, 6-7, 9, 15, 17, 28-29, 31-33, 91; on schema of legal norm, 108-9; on sovereignty, 31-33
Knies, Karl, 134
Knowledge: Kant on, 210-11, 213, 215;
    of law, 31-33
Kraftzentrum (center of energy), 194
Kundentreue (customer service), 66

Labor: division of labor, 232, 234; and
    legal protection of workers, 76-77,
    82-87; as property, 66, 73; restriction
    of work hours, 76, 82-84, 85; and
    unionization, 86-87, 168; of women
    and children, 76
Labour Party, 132
Lafayette, Madame de, 131, 235
Land. See Property
Länder (provinces), 153
Länderkammer (Chamber of States),
    159
Laski, Harold J., 9-10n21, 28
Lassale, Ferdinand, 231
Law: and acknowledgment, 10-11,
14, 91-92, 94-96, 112, 114-15; application of, 98-99; Bierling on unity of the law, 89-96, 98; Bierling's "purified" theory of, 8, 9-11; civil law, 33, 46, 93-94, 108, 121-22; concretization of, 100-102; constitutional law, 51, 51n25, 99, 103-5; criminal law, 98, 101-2, 108, 121-22; Dickinson's theory of sovereignty and the pure theory of law, 7-9, 11, 27-52; due process of, 77-82, 87-88; English law, 51n25; executory law, 100; formality of pure theory of law, 18; gradation theory of, 89-94, 98, 104; Hohfeld school of civil law, 33; Holmes on, 32-33, 49, 49-50n24; and Hurtado case, 79-81; individuation of, 99; international law, 37, 40-47, 45-46n19, 94; justice versus, 48-51; Kant on community law, 224-25; Kelsen's pure theory of law, 2, 3, 6-7, 9, 15, 17, 28-29, 31-33, 91; knowledge of, 31-33; as legal transaction, 94; Merkl on, 33, 92, 99-100, 104; meta-legal ethic, 48, 50, 52; monopoly law, 64, 66, 70; moral law, 185, 191, 192-93, 198-200, 202-5, 210, 211, 219-23; multiplicity of legal orders in a state, 40-47; natural laws, 90, 212, 222, 226-27; and norms, 5-6, 8-9, 28-41, 43-44, 46, 48, 53, 59, 91, 93-99, 108-9; obligation and positive theory of law, 15-16; openness of legal system, 8-9, 51-52; phenomenon of law, 5-6; positive law, 15-16, 90, 96, 116, 119-20, 180; prediction theory of, 32-34; and psychologism, 35, 36, 90; regime of, 47; social law, 64; as social science, 53, 54, 56; and theories of social phenomena, 53, 54, 56; and threat of coercion in transactions, 59-62; and unity of a context, 96-102, 105, 112-14; unity of legal system, 30, 35, 37, 44, 89-129. See also Austrian Constitution; Constitutions; Legal theory; Sovereignty; United States Constitution
"Law in Science and Science in Law"
    (Holmes), 49, 49-50n24
Leadership, 144
Lebensgestaltung (life-formation), 229
Lebensphilosophie (philosophy of life),
    56
Lebenszentrum (existential center), 55
Legal closure, 112-18
Legal Foundations of Capitalism
    (Commons), 53
Legal theory, 118-21, 180-81, 227. See
    also
Law
Legal transaction, 94, 98
Legislative organs: in Austria, 105,
156, 159, 161-62, 164-66, 168; and basic norm, 117; British Parliament, 51n25, 77-81; French parliament, 99; in Germany, 143; and Hurtado case, 79-81; impossibility of complete sanction of, 111-12; parliamentarianism, 143, 144, 161- 62, 168; and path of legislation, 105; and protection of workers in U. S., 76-77, 85; as ruler, 88; and social justice, 87; and sovereignty, 38-39; Weber on, 143, 144
Legitimacy for rule, 125-26, 128-29
Leistungsbegriff (concept of
    achievement), 84
Leitfaden (guiding threads), 188
Liberty. See Freedom
Liberum arbitrium (free will), 132
Like-mindedness, 5, 14, 233-34
Lloyd George, David, 144
Lochner v New York, 85, 87
Locke, John: on America, 57, 58; on
freedom, 4, 11, 12; natural right doctrine of, 6, 11-13, 56-58; on nature, 55; on personhood, 14; philosophy of generally, 32; property theory of, 6, 11-14, 55-58; on reason, 20; Second Treatise of Government by, 13n30, 56n3; on sovereignty, 27
Logologies, 37
Lottery, 83
Lotze, Rudolf Hermann, 90
Louis XIV, 131

Machtzentrum (power center), 194
Magna Carta, 77, 80
Maine, Sir Henry S., 43n16
Maistre, Joseph-Marie de, Comte, 233
Marx, Karl, 231
Marxism, 167, 177-78
"Max Weber" (Voegelin), 19-21, 130-47
Mcllwain, C. H., 28
Mediatization of ruling association,
    126-27
Menschen (men), 187
Merkl, Adolf, 33, 92, 99-100, 104, 112
Merkl-Kelsen theory of levels, 33, 104
Meta-legal ethic, 48, 50, 52
Metaphysics, 56-58, 81, 131
Metaphysics of Morals (Kant), 184, 185,
    186, 195-98, 201-2, 216, 224-25
Meyer, Eduard, 134
Middle Ages, 42, 230, 232
Monarchy, 10, 38-39, 51n25, 77, 85,
    114-15, 187
Money economy, 58
Monopoly law, 64, 66, 70, 75, 87
Montesquieu, Baron de, 233
Moralische Gefühl (the moral
    sentiment), 200-205
Moral law, 184, 185, 191, 192-93,
    198-200, 202-5, 210, 211, 219-23
Moral sentiment, 200-205, 208, 210
Mundus intelligibilis (intelligible
    world), 221
Munn v State of Illinois, 70n4
Murder, 107

Nacherleben (retrospective experience),
    202
National Biscuit Company, 68-70
Nationalrat (National Council), 105,
    156, 161-66, 170-72
Nation state, 148-49, 231-32, 234
Natural laws, 26-27, 90, 212, 222
Natural right theory, 6, 11-13, 56-58
Nature: Locke on, 55, 56-57. See also
    Human nature
Necker, Jacques, 233
Neo-Kantianism, 2, 17, 90, 135
Newbigin, Lesslie, 16n40
New Orleans slaughterhouses, 12, 14,
    64-67, 71-74
New Science of Politics (Voegelin), 18
    246
Nicht-weiter-Ableitbarkeit (nonre-
    ducibility), 90
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 16n41, 19, 137-40,
    144-45, 181, 231
Nobility, 186, 224
Normativity, 128
Norms: and acknowledgment, 91-92,
95-96, 114-15; Bierling on, 10, 93; of civil law, 46, 108, 122; and coercion, 108; concretization and norm- content, 100-102; of constitutional law, 103-4; constitutional norms, 115; of criminal law, 101-2, 108, 122; delegation of norm enactment, 98; Dickinson on, 8-9, 30, 32-36, 38-40, 43-44, 46, 48; fundamental norm, 113, 115-18; and gradation theory, 91-94; gradual completion of norm- contents, 102-4; of international law, 43, 45-47; Kaufmann on basic norm, 112-13; legal norms, 5-6, 8-9, 28-41, 43-44, 46, 48, 53, 59, 91, 93-99, 108-9; and normative layer of meaning, 106-12, 115-18; pacta sunt servanda (agreements must be honored), 45; quintessence of, 121, 126; rebus sic stantibus (while things remain as they now stand) clause, 45-46, 45-46n19; and sovereignty, 28-41; and state, 36-41, 45; of state constitution, 45; successful realization of, 102-3; validity of, 15, 18, 91, 93- 94, 106, 118-19; and violence, 114
Normsetzung (norm enactment), 98
North German League, 114
Nötigung (compulsion), 199
Noumena, 17, 188, 192-93, 211, 213

Oakeshott, Michael, 13n30
Obedience, 48, 81, 126
Objects versus persons, 215-16
Obligation: and duty, 193-94, 198,
204, 222; Kant's theory of ought, 15-18, 180-227; Kelsen on, 180; and legal positivists, 15-16; and moral law, 184, 185, 191, 192-93, 198-200, 202-5, 210, 211, 219-23; and moral sentiment, 200-205, 208, 210; original versus derivative ought, 226; and ought-indexing, 226; and will, 194-201, 195024, 204-5, 207-9, 216, 223
"On the Conception of Sovereignty"
    (Ritchie), 27, 43n16
On the Form of the American Mind
    (Voegelin), 2
Order: of regulation, 121; and unity of
    the law, 120-24, 126
Order and History (Voegelin), 18n53
Ordinances, 103-4
Organic theory, 84
Organizationstechnisch (organizational
    practice), 102
Ottakring Volkschochschule, 23
Ought. See Obligation
"Ought in Kant's System" (Voegelin),
    15-18, 180-227

Pacta sunt servanda (agreements must
    be honored), 45
Parliamentarianism, 143, 144, 161-62,
    168. See also Legislative organs
    Party for a Greater Germany, 173
    "Path of Law" (Holmes), 32-33
    Paul, St., 4, 234
Permanere, 212
Personhood: Dimnet on development of
    personality, 235-36; Kant on, 215-16;
    and like-mindedness, 14; Locke on,
    14; Schiller on, 231-32. See also
    Human nature
Pflicht (duty), 198
Philosophical anthropology, 13-14, 15,
    17, 18
Philosophy: commonsense philosophy,
183, 186; French philosophy, 235; German philosophy, 181; "insofar as" in philosophizing process, 208-9; Kant on, 218, 218n48; Voegelin's disdain for English-speaking philosophy, 20. See also specific philosophers
Pioneer ideal and frontier, 12-13, 57,
    58, 62, 63, 67-68, 84, 233
Plato, 15, 18, 218, 230
Police, 163, 164, 164n6
Political ideas, 4
Political Religions (Voegelin), 1
Political science: and natural right
    theory, 57; and political community,
    6, 14, 21, 237-38; Voegelin's
    reformulation of, 2-7, 23; and Weber,
    142-45
Political theory, 127-29
Politicizing of citizens, 237-38
Positive law, 15-16, 90, 96, 116, 119-20,
    180
Positivism: of Bierling, 10; limitations
    of legal positivism, 5, 15-16; and
    property, 11; of pure theory of law, 2,
    7
Positivity, criterion of, 112-13, 117
"Postscript to The Art of Thinking "
    (Voegelin), 4-5, 14, 21-22, 228-38
Prediction theory of law, 32-34
Princeton University, 27
Property: American theory of, 11, 12,
14, 63-75; and capacity for use, 56-57; in common-law tradition, 64-65; court cases on, 11, 12, 14, 64-74, 82-83; definition of, 65, 71, 72-73, 84-85; demands concerning legal protection of, 72; farms as, 57, 58, 63, 67-68, 74, 83, 84; freedom linked with, 71, 72-75, 73; as fundamental human experience, 11; labor as, 66, 73; Locke's theory of, 11-14, 55-58; and monopoly law, 64, 66, 70, 75, 87; natural right theory of, 6, 56-58; and transaction, 55-57; and usufruct (proper use), 13, 14
Protection against damages, 70
Protection of workers, 76-77, 82-87
Protestantism, 132, 134, 141, 234. See
    also
Christianity
Proust, Marcel, 131, 235
Prussia, 20, 134
Psalms, 134
Psychologism, 35, 36, 90
Punishment, 101-2, 107, 108-9, 122
Pure theory of law: Bierling on, 8, 9-11;
Dickinson's theory of sovereignty and, 7-9, 11, 27-52; formality of, 18; and international law, 41-42, 44-45; Kelsen on, 2, 3, 6-7, 9, 15, 17, 28-29, 31-33, 91; and multiplicity of legal orders in a state, 41-42, 44-45; and schemata, 114-15

Quintessence of norms, 121, 126

Race and State (Voegelin), 3, 4, 5-7, 11
Railroads, 67, 68, 69, 70
Ratio, 20, 139
Ratio cognoscendi, 223
Rational state type, 123-24
Realm of understanding (or reason), 206
Realontologie (ontology of the real), 215
Reason, 20, 130-32, 182-85, 189-92,
    197-200, 205-7, 209, 221-22, 224-25
    Rebus sic stantibus (while things
    remain as they now stand) clause,
    45-46, 45-46n19
Recht (law), 97
Rechtserscheinung (phenomenon of
    law), 5-6
Rechtswissenschaftliche Erkenntni-
    seinheit
(legal-scientific unity of
    knowledge), 124n36
Regulatory order, 121-23, 126
Regulierungsordnung (order of
    regulation), 121-22
Reichspost, 178
Reid, Thomas, 181-82
Religion, 134, 141
Religion within the Limits of Reason
    Alone (Kant), 184
Renaissance, 136
Renner, Dr. Karl, 152n2, 153, 155n4,
    175, 178
Republic, 143, 218
Responsibility, 133-34, 137, 139-40,
    144-45
Revolutions, 114, 147
Ritchie, David G., 27, 43n16
Romantics, 141
Roscher, Wilhelm, 134
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 181, 188-89,
    233, 235
Rule and rulership: definition of, 125;
    Plato on, 230; ruling association,
    124-29
Russentum (Russian realm), 149
Russia, 149

Sacrum imperium, 230
Sacrum Imperium (Dempf), 23
Santa Fe Railroad Company, 68
Scheler, Max, 4-5, 181n1, 234
Schemata: and formal layer of meaning,
    112, 113, 119-21; of illegal conduct,
    107-10; and legal theory, 120, 180;
    248 and legitimacy for rule, 128-29; and
    pure theory of law, 114-15; and unity
    of the law, 96-110, 106n26, 112, 113,
    114-15, 120; and validity, 119
Schiller, F. C. S., 181n1, 230-31
Schober, Chancellor, 176
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 90
Schütz, Alfred, 19
Science, 130-31, 136, 139
Second Treatise of Government (Locke),
    13n30, 56n3
Seipel, Ignaz, 154n3, 155n4, 164n7,
    167-68nn10, 11, 174, 175-76, 178,
    178n17
Self-enclosed series, 102-4
Self. See Authentic self
Sensuousness and sensory sphere of
    humans, 182, 183-85, 188-93, 195,
    197-201, 205, 206, 209, 215, 222
Sieyès, Abbé, 131, 233
Sigwart, Christoph, 90
Silber, John R., 195n24
Sinneinheit (meaningful unit), 3
Sinnliche Anschauung (sensory
    perception), 214n44
Sinnlichkeit (sensuousness), 184, 197
Sinnverknüpfung (association of
    meaning), 117
Sittliche Gattung (moral species), 182
Skillfulness, 184
Slaughter-House Cases, In Re, 12, 14,
    64-67, 72-74
Social Democratic Party, 154-55, 156,
    160, 163-68, 170, 171n14, 174-75
Socialism, 152, 231
Social law, 64
Social sciences, 53. See also Economics;
    Law; Political science
Sociology, 57, 94, 125-26. See also
    Weber, Max
Socrates, 15
Sofern (insofar as), 208-9
Solidarism: of de Maistre, 233; and
education of non-elites, 22-23; French ideas on, 4, 22, 233; German ideas on, 4-5; and homonoia, 4-5; negative and positive example of, 21-22; and U. S. Supreme Court decisions on property, 14
Das Sollen (obligation), 15, 116, 180,
    202
Sovereignty: Austin on, 27, 43n16;
Bentham on, 27; causation and juristic sovereignty, 35-36; characteristics of ideal sovereign, 51-52; definition of, 29-30, 34, 36-37, 48; Dickinson's theory of, 7-9, 27-52; Hobbes on, 27; Holland on, 27; and hypostasis, 36, 37; and international law, 37, 40-47; juristic sovereignty, 35-38, 47; Kelsen on, 31-33; Laski on, 28; Laski's pluralistic theory of, 9-10n21; and legislative organ, 38-39; location of supreme, sovereign organ, 38-40; Locke on, 27; and logologies, 37; Mcllwain on, 28; misinterpretations of, 35-38; and monarchy, 38-39; and norms, 8-9, 28-41, 43-44; and psychologism, 35, 36; Ritchie on, 27, 43n16; summary of Dickinson's theory of, 29-30; supervision of sovereign, 50-51; and U. S. Supreme Court, 8, 39-40; and unity of legal system, 30, 35, 37, 44
"Speculative Beginning of Human
    History" (Kant), 189-92
Sphere of freedom, 69-70, 74-75
Spontaneity, 205-6, 210-13, 215, 223,
    225-26
Staat, translation of, 49n22
Staatsgenossen (associates of the state),
    187
Staatslehre (political science), 2, 3-7, 23
Staatsnotar (state notary), 152
Staatsrat (state chancellor), 152
Staatstechnisch (state-technical),
    142-43
Stadtschulrat (Urban School Council),
    164
Stanford University, 1
State: coercive acts by, 59-62, 108-
11, 116, 126; complex of meaning of, 113-14, 123-24; core political principles of, 21; Dickinson on, 36-38, 39; federalism and federal state, 39, 100-101, 105, 153-60, 155n4; Hegel on, 234; and hypostasis, 36, 37; as identical to legal system, 36-37; improvement of, 47, 52; Kant's idea of, 18, 217-19; and logologies, 37; modern state, 123; multiplicity of legal orders in, 40-47; and norms, 36-41, 45; Plato on, 218; and political community, 21, 237-38; Prussian bureaucratic state form, 20; rational state type, 123-24; and regime of law, 47; republican form, 143; and ruling association, 124-29; type concept of, 116, 123; valid state-form, 114-15; Weber on, 142-45. See also Democracy; Monarchy; Sovereignty
State technique, 142-43
Die Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos
    (Scheler), 4-5
Strafrechtsnorm (norm of criminal law),
    98
Stufentheorie (theory of gradation),
    89-94
Supra- and subordination, 103-5
Supra-sensory nature, 222
Supreme Court, U. S. See United States
    Supreme Court; Austrian Supreme
    Court

Taxation power, 157, 163, 170
Technical imperative, 226
Theft, 101-2, 122
Theory of gradation, 89-94, 98, 104
Theory of the criterion of positivity,
    112-13, 117
Thinking, art of, 228-38
Thirteenth Amendment, 64
Transaction: classification of, based
on possibility of coercion, 59-62; as concept of institutionalism, 53; definition of, 53; example of, 54-55; and justice, 61-63; legal transaction, 94, 98; and Locke's theory of property, 55-58; and natural right theory, 56-58
"Transaction" (Voegelin), 53-62
Type concept of the state, 116, 123

Überlegung (deliberation), 206
Understanding, 206. See also Reason
Unentrinnbarkeit (inescapability), 145-47
Unionization, 86-87, 168
United States: Congress of, 39; and
Dimnet's Art of Thinking, 22, 229, 233; due process of law and freedom in, 14, 72-88; farms in, 57, 58, 63, 67-68, 74, 83, 84; frontier and pioneer ideal in, 12-13, 57, 58, 62, 63, 67-68, 84, 233; immigrants in, 21; and institutionalism, 28; justice in, 61-64; national unity of, 20-21, 131, 132-33; as nation state, 234; political ideas of, 132-33; and prediction theory of law, 32-34; scholars in, 21, 133; theory of property in, 11, 12, 14, 63-75; Voegelin's views of generally, 20-21
United States Constitution: and due
process, 78, 79; Fifth Amendment of, 73, 78; Fourteenth Amendment of, 64, 71, 73, 77, 78, 78-79, 82; Thirteenth Amendment of, 64; and U. S. Supreme Court, 8
United States Supreme Court: and
constitutional law, 99; definitional process of, 79, 82, 87; and due process, 78-82, 87-88; and immutable principles of justice, 82; on property, 11, 12, 14, 64-70, 72-74, 82-83; and protection of workers, 76-77, 82-87; relationship of, to the law, 51; and social justice, 86; as supreme, sovereign organ, 8, 39-40, 50-51, 88; and unionization, 86-87
Unity of a context, 96-102, 105, 112-14
Unity of the law: application of law,
98-99; Bierling on, 89-96, 98; and closure, 112-18; and coercive acts, 108-11; and concretization, 100-102; and formal layer of meaning, 112-14, 118-21; and individuation, 99-100; and layer of material content of meaning, 103-5; and legal theory, 118-21; and legitimacy for rule, 128- 29; and normative layer of meaning, 106-12, 115-18; and order, 120-24, 126; and positive law, 90, 96, 116, 119-20; and quintessence of norms, 121, 126; and ruling association, 124-29; and sovereignty, 30, 35, 37, 44; and supra- and subordination, 103-5; and unity of a context, 96-102, 105, 112-14
"Unity of the Law and the Social
    Structure of Meaning Called State"
    (Voegelin), 4, 6, 8, 9-11, 15, 89-129
University of Vienna, 2, 178n17
Usufruct (proper use), 13, 14
Utah, 68, 69, 82

Vagrants, 107
Valéry, Paul, 131
Validity: and legal theory, 118-19, 129;
    of norms, 15, 18, 91, 93-94, 106,
    118-19; of rulership, 129; sociological
    concept of, 129; of state-forms,
    114-15
Values, 135-37, 139, 145
Verantwortungsethik (ethics of
    responsibility), 19
Verbindlichkeit (obligation), 198, 201
Verdross, Alfred, 45, 112
Vermögen (faculty), 214
Vernunft (pure reason), 206
Verstand (understanding), 206
Verwaltungsordnung (administrative
    order), 122
Verwaltungsstrafsenate (Senates for
    Administration), 170
Verwendung (application), 150
Violence, 114
Vita contemplativa, 140, 145
Voegelin, Eric: changes and continuities
in intellectual career of, 1-3; flight from Nazi tyranny by, 1; in France, 22; at Hoover Institution at Stanford University, 1; in Munich, 1; at Ottakring Volkschochschule, 23; scholarly career of, in Vienna, 1; in United States, 1, 2; at University of Vienna, 2. See also specific works
Volkstaat (people's state), 168
Von Bonnot, Schuster, 174

War, 122
Weber, Max: and administrative order,
122; and breakdown of causation, 19; charisma of, 141; compared with Nietzsche, 137-40, 144-45; and constitutional order, 122-23; on democracy, 144; and dialectic of freedom and necessity, 137, 144-45; on ethics of intention versus ethics of responsibility, 19, 139-40; on Germany, 141-43; and history, 135-37; on inescapability, 145-47; on leadership, 144; on obedience, 126; on politics, 142-45; and regulatory order, 121; as representative thinker and sufferer, 18-19; on republican form, 143; on rule, 125; and science, 136, 139; sociological terminology of, 94; sociology of, 17; on state technique, 142-43; thematic range and fragmentary nature of works by, 134-36; and values, 135-37, 139, 145; Voegelin's writings on, 18-19, 130-47; and World War I, 147
Wechselwirkungen (reciprocal
    influences), 221
Weimar Germany, 20, 154
Wesen (essence, being), 191, 214
Will, 132, 194-201, 195n24, 204-5,
    207-9, 216, 223
Wille (will), 195n24
Willkür (will), 195, 195n24
Women's employment, 76
Workers. See Labor
"Working Theory of Sovereignty"
    (Dickinson), 27-52
World War I, 131, 143, 147, 153-54
Wunsch (wish), 195

Yorck of Wartenburg, Count Paul, 234

Zensitär (censory), 187
Zweck (purpose/end), 182, 183
Zwiespalt (disjunction), 190

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