INDEX

VOL 5—  MODERNITY WITHOUT RESTRAINT



Abendländische Eschatologie (Taubes),
    253
Abraham, 50, 56, 64, 65, 178, 301
Absolutism, 53-58, 239-40
Achaemenides, 131-32 Actio, 275
Actium, battle of, 165
Activist immanentization, 186, 231,
    300
Activist mysticism, 300
Adam, 194, 280; Christ as second Adam,
    45
Adorno, Theodor, 4
Ad usum publicum, 157
Advent-recession cycle, 221-22
Adversas Haereses (Irenaeus), 190-91
Aegyptus, 144
Aeneas, 124
Aeschylus, 140, 144-46, 146n40, 147,
   224, 269
Agathon (the good), 92, 140, 259
Agent versus representative, 117
Age of Reason, 191
Aggressiveness, 63
Agnoia (ignorance), 143, 256
Agnostics, 188
Ahuramazda, 131-32
Aidos (shame), 100
Akhenaton sun cult, 37-41, 42, 43-44,
   56, 66-67
Alans, 125
Alaric, 154
Alethos pseudos, 143
Alexander, Samuel, 108n1
Alexander the Great, 12, 161, 254
Alienation, 248, 255
Altar of Victoria, 155-56, 157
Altercatio (mutual accusations), 163
Altruism, 296
Amator sapientiae, 138
Ambrose, Saint, 155, 156-57, 158, 214
Amenhotep III, 36-37
America. See United States
Amicitia (mutuality), 150
Amicitiae (agreements), 163
Amon, 35-37
Amon Ra, 35
Amor Dei, 151, 238,
Amor sui, 151, 238, 239
Amour-propre, 239
Anabaptists, 180
Analogia entis, 32, 273
Analytic Posteriora (Aristotle), 258
Anamnesis (Voegelin), 16
Ancien regime, 241
Anthropological principle of Plato,
    136-38, 141-42, 143
Anthropological truth, 13, 149-50,
    196, 204, 218-19
Anthropology. See Philosophical
    anthropology
Antichrist, 50, 206
Antiquities (Varro), 153, 154, 158, 166
Antisthenes, 153, 153n14
Antony, 163, 164, 165
An-wesen (presence), 275
Apocalypse: church as apocalypse
    of Christ in history, 176; and
    death of God, 195; and Gnosticism, 14;
    Hebrew apocalyptic, 254; and
    hierarchy, 50-52;
    of inner-worldly community, 60-62;
    and rise of Western civilization, 194;
    as symbol generally, 70;
    symbols of, 50-52; of Third Rome, 183
Apokalypse der deutschen Seele
    (Balthasar), 253
Apollinaris, 181
Apollinian Imperium, 191
Apostles, 57
Aquinas, Thomas. See Thomas Aquinas
Arche (origin), 263, 274
Arendt, Hannah, 2-3, 7, 15
Argos, 144-45
Aristophanes, 147
Aristotle: on aidos (shame), 100;
    analytical process of, 258-59;
    compared with Christian Age, 45;
    ethics of, 234-35; gnostics on, 226;
    on God, 143, 150, 170;
    on history, 184; method of,
    for examination of symbols, 110-12,
    114-16, 129, 152-53, 192;
    on nous and noetic self, 92, 140,
    150, 215; on philia, 140;
    on philia politike
    (political friendship), 150;
    and philosophical schools, 147;
    Plato compared with, 139; polis of,
    54, 110, 185, 260; politics of,
    49, 79, 89, 91, 103, 110,111, 144, 161,
    185, 257; on spoudaios (mature man),
   138-39; and Thomas Aquinas, 49
—Works: Analytic Posteriora, 258;
    Ethics, 110; Metaphysics, 170, 171;
    Politics, 49, 110, 139
Articulation of society, 117-24, 127, 224
Artificial person, 236
Asceticism, 271
Asia, 222. See also specific countries
Associationism, 239
Assyria, 131
Athanasius, 173
Atheism, 32, 60, 247, 253
Athena, 146
Athenian politics, 11-13, 49,
    79, 88, 89, 91, 137, 142, 144,
    146-47, 149-50, 257, 259. See
    also
Aristotle; Greek philosophy; Plato
Aton, 36-38, 40
Attis mystery cult, 154
Au bout de la nuit, 229
Auctoritas majorum, 104, 159
Auctoritas philosophi, 159
Aufheben (cancellation), 289
Augustine, Saint: on Christianity, 47-48,
    158, 214; on church, 47-48, 176-77, 181;
    on God, 158-59; on history,
    47-48, 159, 177, 184-85, 300-301, 308;
    on imperator felix, 157; on people, 121;
    and Plato, 138; on Roman Empire,
    48, 154, 157; significance of generally, 11;
    on soul, 238; on state, 47;
    symbols of, 50; on Varro,
    153, 154, 158-59; on warfare,
    173-74
—Work: Civitas Dei, 89, 153, 154, 157,
    158, 176
Augustus, 166, 172
Aurelian, 167
Auschwitz extermination camp, 264
Austria, 1, 5, 6
Authoritarian State (Voegelin), 5
Authority: Hobbes on, 213; order and
    governmental authority, 205; and
    sacral hierarchy, 42-43
Averroës (Ibn Rushd), 203-4
Averroism, 304
Axiological component of Gnosticism, 299
Axiological immanentization, 186, 231,
    299-300

Baal of Emesa, 167
Babylon, 206
Babylonia, 131
Bakunin, Mikhail, 232, 252
Balbus, 159-60
Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 247, 253
Baronagium, 118, 183
Barons, 118
Basileus, 172
Baur, Ferdinand Christian, 251
Behistun Inscription, 131-32, 134
Being: different types of, 31;
    Heidegger on, 275-76;
    order of, 31-32, 70, 224, 255, 258,
    259, 261, 262, 286-87, 297-98;
    philosophy springing from
    love of, 273
Belief (Glaube), 67-69
Bellum justum, 163
Benedict, 51
Bergson, Henri, 108n1, 136, 151, 216,
    259
Berkhof, Hendrik, 168
Beyond, 31, 33, 60
Bible: Book of Revelation, 51, 176,
    205-6; Book of Samuel, 124; epistles, 45,
    54, 187, 187n24, 309, 311; Exodus,
    310-11; Gnosticism and scriptural
    camouflage, 200-201; Gospel of
    John, 61; Hobbes on validity
    of, 217; interpretation of, 200-201, 204;
    lex mosaica of Old Testament, 50, 51;
    lineage in Old Testament, 50;
    Old and New Covenants in, 54, 56, 57;
    prophecies on peace of the
    Lord in, 172; and revolutionary political
    action, 205-6
Bill of Rights, 205
Biondo, Flavio, 196-97, 301
Bios theoretikos, 139
Bismarck, Otto von, 180, 259
Blackstone, Sir William, 57
Bloodlust, 69, 71
Bochenski, I. M.,108n1
Bodin, Jean, 43, 44, 89
Böhme, Jakob, 251
Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne, 177-78
Boulgakof, Serge, 152n7
Bourgeoisie, 61, 191, 302
Bousset, Wilhelm, 253
Brazil, 296
Breasted, J. H., 72-73
Britain. See England
Brutus, 124
Buddha and Buddhism, 33, 102, 135
Byzantine Caesaropapism, 181, 217

Cabbala, 279-82
Caesar, 161, 162, 164, 165, 167
Caesaropapism, 181, 217
Cain, 270
Caius Caligula, 166
Calvin, 200-201, 211
Camus, Albert, 3, 247, 253
Caritas, 47
Cassirer, Ernst, 96, 296
Causality, 98, 226
"Cause" and movement, 198-200
Cave Parable, 143
Celsus, 169-70, 172
Censorship, 202, 213
Chaadaev, P. Y., 183
Charismata, 45, 46, 55, 125
Chiliasm, 177, 276
China, 131, 134, 135, 223, 228
Christ: as acme of advent-recession
    cycle, 221; Augustine on era of, 50;
    Celsus on, 172; and christological
    debate within Christianity, 172-73;
    death of, 287; empire of, 51;
    epoch of, 136; Eusebius on,
    and pax Romana, 172; Hegel on, 308;
    incarnation of Logos in, 150,
    177, 308; as leader of Joachim of Fiore's
    second age, 178, 301; mystical
    Body of Christ, 45-46, 54, 122, 123;
    and New Covenant, 57; precursor of,
    303; Puritans on, 206-7; as second
    Adam, 45; Second Coming of, 176-77;
    separation within life of
    Jesus, 176
Christianitas, 123
Christianity: Augustine on,
    47-48, 158, 214; Celsus on revolutionary
    character of, 169-70; christological
    debate within, 172-73; as civil theology,
    220-21; and ecclesia, 44-47;
    and epoch of Christ, 136; expansion
    of, 172; and fall from faith, 188;
    and Gnosticism, 188-92, 188-89n25,
    221; Greek philosophers compared
    with, 45; historical origin of, 175;
    Hobbes on, 213-14, 215, 217;
    incompatibility of paganism and, 169;
    life of early Christian communities,
    175-76; and metaphysics, 107;
    monotheism of, 168, 170-73;
    and New Covenant, 56, 57; and pax Romana,
    172; and perfection, 298-99, 304-5,
    309; persecutions of Christians, 168, 169,
    176; and re-divinization, 175; and
    relationship between God and humans,
    150-51; as religion of Roman Empire, 47;
    and revelation, 151; in Roman
    Empire, 152n7, 154-59, 167-75, 177;
    Schelling on three phases of, 302;
    and soteriological truth, 13, 150-51,
    185; superiority of, over paganism,
    152n7; as supernatural theology,
    154; symbols of, 186;
    and tension between reason and
    revelation, 260; and theory of human
    existence in society, 151-52; Thomas
    Aquinas on, 48-49; Trinity in, 50,
    173,173n92, 178, 301; truth claims
    of, 13; and uncertainty, 187-88, 193;
    Weber and medieval Christianity,
    103. See also Church; Faith
Christian Letter (Hooker), 203
Christliche Gnosis (Baur), 251
Church: and Absolutism, 53; as
    apocalypse of Christ in history,
    Augustine on, 47-48, 176-77,
    Catholic Church as Satan,
    61; and civitas Dei, 47-48; and
    Cluniac reform, 191, 217; as corpus
    mysticum
(mystical Body of Christ),
    45-46, 54; dissolution of, through
    spiritualization, 51, 52; feudal church,
    Hobbes on Catholic Church, 55,
    61; Inquisition of, 217; Joachim
    Fiore on, 180; and positivism, 296;
    Thomas Aquinas on, 48-49; and truth
    soul, 220. See also Christianity
Cicero, 158, 159-62, 170, 173
Civilization: advent-recession cycle of,
    221-22; future dynamics of, 222-23;
    Gnosticism, 193-94; immortality
    fame and holes of oblivion, 194; and
    salvation, 194; simultaneous decline
    progress of Western civilization,
    192-93, 195; totalitarianism as end
    of progressive civilization, 195.
    also Progress; Society
Civil law, 213
Civil theology, 153, 214-17, 220-21,
    233-34
Civitas, 47, 159
Civitas coelestis, 159
Civitas Dei, 47, 48, 177, 216, 217
Civitas Dei (Augustine), 89, 153, 154,
    158, 176
Civitas terrena, 47, 159
Cleisthenes, 12
Clement of Alexandria, 152n7,
    255
Cleopatra, 163
Cluniac reform, 191, 217
Cochrane, Charles N.,
Cognitio fidei, 189
Cohn, Norman, 253
Collective body, 64, 71
Commonwealth, 237, 241
Commune consilium regni nostri
    ("common council of our realm"),
    118
Communism, 52, 110, 114-16, 134, 179,
    201-2, 228-33, 240, 252, 295,
    304. See also Marx, Karl; Soviet
    Union
Community: ecclesia as Christian
    community, 44-47; of equals in
    United States, 46-47; genealogical
    descent as basis of, 44; inner-worldly,
    33, 50-52, 59-69; Joachim of
    on monks, 51, 178-80, 191, 304;
    tribal, 44, 45, 124-25
Comrade of the people, 65, 66
Comte, Auguste: and activist
    mysticism, 300; on altruism,
    Gnosticism of, 194; on history,
    104, 179, 180, 296, 301-2; as
    leader, 304; positivism of, 93, 96,
    107, 152, 192, 194, 201, 264,
    on progress, 104; and prohibition
    questions, 263, 264; refusal of
    metaphysical arguments by, 106,
    as revolutionary activist, 189;
    superman of, 152, 303
    —Work: Cours de Philosophie Positive,
    263
Conditio humana, 151, 177, 226
Condorcet, Marquis de, 152, 179, 191,
    299, 303
Confucius and Confucianism, 102, 135
Conjuration of the West, 166
Conscience, 312
Consentement coutumier, 126
Constantine, 154, 168, 169, 172
Constantine IV Pogonatus, 173
Constantinople, 181-82, 181n11
Consuetudo Romae, 181
Contra Celsum (Origen), 170
Contract theory, 54, 111, 236
Corpus, 46, 47
Corpus mysticum, 8, 45-46, 54, 64, 122,
    123, 236
Cosmion, 112, 129, 131, 220
Cosmological truth, 13, 149
Cosmopolis, 161-62, 216
Cours de Philosophie Positive (Comte),
    263
Creation of humans, 262—63
Creation story of Egyptians, 37-39
Creative minority, 128
Critias (Plato), 140

Dahl, Robert A., 2
D'Alembert, Jean Le Rond, 186, 201
Danaus, 144
Daniel, 177
Dante, Alighieri, 23, 28, 42-43, 46, 50,
    52, 79, 191, 302
Darius I, 131-32
Dasein (historical existence), 275
Death: as evil, 236; fear of, 236, 306; of
    God, 8-9, 195, 247-48, 278-89; and
    Last Judgment, 259, 311-12; Thanatos
    as, 140; in war, 48
Death of God movement, 8-9, 195,
    247-48, 278-89
Deception. See Lies and deception
Decline of Western civilization, 192-93
De-divinization, 104, 174, 175-77, 187,
    189, 220
Definitions, 111-12
Defoe, Daniel, 5 7
Dekabrist revolt of 1825, 183
De laudibus legum Anglie (Fortescue),
    121
Delphic oracle, 44
Democracy, 118-20, 180, 232, 241, 259,
    304
De Monarchia (Dante), 42-43
Demonism, 99, 100-102, 151, 193,
    225. See also Satan and "Satanic"
    challenge
Demos (political people), 5
Dempf, Alois, 73
De mundo, 170, 171n78
De natura deorum (Cicero), 159-60
Depth psychology, 63
De re publica (Cicero), 160-61
Descartes, René, 230
Deutero-Isaiah, 147
Deux sources de la morale et de la
    religion (Bergson), 136
Diadochi and Diadochian empires, 161,
    254
Dialectical materialism, 108n1, 134,
    255
Dialectics of Enlightenment
    (Horkheimer and Adorno), 4
Diderot, Denis, 186, 201
"Die Tat" (Schumann), 69
Dike (justice), 140, 145-46, 224, 237,
    271
Diocletian, 167
Diogenes, 282, 284
Dionysius Areopagita, 192, 201
Disease as nature of man, 239
Disenchantment (Entzauberung), 104
Distentio (dispersion of existence), 31
Divertissement, 193
Divinitas, 168
Dominic, 51
Dominium politicum et regale
(constitutional government), 121
Dostoevski, Fyodor, 180, 183
Do-ut-des principle, 155-56, 168
Doxa, 95, 97, 111, 152, 257, 260, 278
Drama, 147
Drame de 1'humanisme athée
(Lubac),
    247, 253
Dream world of Gnosticism, 224-27,
    229
Dritte Reich (Moeller van den Bruck),
    180, 180n10
Durchsichselbstsein (being-of-itself),
    262, 279
Dux, 51, 179, 302-3
Dux e Babylone, 178, 301, 303

Ecclesia, 8, 44-50, 54-59, 70
Ecclesiastical Polity (Hooker), 197-98
"Economic and Philosophical
    Manuscripts" (Marx), 262-65
Ecumenic Age (Voegelin), 14, 16
Edict of Galerius, 168
Edict of Licinius, 168
Egypt: Akhenaton sun cult of, 37-41,
    43-44, 56, 66-67; and empire as
    cosmic analogue, 131; Osiris cult in,
    state religion of, 34-41; universal
    of, 215; world empire of, 36
Eichmann in Jerusalem (Arendt), 7
Eichmann trial, 7
Eidos (form) of history, 185-87, 224
Einführung in die Metaphysik
    (Heidegger), 275
Elagabalus, 167
Elect, 199
Elections, 113
Eleusis mystery cult, 154
Élites, 52
Elpis (hope), 276
Emeth (truth), 280, 281
Emotions, 30-31. See also Passions
Empires: as cosmic analogue, 130-35;
    on emperor, 46; Joachim of
    on, 50-51; Mongol empire,
    132-35, 156; Parthian Empire, 254;
    on, 55; Persian Empire, 254;
    Sassanian Empire, 254; in seventh
    century before Christ, 253-54. See
   
Rome and Roman Empire
Encyclopédie française, 201
Engels, Friedrich, 52, 208, 304
England: beginning of, 124;
    consolidation of national state
    182; democracy of, 241; Ferrers'
    in, 119; Fortescue on, 121,
    124; and Magna Carta, 118;
    monarchy in, 118-19; Parliament in,
    209; Puritan crisis in, 204-12,
    240, 241; Reformation in, 190;
    representation in, 113, 118-19, 121;
    revolution in seventeenth century,
    See also Puritanism
Enlightenment: and American
    Revolution, 241; Frankfurt School
    4; and heresy, 251; on human
    nature, 71; and immanentism, 189;
    perfectibility of human reason,
    as representative of new truth,
    Voegelin's critique of, 11, 13
Entgöttlichung (de-divinization), 104
Entzauberung (disenchantment), 104
Epekeina, 259
Ephesians, Epistle to, 54
Episteme, 10, 97, 103, 111 277
Episteme politike (political science),
    110, 257-61
Epistles of Paul, 45, 54
Epula sacra, 157
Equality in United States, 46-47
Eros, 140, 259, 276
"Ersatz Religion" (Voegelin), 247,
    295-313
Eruption, 121-22
Eschatology, 48, 110, 172, 176, 177, 180,
    183-85, 193, 205-6, 223
Eschaton, 234, 240-41
Essentia, 262
Ethics, 99, 110, 139, 226, 234-35
Ethics (Aristotle), no
"Ethics of intention," 100
"Ethics of responsibility," 99, 100
Euripides, 146-47
Eusebius of Caesarea, 171-73
Evangelium aeternum, 51, 201
Eve, 194, 270
Evil: death as, 236; different views of,
    61; gnostic view of, 254-55; nature of,
    9, 7, 24, 25; reality of, 71, 299-300;
    root of, in "religousness," 6, 24; and
    schism within ecclesia, 47
Existence of political society, 127
Existentialism, 99
Existential sense of representation,
    116-17, 126, 127-28, 130, 147, 197,
    213
Exodus, Book of, 310-11
Ex populo erumpit regnum, 121

Fabulous theology, 153
Facts, 94-95
Fairfax, Lord, 208-10
Faith, 63, 67-69, 71, 187-89, 187n24,
    216, 255, 276, 309-13
Fascism, 5, 52, 65-67, 191, 252, 295
Faust (Goethe), 303
Ferrers' case, 119
Feudalism, 49, 123, 191
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 190, 285
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 61, 180
Fides (loyalty), 163, 164
Fides caritate formata, 151
Filofei of Pskov, 181
Fitzpatrick, William J., 248
Flavians, 166
Fondateur de la religion de 1'humanité,
    96
Formal versus scientific analysis,
    258-59
Forma securitatis, 118
Fortescue, Sir John, 121-24, 127, 236
Fortuna secunda et adversa, 224
Fourth Monarchy, 177
France: civil wars in, 212; consolidation
    national state of, 182; demise
    Third Republic in, 125-26; and
    Mongols, 132; and positivism, 61;
    representation in, 113; revolution in,
    Third Republic of, 46; tyranny of
    Louis XI in, 121
Franciscan spiritualists, 51, 179
Francis of Assisi, 51, 179, 302
Frankfurt, mystic of, 71
Frankfurt School, 4, 16
Frederick II, Emperor, 49-50
Freemasonry, 52
French Revolution, 46
"Friendship" (Schiller), 289
Frohliche Wissenschaft (Nietzsche),
    282-84
Führer (leader), 51, 65-69
Führertum, 59
Fundamentalism, 204
Future, 2

Gagarin, Grigorii G., 183
Galerius, 168
Geisteswissenschaften (humanities), 10
Geistig, 55
Genera (kinds), 153
Genera theologiae, 214
Generatio aequivoca (spontaneous
generation), 262
Genetische Entwicklung der
    vornehmsten gnostischen Systeme
    (Neander), 251
Genghis Khan, 134
Genossenschaftsrecht (Gierke), 95
Gens (people), 55
Gepids, 125
Germanic migrations, 54
German idealism, 251, 271n25
German Theology, 71, 71n6
Germany: Bismarck Reich in, 180, 259;
    demilitarization of, 228; idealism
    in, 251, 271n25; revolution in, 241;
    Romanticism in, 65; Thirty Years'
    War in, 212.     See also Hitler, Adolf;
    National Socialism
Gesinnungsethik ("ethics of
    intention"), 100
Geworfenheit (flungness), 255
Gierke, Otto Friedrich von, 95
Gilson, Etienne,152n7
Gladstone, William, 259
Glaube (belief), 67-69
Glimpse of Sion's Glory, 206-8
Gnosis (knowledge), 188-92, 254-56,
    265, 268-69, 272-73, 291, 296, 298,
    311. See also Gnosticism
Gnosis (Leisegang), 253
Gnosis als Weltreligion (Quispel), 253
Gnosis und spädtantiker Geist (Jonas),
    247,253
Gnosticism: and advent-recession
    cycle, 221-22; and apocalypse, 14;
    building of civilization, 193-94;
    Camus's interest in, 3; "cause" and
    movement, 198-200; characteristics
    254-56, 297-98; and Christianity,
    188-92, 188-89n25, 221; as civil
    theology, 221, 223; and codification
    gnostic truth, 200-202; and
    communism, 229-33; continuity
    ancient to modern Gnosticism,
    16, 189, 190, 247, 296-97; dangers
    as civil theology, 221-29; and death
    God movement, 8-9, 195, 247-48,
    278-89; definition of gnostic mass
    movements, 295-96; and disregard
    principles of existence, 223-24;
    world created by, 224-27,
    in early Christianity, 190-91;
    future dynamics of Western
    civilization, 222-23; of German
    master thinkers, 3, 13-14; and God,
    207, 255, 266-71; and "God is
    movement, 195, 247-48; and
    Hobbes, 218-19, 233-34; immortality
    fame and holes of oblivion, 194;
    intellectual swindle, 264-65, 268,
    274-75, 280; and modernity,
    186-98, 240-41; origins of, 192,
    253-54, 296-97; and parousiasm,
    276-78; and perfection, 298-300,
    304-5, 309; and pneumopathology,
    225-27; and prohibition of theoretical
    argument and questions, 203-4,
    261-65, 267, 273-75, 278,
    prophet of, 179; psychology
    308-13; and Puritanism, 197- 219;
    and re-divinization, 189; and
    repression of truth of soul, 221,
    222, 223; resistance against, 222-23,
    240-41, 248; results produced by,
    276-77; revolutionary nature of,
    197, 204-12, 231—32; scholarly work
    on, 247, 251-53; and scientism,
    191-92; and scriptural camouflage,
    200-201; self-defeating factor of,
    223-229; and self-divinization, 190;
    and self-interpretation principle,
    225; symbols of, 298-313; taboo on
    instruments of critique of, 202-4;
    and transfigured world, 207-8, 211;
    types of, 189-90; and uncertainty of
    Christianity, 187-88, 193; Voegelin's
    fading interest in, 15-16; Voegelin's
    indictment of modern Gnosticism,
    13; and warfare, 210-11, 227-30; and
    Western national revolutions, 241;
    and will to power, 15, 265-68, 280,
    309
"Gnostische Politik" (Voegelin), 3
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur de, 61
God: Aristotle on, 143, 150, 170;
    Augustine on, 158-59; Bodin on, 43;
    Celsus on, 169; death or murder of,
    8-9, 195, 247, 278-89; in Egyptian
    religion, 34-41, 56; Feuerbach on,
    190; gnostics' view of, 189, 207,
    255, 266-71; Hegel on, 286-91, 308;
    Hobbes on, 212; idea of, 32; Ignatius
    of Loyola on, 63-64; and inner-worldly
    community, 64; as invisible behind
    world, 60; and Israelites, 56, 71, 310-
    ii; and Leviathan, 53, 55, 56-57, 64,
    237; Marx on, 190, 284-86; Mongol
    Order of, 133-34, 156; Nietzsche on,
    193, 195, 248, 278-79, 282-84; "order
    of God," 59; and paramount reality
    (realissimum), 32; Plato on, 142-43,
    272; as projection, 285, 303; Puritans
    on, 207; relationship between humans
    and, 150-51; Romans on Christian
    God, 168; and sacral hierarchy,
    38-39, 41, 42-52, 54, 56, 70; soul's
    relation to, 31, 141-42, 215, 259, 276;
    Summus Deus of Romans, 167-68,
    170; as Trinity, 50, 173, 173n92, 178,
    301; universal God, 215; Xenophanes
    on, 142-43. See also Monotheism;
    Polytheism
"Godded man," 190,190n28, 303
"God is dead" movement, 8-9, 195,
    247-48, 278-89
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 303
Golem legends, 279—82
Gorgias (Plato), 140, 311-12
Gospels. See Bible
Goths, 125
Governance of England (Fortescue),
    124
Governmental authority, 205
Grace, 150, 151, 177, 180, 185, 188, 237
Gratianus, 155
Great Britain. See England
Great Migration, 123-24
Greeff, Etienne de, 72
Greek philosophy: and anthropological
    truth, 149-50; Cicero on, 161-62, 170;
    compared with Christianity, 45, 107;
    flourishing of, 260; histories of, 95;
    polis, 11, 12, 13, 44, 49, 54, 110,
    136-37, 144, 185, 216, 217, 224, 254,
    and Roman thinkers, 160-62;
    theory of human existence in
    society, 151-52; and Weber, 103. See
   
Athenian politics; specific Greek
    philosophers
Gregory of Nazianzus, 173
Ground of the world (Weltgrund), 32

Happiness, 235
Hartmann, Nicolai, 108n1
Hate, 63, 71
Hauptprobleme der Gnosis (Bousset),
    253
Hauriou, Maurice, 126, 128
Hebrews, Epistle to, 45, 187, 187n24,
    309, 311
Hegel, G. W. F.: on alienation, 255;
    Baur on, 251; and dialectic of three
    stages of freedom and self-reflective
    spiritual fulfillment, 179; as gnostic,
    3, 13, 189, 247, 248, 272-74; on
    God and death of God, 286-91, 308;
    on history, 288-92, 302, 305, 308;
    on humans, 64; importance of, 11;
    Johannine Christianity of, 180; on
    law and history, 89; and Marx, 272;
    on order of being, 286-87; on people
    and state, 29, 30; on philosophy,
    272-74, 290; and philosophy of world
    history, 290-92, 308; and prohibition
    of questions, 273-74
— Works: Phänomenologie, 272, 286-
   90 Philosophische Weltgeschichte,
    290-92
Heidegger, Martin, 3, 13, 247, 255,
    275-76
Heimarmene, 270, 271
Henkel, Michael, 8
Henry VIII, 119
Heraclitus, 109, 135, 140, 142, 145, 272
Heresy, 217, 251
Hermes, 270
Herules, 125
Hesiod, 160, 270, 300
Hierarchy: of Akhenaton sun cult,
    38-39, 41, 42, 43-44, 56, 66-67; and
    apocalypse, 50-52; Bodin on, 43, 44;
    of ecclesia, 44-47, 54; God and sacral
    hierarchy, 38-39, 41, 42-52, 54, 56,
    70; and Leviathan, 55-57, 64, 65-66;
    order of being, 31-32, 70, 255, 258,
    259, 261, 262; of Parliament, 118;
    of ruler and subjects, 42; spiritual
    and temporal schism within ecclesia,
    47-50
Hinduism, 102, 223
Histoire critique du Gnosticisme
    (Matter), 251
Histoire universelle (Bossuet), 177-78
"Historical materialism," 102
Historical mission, 5 9
Historiography, 196
History: Aristotle on, 184; Augustine
    47-48, 159, 177, 184-85, 300-301,
    Bossuet on, 177-78; cause and
    effect in, 226; Comte on, 61, 104,
    180, 296, 301-2; cycles of, 184;
    of, 185-87, 224; eschatological
    interpretation of, 223-24; Hegel on,
    288-92, 302, 305, 308; Heidegger
    275; and Hobbes's everlasting
    constitution, 218; immanentization
    meaning of, 185-87; Jaspers's axis
    of, 136; Jewish-Christian idea
    end of, 184; Joachim of Fiore on,
    50-51, 178-80, 184-85, 191, 300-304,
    308; Marxist theory of, 52, 61, 111;
    Paul on, 50; periodization of Western
    history, 196-97; philosophy of, and
    political theory, 88-89; Plato on, 184;
    of political ideas, 95; profane versus
    sacred history, 184; progressivist
    interpretation of, 186; race theorists
    on, 61; substance of, 151; Toynbee on,
    11; Voltaire on, 178; Weber on, 104,
    105
History of Political Ideas (Voegelin), 9,
    11, 14-15
History of the Lombards (Paulus
Diaconus), 124-25
Hitler, Adolf, 7, 9, 15, 180, 189, 302
Hobbes, Thomas: on authority, 213; on
    Bible, 217, 240; on Catholic Church,
    57, 61; on Christianity, 213-14,
    217; and Gnosticism, 218-19,
    233-34; on God, 212; history and
    everlasting constitution of, 218; on
    nature, 234-38; Leviathan of,
    53-58, 53n5, 64, 65-66, 212, 27, 237,
    239-40, 305, 306-8; on order, 217-18,
    253; on person, 236-37; on
    Puritans, 234, 307; on reason, 212; on
    representation, 212-15, 217-19, 233,
    236-38; on rulers, 218; symbolism of,
    238-40
Hoffmeister, Johannes, 290
"Holes of oblivion," 194
Holocaust, 264
Holy Spirit, 51, 52, 176, 178, 199, 301,
    302
Homer, 160, 171
Homines novi, 179, 302
Homines politici, 99
Homines spirituales, 179
Homme révolté (Camus), 247, 253
Homonoia (spiritual agreement
    between) 150, 235
Homo novus, 285
Homo-ousios, 169
Hooker, Richard, 76, 197-205, 225
Horkheimer, Max, 4
Horus, 34, 35
Höss, Rudolf, 264
Human agency, 4-5
Humanism, 189, 191, 193, 197
Humanitarianism, 24
Humans: aggressiveness of, 63;
    Aristotle on mature man, 138-39;
    brotherhood of autonomous persons,
    179-80; collective person, 64; disease
    as nature of man, 239; emotions of,
    30-31; Enlightenment on, 71; gnostic
    of, 254-56; happiness of, 235;
    on, 64; Heidegger on, 255;
    Hobbes on, 234-38; Marx on, 262-63;
    mystic of Frankfurt on, 71; natural
    existence of, 30; Pascal on, 238-39;
    passions of, 234-36, 237, 239, 306-7;
    perfectibility of, 51-52, 60-61, 186,
    298-300, 304-6; relationship between
    and, 150-51; relationship
    state, 28-30; suffering of, 33;
    supermen, 152, 179, 190, 284,
    303; universal community of
    mankind, 215. See also People
Hundred Years' War, 121, 123
Husserl, Edmund, 96, 296
Hypostasis, 110

Idealism, 229, 251, 271n25
Ideals, 300
Ideal types, 98, 99
Idée directrice, 126
"Ideen zu einer Geschichte in
    weltbürgerlicher Absicht" (Kant),
    60-61
Ideology, 111,260
Ignatius of Loyola, 63-64
Immanentism and immanentization:
    activist immanentization, 186, 231,
    axiological immanentization,
    231, 299-300; and communism,
    232-33; and dream world of
    Gnosticism, 226; and Enlightenment,
    of eschaton, 234, 240-41;
    Fortescue's intencio populi,
    and Gnosticism, 188-92, 197,
    226, 231-34, 305-8; Hobbes
    radical immanence in modern
    politics, 238-41; and Joachim of
    on meaning of history, 185-87;
    Marxist movement, 110; and
    parousiasm, 276-77; and perfection,
    and secularization, 185, 190;
    symbols of, 189, 305; ideological
    immanentization, 186, 231, 199;
    types of, 231, 299-300
Immigration, 47
Immortality, 61, 194
Imperator felix, 157
Imperium mundi, 157
Imperium Romanum, 162, 169
Imperium sine fine, 177
India, 135
Inimicitiae (feuds), 163, 165
Innerweltliche Religionen (inner-
    worldly religions), 33
Inner-worldly community: and
    apocalypse, 8-9, 50-52; apocalypse
    60-61; and belief (Glaube), 67-69;
    collective body, 64, 71; and
    comrades of the people, 65, 66;
    corpus mysticum of, 64;
    definition of, 33;
    faith, 63; and myth, 62-63, 64;
    inner-worldliness, 59-64; and
    perfection of spiritual being, 51-52;
    prerequisite for formation of, 54; and
    science, 60, 61-62; symbols of, 62,
    64-67. See also Fascism; National
    Socialism
Innocent IV, Pope, 132-34
Inquisition, 217
Institutes (Calvin), 200-201, 211
Intellectual swindle, 264-65, 268, 270,
    274-75, 280
Intencio populi, 122-23, 127
Intentio, 31
Intramundane phenomenon, 185,
    193-94
Irenaeus, 190-91, 256
Irrelevant facts, 94-95
Isaiah, Book of, 206-7
Isidorus, 125
Isis mystery cult, 154
Islam, 103, 191, 204, 223, 296, 312-13
Israel, 56, 64, 103, 135, 254. See also
    Jews
Italy, 52, 65. See also Rome and Roman
Empire
Ivan III (the Great), 181, 182
Ivan IV (the Terrible), 181, 182, 183

Jackson, Robert H., 205
Jaeger, Werner, 152n7
Jainism, 103
James, William, 72, 247
Japan, 160, 228
Jaspers, Karl, 3, 136, 151
Jenseits von Gut und Böse (Nietzsche),
    265
Jeremiah, 281-82
Jesus. See Christ
Jews: and Cabbala, 279-82; chiliasm of,
    177; as chosen people, 171, 71n82;
    as "counter race," 61; and faith,
    310-11; and Gnosis, 191; and Hebrew
    apocalyptic, 254; history of, 56,
    57, 64, 124, 135, 254, 310-11; and
    Holocaust, 264; king of Israelites, 56,
    142; messianic movement of, 175;
    monotheism of, 171, 177; theocracy
    of, 56; Weber on Judaism, 103
Joachim of Fiore: and Beyond, 60; on
    history, 50-51, 178-80, 184-85, 191,
    300-304, 308; koran of, 201; symbols
    of, 178-80, 183, 192, 238, 300-304
Job, Book of, 53n5
John, Gospel of, 61
John, Saint, 176, 190, 199, 205
John of Salisbury, 238, 238n23
John the Baptist, 51, 303
Jonas, Hans, 16, 247, 253, 254n2
Judaism. See Jews
Julian dynasty, 166
Jünger, Ernst, 48
Justinian, 181
Justitia, 49-50

Kalon (the beautiful), 140, 259
Kant, Immanuel, 60-61, 64, 299
Kantorowicz, Ernst, 73
Kelsen, Hans, 2
Kephale, 54
Kerwin, Jerome G., 79
Khomyakov, Aleksey, 183
Kings. See Monarchy; specific kings
Knowledge. See Gnosis (knowledge)
Kohelet, 223-24
Koinon, 145
Korans, 201-2
Kreatürlich (creaturely or natural
    existence of humans), 30-31
Kreatürlichen Verlassenheit (creaturely
    or natural abandonment), 67
Kritik der Hegelschen Rechts-
    philosophie
(Marx), 284-86
Kuyuk Khan, 132-34

Lactantius, 154n14, 168
Lagarde, Georges de, 73
Lao-tse, 135
La Rochefoucauld, Francois de, 239
Last Judgment, 259, 311-12
Law, 50, 89, 126, 212-13
Laws (Plato), 216
Leaders: Joachim of Fiore on, 179,
    302-3. See also Monarchy; Rulers
Leisegang, Hans, 253
Lenin, V. I., 208, 210, 229-30, 252, 304
Leninism, 202
Leviathan, 53-58, 53n5, 64, 65-66, 212,
    217, 237, 239-40, 305, 306-8
Lex mosaica, 50
Lex naturalis, 50
Liberalism, 189, 193, 229-30
Libido, 239
Libido dominandi, 234, 265-67, 274,
    307
Licinius, 167-68
Liebe zum Wissen (love of knowledge),
    272
"Lieder vom Reich," 67-69
Lies and deception, 131-32, 137-38,
    143, 267-68. See also Truth
Lincoln, Abraham, 119-20
Logique du coeur, 233
Logos, 42, 92, 122, 140, 145, 150, 172,
    177, 215-16, 222, 237, 308
Lombards, 124-25
Lord's Supper, 45
Louis XI, 121
Louis XIV, 43
Low Countries, 113
Lubac, Henri de, 247, 253

Machiavelli, Niccolo, 179, 226
Magna Carta, 118
Magnum latrocinium, 47
Maimonides, 42
Mangu Khan, 134
Manichaeism, 254
Mankind. See Humans; People
Mann, Thomas, 1, 6
Mannheim, Karl, 111
Marcus Aurelius, 108n1, 271
Marx, Karl: and activist mysticism,
    on dialectic of three stages
    communism, 179; doctoral
    dissertation of, 269, 269n18; as
    Gnostic, 3, 13, 14, 189, 247, 262,
    274-75, 279; on God and religion,
    284-86; and Hegel, 272; on
    history, 61; on human nature, 262;
    intellectual swindler, 264-65,
    274-75, 280; koran of, 202;
    leader, 304; and metaphysical
    questions, 106, 107; on nature, 262;
    philosophy of history of, 52; and
    prohibition of questions, 262-65, 267,
    274-75, 278, 280; and proletariat,
    on Prometheus symbol, 269-70;
    revolt against God, 268-71; on
    "socialist man," 263, 264, 274, 280;
    superman of, 152, 179, 190, 285, 300,
    on transfigured society, 208; on
    "withering away of the state," 180;
    world-historical speculation of, 180.
    See also Communism; Marxism
—Works: "Economic and
    Philosophical Manuscripts," 262-65;
    Kritik der Hegelschen
    Rechtsphilosophie,
284-86
Marxism, 101, 102, 110-11, 134, 179,
    186, 189, 222, 240, 247, 252, 295.
    See also Communism; Marx, Karl
Materialhuberei, 94
Mathematizing sciences, 90
Matter, Jacques, 251
Maximilian I, 182
Maximilian II, 182
Maximinus Daza, 167, 168
Maximus, 155
Means and ends in politics, 226
Melian dialogue, 147
Mendicant orders, 51
Merchants, 119
Merkur, 3
Messianism, 175, 183
Metaphysical monotheism, 170-71, 177
Metaphysics, 60, 61, 91, 92, 103-7
Metaphysics (Aristotle), 170, 171
Meth (dead), 280
" Methodenstreit" in social sciences, 10, 12
Methodology, 10, 90-97, 101, 104
Methodos, 92
Micah, Book of, 172
Middle Ages, 95, 177, 188, 191, 231,
    276-77, 297, 301
Migration kingdoms, 123-24
Mill, John Stuart, 231, 296
Millennium and millennial prophecy,
    180, 301
Milton, John, 194
Minority. See Creative minority
Minucius Felix, 153-54n14
Mithra mystery cult, 154
Modernity: definition of, 196; end
    of, 220-41; German version
    of, 4; and Gnosticism, 2, 186-
    98, 240-41; as juggernaut of
    spiritual disenchantment, 7; and re-
    divinization, 175; and secularization
    of world, 7
Moeller van den Bruck, Arthur, 180,
    180n10
Monadism of imperial truth, 134-35
Monarchy: authority for, 42-43; Bodin
    43, 44; Dante on, 42-43; Egyptian
    kings, 34-41; in England, 118-19;
    feudal conception of king, 123;
    German tribal kings, 54, 124-25; of
    Israelites, 56, 124; kings and empire
    cosmic analogue, 131-32; of
    Lombards, 124-25; papal supremacy
    kings, 46; Philo of Alexandria
    42; sacral hierarchy and kings,
    42-44, 70; and sacrum imperium, 45;
    Thomas Aquinas on, 123. See also
    Leaders; Rulers
Monasticism, 51, 178, 180, 191, 304
Mongol empire, 132-35, 156
Monks. See Monasticism
Monotheism, 40-41, 168, 170-73, 177
Moralistes, 239
More, Sir Thomas, 186, 299, 305-6, 307
Moscow: as the Third Rome, 180-83.
    See also Russia
Moses, 56, 311
Mosheim, Johann Lorenz von, 251
Motivation, psychology of, 239
Murder of God, 8-9, 195, 247-48,
    278-89
Musil, Robert, 269
Mussolini, Benito, 9, 65, 302
Mystery cults, 40, 44, 45, 154, 254
Mystical Body of Christ, 45-46, 54, 122,
    123
Mystic philosophers, 71, 73, 141, 148,
    150-51, 215
Mystics, 190
Mystique humaine, 71
Mystiques politiques, 252
Myth: and inner-worldly community,
    62-63, 64; of Troy, 124, 146; truth of,
    141
Mythical theology, 153

Napoleon, 61, 182
Napoleonic Wars, 183
National Socialism: and Auschwitz
    extermination camp, 264; Austrian
    version of, 6; condemnation of, 6,
    23-24; conflicts with Christianity,
    development of, and confused
    of science, 252; and Führer,
    65-69; Mann's criticism of Voegelin
    concerning, 1, 6; as political religion
    generally, 4, 6, 8-9, 17, 23-25, 295;
    of, 228; as "satanic," 6, 7, 24;
    Schumann's "Lieder vom Reich,"
    67-69; and secularization thesis, 8;
    success of, 232; suppression of debate
    on race question by, 240; and Third
    Realm, 179, 180; and Volk, 5
Natur (nature), 31
Natural law, 50, 212-13
Natural person, 236-37
Natural sciences. See Science
Natural theology, 153
Nature, 262-63, 279
Naturwissenschaften (natural
    sciences), 10
Nazism. See National Socialism
Neander, Johann August, 251
Neo-Kantian logic, 95
Neopaganism, 175, 190, 221, 252,
    295-96
Neopositivism, 108n1, 252
Neo-Thomists, 108n1
New Covenant, 56, 57
New Jerusalem, 206
New Science, 2
New Science of Politics (Voegelin):
    availability of, in Germany in 1990s,
    17; foreword to, 79; German ambience
    of, 4-5; historical formations
    discussed in, 11-12; reviews of and
    reactions to, 2-3, 11; significance of
    title of, 90; text of, 88-241; themes of,
    1-2, 4-6, 10-13, 14, 15, 253
New Testament. See Bible
Newtonian physics, 93
Nicholas, Henry, 190n28
Nicholas I, 232, 296
Niebuhr, H. Richard, 151n5
Nietzsche, Friedrich: and deception,
    265-68; on demonic diversion, 193;
    Gnostic, 3, 13, 247, 248, 265-68,
    on God and death of God, 193,
    248, 278-79, 282-84; psychology
    239; and self-salvation, 230;
    superman of, 152, 284, 285, 303;
    compared with, 105; on will to
    power, 265-68
—Works: Fröhliche Wissenschaft,
    282-84; Jenseits von Gut und Böse,
    "Night Song," 266, 267; Thus
    Spoke Zarathustra, 266, 279
"Night Song" (Nietzsche), 266, 267
Nihilism, 152, 204-5
Noetic self, 140, 150. See also Nous
Nomos, 145, 153, 170, 172, 255
Nosema (disease), 269
Nosema tes adikias (sickness of
    injustice), 269
Nosos (madness), 269
    92, 150, 215, 235. See also Noetic
    self
Numa, 159
Numbers. See Sacred numbers; Trinity

Oakeshott, Michael, 11, 11n33
Objectivity, 96-105
Octavianus, 163, 164, 165-66
Old Covenant, 54, 56
Old Testament. See Bible
On the Form of the American Mind
    (Voegelin), 12
On the Letter Omega (Zosimos), 270-71
Ontology, 96, 106, 107, 255-56, 258,
    275
Opitz, Peter J., 17
Oprichnina, 182, 183
Orbis terrarum, 162, 225
Order: of being, 31-32, 70, 224, 255, 258,
    261, 262, 286-87, 297-98; of God,
    and governmental authority, 205;
    history, 59; Hobbes on, 217-18,
    236; of society as representative
    cosmic order, 130-35, 224-25; and
    summum bonum, 235; true order of
    137-38. See also Hierarchy
Order and History (Voegelin), 2, 9, 11
Organic analogy, 121-23
Organic truth, 62-63
Orient, 11, 120
Orientation psychology, 239
Origen, 170
Original sin, 305-6
Origins of Totalitarianism (Arendt), 2,
    15
Osiris cult, 40

Paganism: Akhenaton sun cult in
    Egypt, 37-41, 42, 43-44, 56, 66-67;
    Gnosis, 191; incompatibility of
    Christianity and, 169; and mystery
    cults, 40, 44, 45, 154, 254; of Roman
    Empire, 154-60, 166-70, 214, 215;
    superiority of Christianity over,
    152n7, 214. See also Neopaganism;
    Polytheism; specific gods
Palestine, 57
Pandora, 271
Paracletes, 179, 189, 190, 302-3
Paradise, 194
Paralysis of Western nations, 232-33
Parliament of Britain, 118
Parmenides, 140
Parousia (being as presence), 176, 275,
    276
Parousiasm, 276-78
Parthian Empire, 254
Pascal, Blaise, 193, 238-39
Passions, 234-36, 237, 239, 306-7.
    See Also Emotions
Patres, 215, 216
Patronate, 162-65
Paul, Saint, 45, 46, 51, 54, 55, 190, 297,
    302
Paulus Diaconus, 124-25
Pax Romana, 172, 173
Peace, 227-30
Pecherin (Pecerin), Vladimir, 183
Peitho, 145, 147, 260
Pelasgus, 144-45
Peloponnesian War, 146
Pentecost, 176
People: Augustine on, 121; Hobbes
    the person, 236-37; and intencio
    populi,
122-23, 127; symbol of,
    118-20, 127. See also Humans
Perfectibilitas, 52
Perfection, 51-52, 60-61, 186, 298-300,
    304-6, 309
Periagoge, 143, 265, 267
Pericles, 259
Periodization of Western history,
    196-97
Persecutions of Christians, 168, 169,
    176
Persia and Persian Empire, 131, 135,
    254
Persona, 237
Persons. See Humans; People
Persuasion, 146, 147, 199, 200, 204
Peter, Saint, 302
Peter the Great, 183
Petrarch, 191
Phaedrus (Plato), 272-73
Phänomenologie (Hegel), 272, 286-90
Philia, 140, 259, 276
Philia politike (political friendship), 150
Philo Judaeus, 170, 171
Philo of Alexandria, 42
Philosophia, 272-73
Philosophical anthropology, 97, 100,
    239
Philosophical schools, 147
Philosophische Weltgeschichte
    (Hegel), 290-92
Philosophos, 272
Philosophy: Cicero on, 161-62, 170;
    on, 271-74, 290; Hegel's
    philosophy of world history, 290-92,
    and love of being, 273; mystic
    philosophers, 71, 73, 141, 148,150-51,
    questions of philosopher, 258;
    tragedy to, 147; truth of Rome
    versus truth of, 160-62; of Zosimos,
   271 See also specific philosophers
Phronesis (wisdom), 259
Physical theology, 153
Physics, 93
Physique sociale, 93
Physis, 153
Pilgrim's progress, 298
Pistis (faith), 276
Plato: on Agathon, 92; analytical
    process of, 258-59; anthropological
    principle of, 136-38, 141-42, 143;
    Aristotle compared with, 139; and
    Parable, 143; compared with
    Christian Age, 45; on contract symbol,
    Dike of, 140; on doxa, 95, 111
    on dying and philosophical man,
    on epekeina, 259; and episteme,
    Eros of, 140; Gnostics on, 226;
    God, 272; on history, 184; on Last
    Judgment, 311-12; on nosema tes
    adikias
(sickness of injustice), 269;
    peitho, 260; on periagoge, 265,
    and philosophical schools, 147;
    philosophy, 258, 272, 276; on Polis
    the Idea, 137; politics of, 11, 88,
    103, 137, 144, 161, 185, 216, 217,
    220,157, 259; on "serious play," 256;
    soul, 137-38, 150, 216, 239; on
    Thanatos, 140; theological principle
    142-43; on typoi peri theologias,
    153; on via negativa, 140
—Works: Critias, 140; Gorgias, 140,
    311-12; Laws, 216; Phaedrus, 272-
    Republic, 91, 137, 143, 216;
    Symposium, 140; Timaeus, 140, 171
Pleasure-pain psychology, 239
Plebiscite, 66
Pleroma (fullness), 45
Plotinus, 42
Pneuma (spirit), 45, 46, 47, 54, 255-56
Pneumopathology, 225-27, 239, 269,
    306
Policraticus (John of Salisbury), 238
Polis, 11, 12, 13, 44, 49, 54, 110, 136-37,
    185, 216, 217, 224, 254, 260
Polites (citizen), 254
Political religions: Akhenaton sun
    of Egyptians, 37-41, 42, 43-44,
    66-67; and apocalypse, 50-52;
    conclusions on, 70-72; and ecclesia,
    44-50; Egyptian state religion, 34-41;
    Frederick II, 49-50; and French
    Revolution, 46; of Greek polis, 49;
    and hierarchy, 38-39, 41, 42-52;
    inner-worldly community, 8-9,
    50-52, 59-69; and Leviathan, 53-58,
    53n5, 64, 65-66; National Socialism
    as generally, 4, 6, 8-9, 17, 23-25;
    problem of, 27-33; of Roman Empire,
    154-74; spiritual and temporal
    schism within ecclesia, 47-50.
    See also Communism; Fascism;
    Gnosticism; National Socialism
Political Religions (Voegelin):
    availability of, in Germany in
    1990s, 17; German ambience of, 4, 5;
    preface for, 1, 15, 23-25; publication
    1, 23; sources of, 72-73; text of,
    27-71; themes of, 4, 7-9, 252
    Political science: analytical method
    258-60; anthropological
    presuppositions in, 260-61; classical
    foundation of, 257; decline of,
    definitions in, 111-12; and
    objectivity, 96-105; and philosophy of
    history, 88-89; and positivism, 90-98;
    representation and existence,
    109-28; restoration of, 88-90,
    105-8; retheoretization in, 90; and
    self-interpretation of society, 109-10;
    subject matter of, 257-58; symbols of,
    110-111; theory in, 88-89; Voegelin's
    of, 10-11; and Weber, 98-105.
    See also Political theory; specific
    writers
Political society. See Society
Political theory, 88-89, 110-11, 113-14,
    129-30. See also Political science
Politics (Aristotle), 49, 110, 139
Politike episteme (political science),
    110, 257-61. See also Political science
Polybius, 162n47, 254
Polypragmosyne, 140
Polytheism, 40, 41, 168, 169-70, 175,
    188, 216. See also Paganism
Pompeians and Pompey, 164, 165
Pontifex Cotta, 159
Pontifex maximus, 154, 155, 163
Popes, 46, 50, 123, 132-34
Populus Christianus, 46
Poseidon, 146
Positivism: of Comte, 93, 96, 105,
    152, 192, 194, 201, 264, 296;
    and France, 61; and immanentist
    eschatology, 189, 194; neopositivism,
    108n1, 252; and political science,
    2, 10, 12, 90-98; as variant of
    Gnosticism, 189, 247, 295; and
    Weber, 103-6; and Westernization,
    222
Power, 126, 235
Praeparatio evangelica, 152n7
Prayer and Islam, 312-13
Précis de droit constitutionnel
    (Hauriou), 126
Premerstein, Anton von, 162
Presbyterian covenantism, 211
Pride, 235-36
Priesthood, 34-41, 45, 178
Princeps, 162-66
Princeps civis, 159, 160, 162, 164
Princeps philosophiae, 159
Princeps senatus, 163
Principate, 164-66
Principe, 179
Principes civitatis, 153, 162, 163
Profane history, 184
Progress: Comte on, 104; Condorcet
    299; and death of spirit, 195;
    history as intramundane
    phenomenon, 185; immortality of
    and holes of oblivion, 194; Kant
    61, 299; as religion of nineteenth
    century, 52, 61; and simultaneous
    decline of Western civilization,
    192-93. See also Progressivism
Progressivism, 186, 189, 193, 222, 229,
    232, 247, 295, 299. See also
    Progress
Prohibition of theoretical argument
    questions, 203-4, 240, 261-65,
    273-75, 278, 280
Projection, 285, 303
Proletariat, 61, 183, 209, 300, 302
Prometheus, 269-71, 279
Prometheus (Balthasar), 247, 253
Prometheus Bound (Aeschylus),
    146n40, 269-70
Propaganda, 63, 64, 163, 204, 227, 232,
    260
Pro partibus suis, 166
Prophets: gnostic prophet, 179, 298,
    303-4; of Israel, 135, 136, 281-82;
Joachim of Fiore on, 179, 303-4
Proruption: in Fortescue, 121
Prosopon, 237
Prostasia, 146
Protagoras, 142
Protestantism, 102, 197, 248. See also
    Reformation
Provincialism, 127-28
Prudentia, 226, 233
Przywara, Erich, 72
Psalms, 172, 173-74
Psephismata, 145
Pseudos, 138, 160
Pseudo-Sadia, 280
Psyche, 137-38, 141-43, 148, 149-50,
    255-56. See also Soul
Psychoanalysis, 295-96
Psychologism, 96
Psychology: depth psychology, 63;
    disoriented man, 239; English
    psychology, 239; French psychology,
    German psychology, 239; of
    Gnosticism, 308-13; of Hobbes, 234,
    "modern" psychology, 239; of
    motivation, 239; of motivations, 92;
    Nietzsche, 239; of orientation, 239;
    Pascal, 238-39; of projection, 285,
    of will to power, 265-68, 309
Puritanism: in America, 240; and
    codification of gnostic truth, 200-
    and ecclesia, 46; and Gnosticism,
    197-219; Hobbes on, 234, 307;
    Hooker's portrait of, 197-200, 225;
    intellectual defects of gnostic
    position, 200; nihilistic component of
   204-5; and pilgrim's progress,
    revolutionary nature of, 204-12;
    saints, 180, 193, 206-10; and
    scriptural camouflage, 200-201; taboo
    instruments of critique of, 202-4;
    transfigured world, 207-8
Pursuit of the Millennium (Cohn), 253

Queries to Lord Fairfax, 208-10
Quispel, Gilles, 16, 253

Ra(Re), 35, 36
Race theories, 6o, 61
Radix (root), 24
Rasse und Staat (Voegelin), 2-3
Ratio, 98, 106, 260, 261
Ratio aeterna, 92
"Rational action" types, 104
Rationalism: Hobbes on reason, 212;
    Kant, 60-61; reinterpretation of,
    105-7; and Weber, 104-6
"Reactionary" stigma, 233
Realia (realities), 33
Realissimum (paramount reality), 9, 29,
    33, 64, 65, 67, 71
Reality: paramount reality
    (realissimum), 9, 29, 32, 33, 64,
    67, 71; "second reality" of Musil,
    269
Realm, 118-19,121, 122; 178. See also
    Third Realm
Realperson, 95
Realpolitiker, 312
Reason. See Rationalism
Re-divinization, 174, 175, 178-83, 189
"Reference to a value" (wertbeziehende
    Methode),
101, 102, 103
Reformation, 56, 95, 179, 180, 182, 190,
    200, 202, 238, 297, 302
Reich (empire), 67-69
Relativism, 101
Religion: and agitations of naturalness,
    30-31; classification of religious
    experiences, 106; definition of, 27; as
    "irrational," 105; Marx on, 284-86;
    "opium for the people," 6o; and
    paramount reality {realissimum),
    29, 32, 33; Roman civil (pagan)
    religion, 154-60, 166-70, 214, 215;
    form of, in Egypt, 34-41; and
    symbols, 32; trans-worldly religions,
    Varro on, 158-59; Weber on,
    101-3. See also Christianity; Church;
    Inner-worldly community; Political
    religions; Theology
Religiones, 51
Religiös unmusikalisch (soul not
    attuned to divine), 104
"Religious renewal," 6, 24
Renaissance, 276-77, 297, 302
Representation: and Aeschylus'
    Suppliants, 145-46; agent
    distinguished from representative,
    and Aristotelian procedure for
    examination of symbols, 110-12, 114-
    16, 129, 152-53, 192; and articulation
    of society, 117-24, 127; constitutional
    sense of, 112-16, 126; and democracy,
    118-20; and disintegration of society,
    112-13, 125-26; elemental type of,
    112-16, 126, 127-28; and eruption
    and proruption, in Fortescue, 121-22;
    and existence of political society,
    88, 109-28; existential sense of,
    116-17, 126, 127-28, 130, 147, 197,
    213; Fortescue on, 121-24; Hauriou
    on, 126, 128; Hobbes on, 212-15,
    217-19, 233, 236-38; insufficiency of
    elemental concept of, 114-16; and
    Lombards, 124-25; and myth of Troy,
    124; relationship of representative
    ruler to other members of society,
    117-20; and representative suffering,
    146, 146n40, 147; in Roman Empire,
    154-74; in Russia, 182-83; society as
    representative of cosmic order, 130-
    35; in Soviet Union, 114-16; summary
    on, 127-28, 147-48; symbols and
    self-interpretation of society, 109-10;
    and symbols of political science,
    110-111; tragic representation, 144-46;
    transcendental sense of, 147-48, 149,
    213; and truth, 129-48; in Western
    Europe and United States, 113-14,
    115, 118-23, 127; and will of the
    people, 116
Republic (Plato), 91, 137, 143, 216
"Responsibility" in politics, 99
Res publica, 126
Retheoretization, 90
Revelation, 151, 151n5, 260, 311
Revelation, Book of, 51, 176, 205-6
Revolutionary activism, 186, 189,
    204-12, 231, 241
Rex (king), 55, 125
Rex erectus est, 121
Romanticism, 65, 239
Rome and Roman Empire: adaptation
    institutions of republican Rome
    162-66; and Altar of Victoria,
    155-56, 157; Augustine on, 48, 154,
    Christianity in,152n7, 154-59,
    167-75, 177; and Cicero, 160-62; civil
    (pagan) religion of, 154-60, 166-70,
    214, 215; and divinization of emperor,
    166; emperors of, as non-Roman,
    166; expansion of Roman Empire,
    254; fall of Rome in 410, 47, 48,
    154, 157, 225; military command
    in, 163-66; oath to princeps in,
    165-66; patronate in, 162-65; and pax
    Romana,
172, 173; pontifex maximus
    as title of ruler of, 154, 155, 163;
    and princeps, 162-66; principate in,
    164-66; representation in, 154-74;
    and Third Rome (Moscow), 180-83;
    truth of, versus truth of philosophy,
    160-62; wars of third century, 163-64
Romulus, 159
Rosenberg, Alfred, 62
Rückspannung (focus on God), 31
Rulers: Ambrose on, 156-57; Augustine
    157; and empire as cosmic
    analogue, 131-32; Hauriou on, 126;
    Hobbes on, 218, 237-38; and internal
    organization of society for action,
    116-17; relationship of representative
    ruler to other members of society,
    117-20; and theocracy, 56, 157. See
    also
Leaders; Monarchy
Russell, Bertrand, 108n1
Russia: czars of, 182-83; distinguished
    from Western nations, 182-83; and
    positivism, 296; representation in,
    182-83; revolution of 1917, 183, 208,
    230; suffering after war in, 33;
    Moscow as Third Rome, 180-83;
    Westernization of, 183. See also
    Communism; Soviet Union

Sacraments, 180
Sacred history, 184
Sacred numbers, 50-52
Sacrum imperium, 45, 48-49, 55
"Sage" versus "vulgar," 204
Saint-Simon, Claude-Henri de, 61, 296
Saints, 180, 193, 194, 206-10
Salvation, 194, 195, 255-56, 297
Samuel, Book of, 124
Sanctificatio, 298
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 99
Sassanian Empire, 254
Satan and "Satanic" challenge, 6, 7,
    24, 25, 57-58, 59, 61, 71. See also
    Demonism
Saul, King, 57
Scandinavia, 113
Scheler, Max, 72
Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Josef, 60,
    180, 189, 251, 302, 306
Schiller, Friedrich, 289
Schimpfwort (abusive word), 60
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 251
Schmitt, Carl, 8
Scholasticism, 48-49, 5 5
Scholem, Gerschom, 280, 281-82
Schumann, Gerhard, 67-69
Schütz, Alfred, 17
Science: as cooperative effort, 105;
    criterion of truth in, 147-48;
    definition of, 91, 97; definitions in,
    111-12; and Gnosticism, 191-92; and
    inner-worldly community, 60, 61-62;
    mathematizing sciences, 90; methods
    10, 90-97, 101, 104; Newtonian
    physics, 93; and positivism, 90-98;
    power over nature, 230; recent
    transformation of, 252; "unified
    science," 94; "value-free" science,
    96-105; Weber on, 99-100. See also
    Political science; Social sciences
Science, Politics, and Gnosticism
    (Voegelin): availability of, in Germany
    in 1990s, 17; German ambience of, 4,
    13-14; preface to American edition
    247-48; text of, 251-313; themes
    13-14
Scientia prima, 105
Scientific analysis versus formal
    analysis, 258-59
"Scientific race theory," 60
"Scientific socialism," 60
"Scientific Weltanschauungen," 60
Scientism, 191-92, 222
Scipio, 160
Scotus Eriugena, 192, 201
Sebba, Gregor, 248
Second Coming, 176-77
"Second reality" of Musil, 269
Second Rome, 181
Secularization, 7, 8, 24-25, 179, 185,
    201, 241, 303
Self-deception, 267
Self-divinization, 190
Self-interest, 239
Self-interpretation of society, 109-10,
    152-53, 184, 224-25
Self-salvation, 230, 256
Sertillanges, A. D., 151
Servus servorum Dei, 123
Shû King, 131
Sicily, 147
Sin. See Evil; Original sin
Slavery, 254
Socialism, 106
Social sciences: definitions in, 111-12;
    " Methodenstreit" in, 10, 12; and
    objectivity, 96-105; and positivism,
    90-98; scientific method not
    appropriate for, 10, 93. See also
    Political science
Society: articulation of, 117-24, 127,
    Bergson's closed and open
    society, 136; as cosmion, 112, 129;
    disintegration of, 112-13, 125-26;
    epochal phase of, 120-21; existence
    127; and internal organization
    action, 116-17; and Plato's
    anthropological principle, 136-37;
    relationship of representative ruler
    other members of society, 117-20;
    representative of cosmic order,
    130-35; self-interpretation of, 109-10,
    152-53, 184, 224-25; truth of, versus
    of soul, 216-17, 220. See also
    Civilization
Socrates, 44-45, 137, 144, 147, 160, 272,
    312
Sol Invictus, 167
Solon, 142
Sophia, 226, 233
Sophon (the wise), 138, 140, 259
Sorel, Georges-Eugène, 252
Soteriological truth, 13, 150-51, 185,
    204, 218-19
Soul: agitation of, 30-31, 33, 67-69;
    Augustine on, 238; gnostic view
    221-23, 255-56; Heraclitus on,
    mystic philosophers on, 150-
    natural abandonment of, and
    formation of Reich, 67-69; opening
    141,215-16, 259; Plato on, 137-38,
    216, 239; relationship with God,
    31, 141-42, 215, 259, 276; salvation
    of, 63; true order of, as standard,
    137-38; truth of, versus truth of
    society, 216-17, 220; and Weber's
    disenchantment, 104
South America, 296
Soviet Union: aggressors against, 135;
    of, 228; danger of, 232-33;
    expansion of, 232; and Gnosticism,
    institutions of, 114-16; and
    vacuum created by Western
    democracies, 232; suppression of
    debate on Marxism by, 240; and
    Western paralysis, 232-33. See also
    Communism; Russia
Spain, 164, 182
Spirit. See Pneuma (spirit)
Spirituales, 302
Spiritualis intelligentia, 51
Spoudaios (mature man), 139
Staatsperson (personality of the state),
    53-54
Stalin, Joseph, 304
Stalinism, 202
Stasis (sedition), 169
State: and Absolutism, 53; Augustine
    47; definition of, 27-30; Hauriou
    126; human's relationship with,
    28-30; and Leviathan, 53-58, 64,
    65-66; Marx on "withering away"
    52, 180; power of, 28-30; power
    struggle between states, 30. See also
    Representation
Statistical methods, 94
Status civitatis (political order), 160
Stoicism, 92, 153, 158, 160, 161, 215,
    254
Strauss, Leo, 8, 17
Sub specie mortis, 259
Süddeutsche Zeitung, 3
Suebes, 125
Suffering, 33, 146, 146n40, 147
Sui generis, 183, 190
Summodeism, 167-68
Summum bonum, 235, 236, 306, 307
Summum malum, 236, 306
Summus Deus, 168, 170
Sun cult. See Akhenaton sun cult
Sun imagery: and Akhenaton sun cult,
    37-41, 42; and Louis XIV, 43
Superbia, 234, 305-6
Superman, 152, 179, 190, 284, 285, 303
Supernatural theology, 154, 214, 230
Suppliants (Aeschylus), 144-46
Swindle. See Intellectual swindle
Switzerland, 113
Symbols: Akhenaton and sun
    symbolism, 37-41, 42; of apocalypse,
    50-52; Aristotelian procedure for
    examination of, 110-12, 114-16, 129,
    152-53, 192; assumptions on, 129; of
    Augustine, 50; banning of symbols of
    transcendent religiosity, 60; Cassirer's
    philosophy of, 96; Christian, 186; and
    ecclesia, 44-50, 54; of Gnosticism,
    298-313; Hobbesian symbolism,
    238-40; of immanentism, 189, 305;
    inner-worldly community, 62,
    64-67; from inner-worldly language
    science, 60; of Joachim of Fiore,
    178-80, 183, 192, 238, 300-304; of
    Leviathan, 53-58, 64, 65-66, 239-40;
    Louis XIV and sun symbolism,
    modern age as gnostic symbol,
    196-97; of the people, 118-20, 127; of
    political religions generally, 70-71; of
    political science, 110-11; and political
    societies generally, 88; of realm, 118;
    re-divinization, 178; and religion
    generally, 32, 70-71; of Satan, 57-58,
    and self-interpretation of society,
    109-10, 184; social symbolization
    theoretical truth, 129-30
Symmachus, 155-56
Symposium (Plato), 140
Syncretism, 167

Tabula rasa, 110
Taoism, 102
Tatsachenurteile (judgments
    concerning facts), 96
Taubes, Jacob, 3, 253
Taxis (order), 171, 71n83
Teleological component of Gnosticism,
    298-99
Teleological immanentization, 186,
    231, 299
Telos (goal), 186, 298-99
Terminiello case, 205
Tertium comparationis, 122
Thanatos, 140
Themistocles, 259
Theocracy, 56, 157
Theodicy, 9, 30, 71
Theodore I, 182
Theodosius, 155, 157, 158
Theokrasia, 167
Theologia civilis, 214-15, 217, 220
Theologia supranaturalis, 214
Theological principle of Plato, 142-43
Theology: civil, 153, 214-17, 220-21,
    233-34; fabulous, 153; mythical,
    natural, 153; physical, 153;
    civil (pagan), 154-60, 166-70,
    215; supernatural, 154, 214, 230;
    of, 152-54; Varro on, 158-59.
    See also Christianity; Religion;
    specific theologians
Theophilos (lover of God), 272
Theory: Aristotle's theory of mature
    138-39; dependence of, on
    classic and Christian range of
    experience, 151-52; experiential
    of, 140-41; as explication
    experiences, 140-41; gnostic
    prohibition of theoretical argument,
    203-4; of human existence in society,
    151-52; meaning of, 138; Platonic-
    Aristotelian sense of, 138-41;
    political, 88-89, 110-111, 113-14, 118,
    129-30; as science of order, 147-48
Thessalonica massacre, 158
Third Age, 50-52
Third Realm, 179, 180, 191, 192, 196,
    301-4
Third Reich. See National Socialism
Third Rome (Moscow), 180-83
Thirty Years' War, 212
Thomas Aquinas, 48-49, 55, 92, 103,
    123, 150, 309-10, 311
Thucydides, 147
Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Nietzsche),
    266, 279
Timaeus (Plato), 140, 171
Titans, 270
Totalitarianism, 8-9, 106, 195, 202, 203,
    221, 239-40
Toth, 35
Toynbee, Arnold J., 11, 120, 128
Tragedy, 144-47
Transcendence: abolishing experiences
    218-19, 265, 305; banning of
    symbols of transcendent religiosity,
    divine being as transcendent, 190,
    259, 278; and Gnosticism, 190,
    and Islam, 204; knowledge of,
    opening of soul to transcendent
    reality, 215, 276; order of society
    transcendent order of being,
    and psyche, 141; theorizing
    differentiating experiences of,
    152n7; transcendental irruption of
    spirit, 185; transcendental sense of
    representation, 147-48, 149, 213;
    transcendent truth represented in
    societies, 233-34
Translatio, 147
Trans-worldly religions (überweltliche
    Religionen),
32, 63-64
Travers, Walter, 202-3
Tribal communities, 44, 45, 124-25
Tricennial Speech (Constantine), 172
Trinity, 50, 173, 173n922, 178-80, 301
Troads (Euripides), 146-47
Troeltsch, Ernst, 299
Troy myth, 124, 146
True Discourse (Celsus), 169-70
Truth: anthropological, 13, 149-50, 196,
    218-19; authority of theoretical,
    140-43; challenge to imperial, 135-
    36; cosmological, 13, 149; criterion of,
    in science, 147-48; and lies, 131-32;
    monadism of imperial, 134-35; of
    myth, 141; organic, 62-63; and Plato's
    anthropological principle, 136-37,
    141-42, 143; and representation,
    129-48; of Rome versus truth
    of philosophy, 160-62; social
    symbolization and theoretical truth,
    129-30; society as representative of
    cosmic order, 130-35; soteriological,
    13, 150-51, 185, 196, 204, 218-19; of
    soul versus truth of society, 216-17,
    22O; summary on, 147-48; and tragic
    representation, 144-46; types of, 13,
    149-51, !53
Tua res agitur, 146
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, 179,
    301-2
Typoi peri theologias, 143, 153

Überweltliche Religionen (trans-
    worldly religions), 32
Ular, Alexander, 73
Unconscious, 140, 239
"Unified science," 94
Unio mystica, 33, 64
United Kingdom. See England
United Nations, 117
United States: and Bill of Rights,
    democracy of, 241; equality in,
    46-47; foreign policy of, 128; gnostic
    movements in, 247; immigration to,
    politics of, 11, 12; representation
    113, 115, 119-20; revolution in,
    Supreme Court of, 94-95, 205
University of Chicago, 1-2, 5, 10, 79
University of Munich, 3-4, 13, 15,
    16-17, 247
Upanishads, 135
Utopia (More), 299, 305-6
Utopianism, 186, 231, 233, 299-300,
    305-6, 307

Valentinian II, 155
Valentinians, 256
"Value-free" science, 96-105
"Value-judgments," 96-105
Varro, 153, 154, 158-59, 160, 166, 214
Versuch einer unparteiischen und
    gründlichen Ketzergeschichte

    (Mosheim), 251
Via dolorosa, 265
Via negativa, 140
Vicarius Christi, 56
Vico, Giambattista, 61
Victoria Altar, 155-56, 157
Visigoths, 47, 154, 157
Visio beatiftca, 298
Vita civilis, 161
Vita contemplative, 71
Vita quieta, 161
Voegelin, Eric: on Arendt's writings,
    7, 15; "conservative" label for, 2;
    of, 2; firing of, from Austrian
    university, 1; flight to U.S. by, 1;
    of interest in editing or revising
    earlier works, 7, 14-15; retirement
    return to U.S., 17; in U.S., 1-2, 7,
    as U.S. citizen, 12; University of
    Chicago lectures by, 1-2, 5-6, 10-13,
    79; at University of Munich, 3-4,
    13, 15, 16-17, 247. See also specific
    works
Voegelin, Lissy, 1
Volk (people), 5, 65
Volkstum (popular nationhood), 62
Volonta obiettiva, 65
Voltaire, 93, 178
Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte
   (Jaspers), 136
Vondung, Klaus, 14
Voting, 66
"Vulgar" versus "sage," 204

Warfare, 128, 172, 173-74, 210-11, 212,
    227-30, 306
Weber, Max: and Comte, 296; on
    "ethics of intention," 100; on "ethics
    of responsibility," 99, 100; on history,
    105; Nietzsche compared with,
    and "rational action" types,
    and rationalism, 104-6; on
    science, 99-100; on sociology of
    religion, 101-3; and "types," 104; and
    value-free science, 98-105; Voegelin's
    criticisms of, 3
Weltgeist (world spirit), 30
Weltgrund (Ground of the world), 32
Wertbeziehende Methode ("reference
    to a value"), 101, 102, 103
Werturteil (value-judgment), 96
Wesen (being), 71
Westernization, 183, 222
Western paralysis, 232-33
Whitehead, Alfred N., 108n1
Will of the people, 116, 119-20, 205
Will to power, 14, 15, 265-68, 280, 309
Wirkliches Wissen (actual knowledge),
    272
"Wissenschaft, Politik, und Gnosis"
    (Voegelin), 3
Wissenschaft (science), 10
World War II, 228, 252
Wort und Wahrheit (Voegelin), 247

Xenophanes, 142-43
Xynon (the common), 109

Yahweh, 255. See also God

Zacharias, 51
Zarathustra (Nietzsche), 266, 279
Zeitgeist, 95
Zeus, 144-46, 255, 270, 271
Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, 135, 270
Zosimos, 270-71


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