INDEX

VOL 4— THE AUTHORITARIAN STATE
An Essay on the Problem of the Austrian State


Absolute-dynastic states, 113-14
Accountability of federal president and
    federal government, 349-56, 351n4
Activist element in total state, 103-5
Adamovich, Ludwig, 54, 229n14,
    247n20, 271, 334n1
Adler, Max, 13
Adler, Viktor, 151-52
Administrative law, 186, 191, 192
Administrative style: in Austria,
    50-52, 251-52, 371-72, 378; and pure
    theory of law, 51
Advisory chambers, Austrian, 296-306,
    296n22, 309-30
Allgemeinen Rechte der Staatsb�rger
    (civil rights), 253
America. See United States
Amtsdirektor (municipal director), 256
"Anamnetic" approach, 8
Andreae, Wilhelm, 15
Andrian-Wehrburg, Baron, 109, 120
Anima dell'anima, 74
Anschluss, 10, 11, 15, 30, 152, 369,
    375, 376
Anti-Semitism, 11-12
Aquinas. See Thomas Aquinas
Arbeitsverbot (national work
    prohibition), 326
Aristocracy, 276
Aristotle, 2, 8, 190
Ars (art), 323-24
Auctoritas (author of legal order), 187,
    216
Augustine, 8
Austria: administrative style in,
50-52, 251-52, 371-72, 378; and Anschluss, 10, 11, 15, 30, 152, 369, 375, 376; antidemocratic and fascist tendencies in, 18; change in ideas on government and constitution in, since 1918, 367-79; Christian character of authoritarian regime in, 251; civil war of 1934 in, 15, 20, 33, 371, 375; constitutional situation of 1848-1849, 126-38, 140, 143-46; and constitutional theory of E�tv�s, 109-25, 139-40; core of constitutional problem of, 6, 192, 367-69; cycles of constitutions in, 139-46, 250-51, 255; economy of Republic, 16; educational system in, 25n58, 190; electoral reform in, 140; end of First Republic, 19; E�tv�s on central problem of, 113-14, 123-25; establishment of "federal state" of, in 1934, 247, 252, 297; establishment of state in 1918-1920, 49, 51, 125, 147-59; First Republic as "undemocratic" under G�ise of democracy, 33, 328; and growth to statehood, 49-54; Hitler's invasion of, 1; independence of, 375-76, 378; and Italian campaign of 1859, 140; militia movement in, 18, 33, 140, 159, 374, 379; monarchy in, 50, 51-52, 123, 126-38, 140, 142, 194, 198, 204-5; nationalities in, 114, 150, 196-98; political parties in, 16-21, 27-28, 34-35, 152, 156-57, 369-71, 373; "political style" in, 52; problems of, as national state, 6, 192, 367-69; proposal for separate peace after World War I, 11; provinces and establishment of state in 1918-1920, 154-57; Second Republic founding in 1945, 33; as small power, 47; Vorm�rz (1815-1848) in, 121; before World War I, 10-11; after World War I, 10-13
Austrian Constitutional Amendment
    of 1929, 18-19, 33, 141, 159, 259,
    262, 275, 340, 350
Austrian constitutional situation of
1848-1849, 126-38, 140, 143-46 Austrian constitutional transition (March 1933-May 1934): and adoption of Constitution of 1934, 236-37; and authority to issue reG�lations, 230-31; chronology of, 372-74; and complete act of constitutional legislation, 246-48; constitutional court dismissed in 1933, 20, 35-36; and dismantling of constitutional court's powers of review over wartime economic decrees, 232; and Enabling Act of April 30, 1934, 236-46, 247, 247n20, 254-55, 313, 333, 355, 358; and Enabling Act of May 23, 1933, 232; and Federal ReG�lation of April 24, 1934, 235-36, 246-47, 247n20; and government proclamation of May 1, 1934, issuing 1934 constitution, 246, 247-48; and "idea of legality, " 371-72; and issuance of Constitution of 1934, 235-36, 246-48; juristic problems of wartime economic decrees controversy, 224-26; legal continuity between Constitutions of 1920 and 1934, 236-37, 246; and legality and legitimacy issues, 213-23; and National Council's regular sessions stopped in 1933, 223, 236; possibilities of scientific evaluation of wartime economic decrees, 233-35; and pure theory of law, 231-32; and reconvening of National Council in 1934, 236; and reG�lations praeter legem versus contra legem, 226-30; resignation of three presidents of National Council in 1933, 19 35; and wartime economic decrees, 223-35
Austrian Constitution of 1849, 137-38,
    140, 141
Austrian Constitution of 1860-1861,
    129, 140, 141
Austrian Constitution of 1867, 16-17,
    129, 140-41, 251, 339-41, 345,
    352-54
Austrian Constitution of 1920: and
accountability of federal president and federal government, 349-50, 352-55; and administrative style in Austria, 252, 371-72; adoption of, 18; amendment of 1929, 18- 19, 33, 141, 159, 259, 262, 275, 340, 350; and authority to issue regulations, 230-31; basic rights in, 17, 141; constitutional court in, 17, 231-32, 232n16; debate by National Assembly on, 17; democratic nature of, 211, 251, 256, 276, 281, 369, 372; development of, 374-75; election of president in, 17, 19, 256, 3 50; emergency powers in 1929 amendment to, 340; federal chancellor in, 261-62; federal government's internal organization in, 261-62; and government as constitutional dictatorship, 340; Kelsen as "father" of, 13, 16- 17, 18; legal continuity between Constitution of 1934 and, 236-37, 246; models for, 16-17; National Council in, 224, 230, 235, 243, 245, 256, 261, 262, 265, 317, 327-28; negotiations on, 157-58; number of articles in, 21; parliament in, 17, 38, 281-82, 360; powers of president in, 19, 262; preamble of, 21, 149; provincial government in, 256, 266- 69; provisional federal government in, 265; report of constitutional committee on, 157-58; review of reG�lations by federal court, 345, 346; and special constitutional committee, 17
Austrian Constitution of 1934:
accountability of federal president and federal government, 349-56, 35in4; adoption of, by National Council, 236-45, 250; advisory chambers and Bundestag in, 296- 306, 2p6n22, 309-30; and anonymity of power, 2 51-5 2; approval of draft of, 21, 37; authoritarian character of generally, 22, 249-57, 338-39; on authority to issue regulations, 229-3 on 14; background on, 19-21, 235-36, 372-74; basic rights in, 22, 343; checks on emergency powers in, 338-56; and Christian character of Austrian authoritarian regime, 251; complete act of constitutional legislation for, 246- 48; and Constitutional Transition Act of 1934, 254-55, 258, 270, 272, 301, 302, 307, 333, 355; corporative councils in, 22; and cyclical nature of Austrian constitution, 250-51, 255; democratic and constitutional mechanisms in, 357-62; election of president in, 22, 257, 272-73; emergency powers of federal government and their control in, 253-54, 332-56; and Enabling Act of 1917, 21, 37, 141, 235-36, 333; and Enabling Act of April 30, 1934, 236-46, 247, 247n20, 254-55, 313, 333, 355, 358; and Ender, 21, 22; and establishment of Austria as "federal state, " 247, 252, 297; federal chancellor in, 263, 267, 270, 271, 273, 350; federal ministers in, 263, 264-65, 269, 273; federal president and federal government in, 22, 256-66, 258n1, 272-73, 310, 350-51; Federal Regulation of April 24, 1934, on, 235-36, 246-47, 247n20; and finance and accounting, 321-23, 322-23n4, 329-30, 331; government proclamation of May 1, 1934, issuing, 246, 247-48; government resolutions in, 263-64; issuance of, 235-36, 246- 48; legal continuity with previous constitution, 236-37, 246; legislative power and legislative agencies in, 254-55, 258, 259, 260-61, 266, 296-308; and liberal tradition, 47; municipal government in, 256, 257, 271-74; number of articles in, 21; organization of federal legislature, 312-14; overview of executive agencies and appointments in, 272-74; participation of agencies of federal legislature in federal legislation, 317-20; plebiscite or referendum in, 357-59; position of members of agencies of federal legislature, 314-17; preamble of, 21-22, 252, 297; provincial diets and municipal diets in, 306-8, 330-31, 334-35; provincial governor and provincial government in, 256, 266- 71, 273, 330-31; provisional federal government in, 265-66, 266n6; relationship between authoritarian chamber and the executive, 323- 30; relationship between the executive and provincial legislative institutions, 330-31; review of regulations by federal court, 344-49, 361-62; and rule of law, 253, 254, 359-62; systematics of, 253-54; term of office of federal legislature, 309-12; and treaties, 321; Voegelin's article on, 22, 367-79; Voegelin's criticisms of, 37-38
Austrian Constitution of Second
    Republic, 19
Austrian legislature: advisory
chambers and Bundestag, 256, 258, 260-61, 296-306, 296n22, 309-30; authoritarian nature of, 317-18; cameral system of, 297-98; and delegates' personal immunity, 316; and disciplinary panel, 316-17 and emergency powers of federal government, 334-38; establishment procedures for, 298-306; and finance and accounting, 321-23, 322-23n4, 329-30, 331; function of, 317-18; historical development of, 150, 156; organization of federal legislature, 312-14; participation of agencies of, in federal legislation, 317-20; participation of, in federal executive, 320-23; position of members of agencies of federal legislature, 314- 17; provincial diets and municipal diets, 306-8, 330-31, 334-35; relationship between authoritarian chamber and the executive, 323- 30; relationship between the executive and provincial legislative institutions, 330-31; term of office of federal legislature, 303-6; and treaties, 320-21. See also Bundestag
Austrian Provisional Constitution of
    1918, 16-17
Austrian Student Corporations, 11-12
Austro-Hungarian monarchy, 194, 198,
    204-5
Autarchy, 68
"Authoritarian": doing without
definition of, 58; Dollfuss on, 31, 102-3, 376; meaning of, as "originating" or "creative, " 101; Renan on, 293; Sontheimer on, 28; as symbol, 2, 27-28, 32, 58, 105-6. See also Authoritarian state; Authority Authoritarian state: and anonymity of power, 251-52; compared with duumvirate, 260; and corporative state, 275-84, 297, 376-78; definition of, 338; Dollfuss on, 31, 102-3, 376; and educational elite, 89-90; and "executive" authority, 360-61; Renan on, 93-98. See also Austrian Constitution of 1934
Authoritarian State (Voegelin):
commentary on, 27-38; critique of Kelsen in, 3-7, 9, 33; imperfection of, 54; original publication of, by Springer, 1; reissue of, by Springer, 1; sale of, forbidden in 1938, 1, 30; structure of, 54; themes in, 2-3, 27-28, 32, 52-54
Authority: Austrian theory of, 102-
3; Dollfuss on, 31, 102-3, 249, 376; "executive" authority in authoritarian state, 360-61; Hauriou on, 99-101, 103, 249, 282; hierarchy of authorities, 282, 293; Renan on, 98-99, 282, 293; of rulers, 101; Seipel on basic types of state construction, 276-77. See also "Authoritarian"; Authoritarian state
Autobiographical Reflections
    (Voegelin), 2
Autorit�tstheorie (theory of
    authoriarianism), 249
Averro�s, 3, 28, 74-75, 81

Babeuf, Fran�ois, 66
Bach, Alexander von, 145-46
"Basic norm, " 177, 215-16
Bauer, Otto, 17
Baxa, Jakob, 15
Beck, Max, 140
Beck, Rector, 11
Bergson, Henri-Louis, 202
Berufung (appointment), 302
Beurkundung (certification), 320
Bezirkshauptm�nner (district
    commissioners), 256
Bicameral legislative system, 295
Bismarck, Otto von, 192, 259
Blanqui, Auguste, 90-92, 98
Bohemia, 128-29, 131-32
Bohemian Charter, 128-29
Bolshevism, 3, 14
Budget function. See Finance and
    accounting
Bundesgerichtshof (federal court), 253
Bundesrat (Upper House of
    Parliament), 224, 254, 256
Bundestag: and accountability of
federal government, 355-56; checks on emergency powers by, 338, 339-44, 342n2; compared with provincial diets, 307; and emergency powers of federal government, 334, 336, 337, 338, 347, 348; establishment of, 373; establishment procedures for, 304; and finance and accounting, 321-23, 322- 23n4, 329-30; as legislative organ generally, 156, 260-61; organization of, 313; participation of, in federal legislation, 317, 318, 319-20, 319n3; and plebiscite, 358, 359; relationship with federal government, 260-61; rump Bundestag, 312; term of office of, 310-12, 312n2; and treaties, 321; votum decisivum of, 317, 329
Bundesversammlung (Federal
    Assembly), 349-50
Bundesvolk (federal citizenry), 224,
    241-44
Burgenland, 154, 156
Burke, Edmund, 292

Caesarism, 98
Calhoun, John C., 295, 376
Carinthia, 155
Cassirer, Ernst, 174
Catholics, 8, 280-81n9, 375-76, 377.
    See also Encyclicals
Censorship law, abolition of, 126, 127
Central Europe, 103, 104, 106, 220,
    325, 328, 379
Chancellor. See Federal chancellor
Christianity, 251. See also Catholics
Christian Social Party, 16-21, 27, 28,
    35, 157, 372
Christian Social Union, 152
Civil law, 201-3
Civil war of 1934, 15, 20, 33, 371, 375
Class structure, 278-79, 377
"Closed self" versus "open self, " 7-8
Cohen, Hermann, 4, 174
Common sense philosophy, 7
Communism, 32, 66, 91, 373
"Compulsory norm, " 185-87, 215
Comte, August, 7, 24
Concepts versus symbols, 2, 28, 57-58
Concordat of 1933, 21
Consciousness, "anamnetic" approach
    to, 8-9
Consentement coutumier (customary
consent), 99, 101, 102, 222, 235, 357 Constitution: American constitution, 259; change in ideas on, in Austria since 1918, 367-79; of Corsica, 86-87; cyclical nature of Austrian constitution, 139-46, 250-51, 255; emergency powers in, 332-34; E�tv�s and foundation of Austrian constitutional theory, 109-25, 139-40; formal language of, 212; in France, 53, 96-98, 123; German Reich (Bismarck) constitution of 1871, 259; in Germany in nineteenth century, 63; Hauriou on, 28-29, 31, 38, 53; and judicial review, 345; and legality and legitimacy issues, 213-23; Napoleon's constitution for Kingdom of Italy, 285; norms of, 51, 211-17, 221-23; of Poland, 87; preamble of, 252; Renan on, 93-98; Rousseau on, 86; Schmitt on, 29, 53, 120; Stein on, 63; typical traits of Austria constitutions, 141-43; of Weimar Republic, 16, 244, 257-58, 263, 264. See also headings beginning with Austrian Constitution Constitutional court: in Constitution Of 1920, 17, 231-32, 232nl6; dismantling of power of review over wartime economic decrees, 232, 232-33n16; dismissal of, in 1933, 20, 35-36; establishment of, 17, 187-88, 232n16
Constitutional law, 198-203, 204-6
Constitutional Transition Act of 1920,
    224, 225, 226
Constitutional Transition Act of 1934,
    254-55, 258, 270, 272, 301, 302, 307,
    333, 355
"Constitution in the working, " 324
Continuity of legal order, 213-23
Contractual obligations, 130
Contra legem, 34, 226-30
Corporative society, 275, 277
Corporative state, 22, 275-84, 297,
    376-78
Corpus mysticum, 3
Corsica, 86-87
Council of State: compared with
provincial diets, 307; and disciplinary panel, 316-17; establishment procedures for, 302-3; interests represented by, 298; members functioning as individuals in, 305; oppositional strengths in, 306; organization of, 313; participation of, in federal legislation, 318; position of members of agencies of federal legislature, 315; and representation in Bundestag, 304; term of office of, 310-11; in transitional period, 258; and treaties, 321
Courts. See Constitutional court;
    Federal court
Creatura corporalis, 280n9
Crimean War, 140
Currency devaluation, 326
Czechoslovakia, 18

Danneberg, Robert, 19, 158
Danubian Federation, 368-69
December Constitution of 1867. See
    Austrian Constitution of 1867
Delegation, 173, 176, 214, 224-25, 300,
    302
Democracy: American democratic
tradition, 24; cycles of, in Austria, 142-43, 151-52, 154, 156-57, 211, 250-51, 255, 256, 276, 28l, 369; definition of, 180, 211; direct elements of, in Austrian Constitution of 1934, 357-59; English democratic tradition, 24, 289-93; failure of, in Central Europe, 325; Kelsen on, 13-14; and political education, 90-92; "pseudo-democracy, " 276; Renan on, 93; representative democracy, 276; Schmitt on, 29, 219-20; Seipel's criticism of, 18, 276, 281; Spann's critique of, 14-15; Swiss democracy, 115; Voegelin on, 24
Demos (political people), 151, 157, 180,
    241, 372
Deutsche Studententag (German
    Student Assembly), 11
Deutsches Volk, 3
Dictatorships, 98, 276
Dienstgemeinschaft (service unions),
    300
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 199n17, 200
Disciplinary panel, 316-17
Disintegration: of person, 182-83; of
    state, 184
Disraeli, Benjamin, 295
District organization, 146
Division of labor, 70-71
Dogmatics of law, 170-72, 210-11,
    231-34, 240
Dollfuss, Engelbert: on authority
and authoritarian, 31, 102-3, 249, 376; Christian corporative state proclaimed by, in 1934, 15; and Constitution of 1934, 21; criticisms of, 34; emergency decrees by, from 1933 to 1934, 19-20, 34; Patriotic Front founded by, 373; Schober's support for, 27
"Domination": Blanqui on, 91;
    and political activation, 104; and
    "totality, " 71-72
"Double-sided theory, " 169
Doxa, 2
Duumvirate, 260
Dynastic authority ( Familiengewalt ),
    276

Economic element, in total state,
    66-72, 98
Economic Enabling Act, 334
Education: in Austria, 25n58, 190; and
    technology, 104-5; and total state,
    87-90, 106
Educational elite, 89-90, 106
Einheitswissenschaft (unified science),
    166
Elementenlehre (doctrine of elements),
    204
Elite: and authoritarian leadership,
    89-90; Blanqui's theory of, 90-92;
    educational elite, 89-90, 106; Renan
    on, 93-98, separation of, from
    masses, 89-90
Emergency powers: and authoritarian
principles, 253-54; and basic rights, 343; checks on, 338-56; in Constitution of 1934, 253- 54, 332-56; control of, through accountability of federal president and federal government, 349-56; elements of Tenth Section alien to system, 334-36; in 1929 amendment to Constitution of 1920, 340; and ordinary and extraordinary constitution, 332-34; and review of regulations by federal court, 344-49; substance of, 336-38. See also headings beginning with Enabling Act
Emmerling (vice-mayor of Vienna), 34,
    35
Emotional politics, 119-20, 125
Enabling Act of 1917: and approval of
Austrian Constitution of 1934, 21, 37, 141, 235-36; attempted repeal of, 19; authority and legality of, 34-36, 224-26, 231; and constitutional revision, 224-25, 234-35; and Constitutional Transition Act of 1920, 224, 225, 227, 333; Dollfuss's use of, 19-20; and executive- dictatorial nature of Constitution of 1934' 333; limitations of, 225-26; purpose of, 19, 225; and regulations praeter legem versus contra legem, 226-30; and wartime economic decrees, 224-25, 233. See also Emergency powers
Enabling Act of April 30, 1934, 236-46,
    247, 254-55, 313, 333, 355, 358
Enabling Act of May 23, 1933, 232
Encyclicals, 32, 67-68, 278-80,
    279-81n9, 282-83, 328, 377
Ender, Otto, 21, 22, 258n1, 266n6,
    312n2, 323n4, 329n6, 334n1
Engel-Janosi, Friedrich, 23
Engels, Friedrich, 66
England: authoritarian ideas from,
    32, 106; communist movements
    in 18303-18405, 66; Grey's reform
    proposals for Parliament, 287-96,
    299, 304, 309, 376; as liberal state,
    106; Reform Bill of 1831 in, 283-87;
    Reform of 1832 in, 289, 290, 295
Enlightenment, 122
E�tv�s, Baron Joseph von, 33, 109-25,
    139-40
Ephesians, Epistle to, 280n9
Episteme, 2
Erkenntnis (knowledge) of law, 203
Ersatzgesetz (substitute law), 341
Estates, 277-81, 279-81n9, 328-29
"Ethical-political postulates, " 179
Ethnic nationalities. See Nationalities
    Evil, 280n9
Executive. See Federal government

Familiengewalt (dynastic authority),
    276
Fascism: compared with National
    Socialism, 75-79, 81; historicity of,
    77; Kelsen on, 14; and nation, 76-77;
    as religious idea, 3, 73-74; rise of,
    in second half of 1920s, 18; state as
    content of, 75-81; symbols used by,
    79-80; as totalitarian, 3, 74-79; "vita
    eroica" as privilege for Fascist elite,
    90
February Patent of 1861, 140
Federal Assembly ( Bundesversamm-
    lung
), 349-50
Federal chancellor: in Austrian
Constitution of 1920, 261-62, in Austrian Constitution of 1934, 263, 267, 270, 271, 273, 350; and Bundestag resolution becoming law, 320; as leader of Patriotic Front, 373; and provincial diets, 330-31 Federal court: establishment of, in Constitution of 1934, 253; jurisdiction of Federal Supreme Court, 240; review of regulations by, 344-49, 361-62
Federal Cultural Council, See
   Federal Economic Council
Federal Economic Council: compared
with provincial diets, 307; dissolution of, 310-11, 322, 337, 338, 343-44, 347-48; and emergency powers of federal government, 335-36; and Enabling Act, 333; establishment of, 254; establishment procedures for, 301-2; interests represented by, 298, 301-2; organization of, 305, 313; participation of, in federal legislation, 319, 319n3; position of members of agencies of federal legislature, 316; and representation in Bundestag, 304; term of office of, 310-11, 312n2; in transitional period, 258
Federal government: accountability
of, 349-56, 351n4; in Austrian Constitution of 1920, 261-62; in Austrian Constitution of 1934, 22, 257-66, 258n1, 273, 310, 350-51; participation of legislature in, 320- 23; provisional federal government, 265-66; relationship between authoritarian chamber and, 323-30; relationship between provincial legislative institutions and, 330-31 Federal ministers, 263, 264-65, 269, 273
Federal president. See President
Ferdinand I, 129
Fetishism, 216, 217, 219
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 166, 183
Finance and accounting, 321-23,
    322-23n4, 329-30, 331
Fink, Vice-Chancellor, 16
Foppa, 21
Formal language, 212
Formkraft (shaping power), 309-10
France: authoritarian ideas from, 31,
32, 106; communist movements in 1830s-1840s, 66; constitutional theory in, 53, 96-98, 123; Economic Councils in, 377; education in, 88; E�tv�s on, 114; February Revolution of 1848 in Paris, 140; and idea of people, 85-87; July Revolution of 1830 in, 60, 63-64, 64n8; as liberal state, 32, 106; monarchy and nobility in, 64, 94-96, 99, 123; organizations of occupational interests in, 328; and Parisian dictatorship, 91-92; race idea in, 83-85; and Renan's conservatism, 94-98, 376; republicanism in, 91, 95, 123; restoration of monarchy in, 95-96; Revolution of 1789 in, 63, 104, 115, 116, 121, 122; Third Republic of, 92
Franklin, Benjamin, 89
Franz Josef, 136
Free competition, 69-70
French Revolution, 63, 104, 115, 116,
    121, 122
Freyer, Hans, 77n17
Froehlich, Georg, 16, 17, 54, 229n14,
    247n20, 271, 334n1
F�hrer (leader), 263
Functional language, 212
"F�rstenspiegel," 88

Gef�hlscharakter (emotional aspect),
    110
Gegenstandstheorie (positivist theory
    of the object), 171
Geisteswissenschaft (human sciences),
    5, 165
Geistkreis, 23
Geistvernichtung (denial of mind), 177
Geistwirklichkeit (reality of mind or
    spirit), 181
Gemeinderat (municipal council), 271
Gemeindetag (municipal diets), 257,
    271
Gemeinwesen (single polity), 187, 283
Gentile, Giovanni, 31
Geographic representation, 329n6
George III, King, 288
George, Stefan, 24
German Austrian Independent Party,
    152
German Liberal Constitutional Party,
    10
German Liberty Union, 152, 155
German Student Corporations, 11-12 Germany: and Anschluss, 10, 11, 15,
30, 152, 369, 375, 376; Bismarck's Reich, 192; constitutional state in nineteenth century, 63; Economic Councils in, 377; Gestapo in, 15; national problems of, 53; Nordic idea of, 25; Reich (Bismarck) constitution of 1871, 259; "revolution" of 1933, 22-23, 140, 372, 375; as totalitarian state generally, 32. See also Weimar Republic
Gesamtperson (total person), 73-74
Gesamtvorschlag (total proposal), 261
Gesetzgeber (supreme lawgiver), 203
Gesetzgebungsstaat (legislative state),
    87, 218
Gestapo, 15
Gewerbesperren (membership in
    trades), 326
Gierke, Otto Friedrich von, 192
Giovine Italia, 80, 88
Gleispach, Wenzel Graf, 12
Gnosticism, 3, 24
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur de, 112, 197
God, as summum bonum, 280n9
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 115, 125
Governor. See Provincial governor and
    provincial government
Grey, Earl, 287-96, 299, 304, 309, 328,
    376
"Groupism," 196
Gruenberg, Karl, 13
Gumplowicz, Ludwig, 194-98, 199,
    205, 206

Haberler, Gottfried von, 23
Hampel, 21
Handlungseinheiten (units of action),
    69
Habsburg monarchy, history of, and
    nationalities, 10, 32
Hartig, Count, 109
Hauriou, Maurice: compared with
Seipel, 282; constitutional theory of, 28-29, 31, 38, 53; on development of European state, 326-27; on freedom, 92n28; on institution, 221-22; institutionalist authority theory of, 28-29, 99-101 103, 249, 377; on interest representation, 326, 328-30; on legality and legitimacy, 221-22; on nation, 84; on rulers, 29; on state, 29,64-66,72; on Volk, 84
Hayek, Friedrich August von, 23
Hecht, Robert, 19-20, 21
Hegel, G. W. F., 7, 60, 73, 75, 283-87
Heimatschutz, 371, 374
Heimwehrbewegung (militia movement), 140,
    159
Heinrich, Walter, 15
Herder, Johann Gottfried von, 77, 89
Herrschaftsgewalt (central
    jurisdiction), 50
Herrschaftsordnung (system of rule),
    93
Herrschaftsorganisation (institutional-
    ized sovereignty), 50
Herrschaftssoziologie (sociology of
    power), 218
Hierarchy, 94, 101, 103, 281n9, 282,
    293
Hintze, Otto, 198
Historiography, 197
History of Political Ideas (Voegelin), 3
Hitler, Adolf, 1, 3, 23, 27, 29
Hoheitsrechtliche Gewalt (sovereign
    jurisdiction), 102
Homines novi, 287
Homme � principes, 286
Homme d'etat, 286
Huber, Rudolf, 73, 75-79, 81, 83, 96n32
Huemer, Peter, 22, 36, 37
Humanitas, 65
Humans: disintegration of the person,
    182-83; norms of human behavior,
    180-82, 207
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 59, 115
Hungary, 138
Husserl, Edmund, 174

Ideal types theory, 201
Ideology: Kelsen on, 178-79, 183, 187,
    190; of norm, 174; of "ought," 187,
    190, 215; totality of, 73-75
Immunity of legislators, 316
Imperial Diet ( Reichstag ), 133, 134,
    135, 141
In capite et membris, 276
Individualism, 279, 283
Industrial society, 60
Institutionalist authority theory: of
    Dollfuss, 102-3; of Hauriou, 28-29,
    99-101, 377; of Renan, 98-99
Institutions, characteristics, and
    definition of, 221-22
Institut Universitaire des Hautes
    Etudes Internationales, 16
Integration of the will, 306
Intellectus uno in numero, 3
Intellectus unus, 28
Intelligence, 104-5
Interest groups, 278-79, 281, 285-86,
    298-302, 325, 328-30
International law ( jus gentium ), 213
Isolated intelligence, 105
Italita, 3
Italy: Austrian campaign of 1859
against, 140; Mazzini in, 80, 88; militia in fascist Italy, 18; Napoleon's constitution for Kingdom of, 285; Risorgimento in, 80; as totalitarian state generally, 32, 74-75. See also Fascism; Mussolini, Benito

Jaspers, Karl, 166
Jellinek, Georg, 203
Jews, 11-12, 117
Joseph II, 50, 110
Judicial review, 344-49, 361-62
J�nger, Ernst, 31, 58-59, 62, 72n12, 104
Jus gentium (international law), 213
Justizpalastbrand (courthouse
    burning), 18, 27

Kant, Immanuel, 60, 75, 166, 169, 170.
    See also Neo-Kantianism
Kelsen, Hans: and Austrian
Constitution of 1920, 13, 16- 17, 18, 353-54; compared with Gumplowicz, 195, 206; critique of Voegelin's New Science of Politics by, 30; death of, 16; on democracy, 13-14; on disintegration of the person, 182-83; on disintegration of the state, 184; and doctrine of "basic norm," 177, 215-16; and eliminating reality of state from object of theory of state, 179-80; emigration to U.S. by, 16; on "ethical-political postulates," 179; on "ideologies," 178-79, 183, 187, 190; and "ideology" of norm, 174; and law as compulsory order, 185-87; on legality and legitimacy, 220-21; and legal order as context of "norms" and "acts," 176-77; and legal order as unit from standpoint of practitioner of law and dogmatist of law, 171-72; and neo-Kantianism, 165-67, 169- 70, 172-74, 176, 178, 182, 199; on norms, 6-7, 172-78, 180-82, 185-86, 199, 206-11, 220-22; positivism of, 163-71, 174, 178, 184-85, 190, 199, 206-7, 221; and problem of ordering being by establishing norms of human behavior, 180-82; on progress, 188-89; on pure theory of law generally, 4, 13, 30, 231; on "purification," 4-5, 6; Reine Rechtslehre by, 175; removal from university post as "Marxist," 16; on right to review regulations, 346; and sociology, 173, 175-76, 178-79, 207; and state as relevant unit of order, 172-73; and system of metaphysical battle concepts, 177-79; and theory of "norm order," 178; on threefold organization of federal constitution, 253; in tradition of Austrian theory of state, 189-92; on universal law, 189; university positions of, 13, 15-16, 25; and vacillation between scientific context and real structure of law, 170-71; Voegelin as student and assistant of, 23, 24; Voegelin's critique of, 3-7, 9, 30, 33, 206-12, 221-22
Koppers, Father Wilhelm, 25n53
Kraus, Karl, 24, 27
Kremsier Diet draft constitution, 136,
    137, 140, 141

Laband, Paul, 199, 203
Laiss�-faire, 69-70
L�nder (provinces), 154
L�nder-und St�nderat (provincial and
    corporatist council), 141
Landeshauptmann (head of provincial
    government), 256
Landeshauptmannschaft (provincial
    government), 256
Landesordnungen (regulations for
    provinces), 141
Landesr�te (provincial councillors),
    267
Landesstatthalter (deputy in provincial
    government), 266
Language, 212
Law: administrative law, 186, 191, 192;
basic law versus general law, 353-54, civil law, 201-3; as compulsory order, 185-87; dogmatics of, 170-72, 210-11, 231-34, 240; international law, 213; Kelsen's vacillation between scientific context and real context of, 170-71; liability law, 201; in Manifesto of 1849, 138; Montesquieu on, 86n22; and "normative sphere," 4; normativity of, 103; positive law, 206-12; public law, 192-94, 199, 202, 204-5; Rousseau on types of, 86-87; Stoerk on constitutional law, 198-203, 205- 6; Tezner on constitutional law, 198, 204-6; theory of law (Rechtslehre), 4; universal law, 189. See also Pure theory of law; Rule of law
Lebensgef�hl (political vital
    consciousness), 110
Legality and legitimacy: Hauriou on,
    221-22; Kelsen on, 220-21; and pure
    theory of law, 213-18; of rulers,
    222-23, 249; and rulership, 222-23;
    Schmitt on, 219-21; Weber on,
    218-221 Legislature: authoritarian legislature,
293-94; bicameral system of, 295; demands made by representatives of producers, 325-26; geographical representation for, 329n6; and integration of the will, 306; interest representation in, 281, 285-86, 328-30; mixed chamber, 295-96; multicameral system of, 295, 298; relationship between authoritarian executive and, 293-96; unicameral system of, 298. See also Austrian legislature; National Council; Parliament
Legitimacy. See Legality and legitimacy
Leibgemeinschaft (physical
    community), 117
Leo XIII, Pope, 281n9
Letztbegr�ndung (ultimate ground), 5
Lex (law), 229
Liability law, 201
Liberalism, 32, 47, 64-65, 114-16, 121,
    139-40, 278, 283, 362
Listenwahl (lists compiled by political
    parties), 96
Local municipalities. See Municipal
    government and municipalities
Locke, John, 70, 71, 183
Luther, Martin, 121

Mach, Ernst, 167
Machlup, Fritz, 23
Machtakte (acts of those in power), 50
M�chtefeld (sphere of influence), 49
Machtergreifung, (power seizure) 372
Machtorganisation (institutional
    power), 50
Majori ad minus, 231
Majority rule, 95-96, 116, 118
Mannlicher, 17
Manufacturing, 326
Marburg school, 4
Maria Theresa, 50, 110
Martial, Ren�, 84, 85
Marx, Karl, 7, 60, 66, 91
Marxism, 13, 14, 377
Masses: Nietzsche on, 93-94; Renan
    on, 93-94; separation of, from elite,
    89-90
Mathematics. See Science and
    mathematics
Mayors, 257, 271-72, 273
Mayr, Michael, 16, 158
Mazzini, Giuseppe, 80, 88
Medieval corporative state, 277-78
Merkl, Adolf, 16, 17, 54, 227, 229n14,
    231, 247n20, 260, 264
Metalepsis, 2
Metaphysische Kampfbegriffe
    (metaphysical battle concepts),
    7
Metaxy, 2
"Method syncretism," 169
Metternich, Klemens von, 109, 120,
    121-22, 191
Meyer, Eduard, 24
Miklas, Federal President, 34, 35
Militia movement, 18, 33, 140, 159,
    374, 379
Mill, John Stuart, 115
Misch, Georg, 8
Mises, Ludwig von, 23
Mixed chamber, 295-96
Mohl, Robert von, 191-92 Monarchy: in Austria, 16-17, 50, 51-52,
123, 126-38, 140, 142, 194, 198, 204- 5; Austro-Hungarian monarchy, 194, 198, 204-5; change from absolute monarchy to constitutional state, 61-62; constitutional monarchy, 345, 360; E�tv�s on, 123-25, 139; in France, 64, 95-96; Habsurg monarchy, 10, 32; Seipel on, 276; and structural tension of neutral state, 59; versus tyranny, 103; and welfare of the people, 132-35
Monopolization, 325, 326
Montesquieu, Baron de, 86n22, 120
Moravia, 131
Morgenstern, Oscar, 23
Multicameral legislative system, 295,
    298
Municipal diets, 306-8
Municipal government and
municipalities, 145-46, 256,
    257, 271-74
Mussolini, Benito, 3, 31, 73, 76-82,
    79n18, 88, 90, 93n30

Napoleon, 121, 285
Nation: as a "people," 117-20;
    definition of, 368; E�tv�s on nations
    problem, 117-18; Hauriou on, 84;
    and state, 76-77
National Assembly, 148-51,150-51n2,
    313
National Council: accountability of
federal government to, 350; adoption of Constitution of 1934 by, 236-45, 250; in Austrian Constitution of 1920, 224, 230, 235, 243, 245, 256, 261, 262, 265, 317; and constitutional revision, 235; election regulations for, 238-42, 256; and emergency powers of federal government, 340; legal status of, in 1934, 237-45; as legislative organ, 150, 156, 318; as not a parliament based on Hauriou's concept, 328; number of members of, 244; and plebiscite, 357; power of, transferred to federal government by Constitution of 1934, 254; powers of, 230, 235, 262, 265; quorum for, 243-45; reconvening of, in 1934, 236; regular sessions of, stopped in 1933, 223, 236; and "representation of the people," 241-44; rules of order of, 319, 320; as rump parliament, 239-41, 243-44; Social Democrats' vacating seats in, 239-40, 244; and treaties, 320-21
National-economic society, 60
Nationalgef�hl (national feeling),
    110-11
Nationalism, E�tv�s on, 110-13, 139
Nationalities: and absolute state, 116;
in Austria, 114, 150; E�tv�s on,110- 13, 116-17, 124, 139; Gumplowicz on, 196-98; and Habsburg monarchy, 10, 32; as incompatible with freedom and equality, 32; Ulbrich on, 193-94
National Socialism, 3, 15, 28, 73-79,
    81, 283n13, 370-73, 375-76
National Socialist German Student
    Union, 12
National Socialist Workers Party, 152
Natorp, Paul, 4
Nature, Kelsen on, 175, 176, 177
Neo-Kantianism, 3-7, 8, 30, 165-67,
    169-70, 172-74, 176, 178, 182, 199,
    200-201
Neutrality, meaning of, 71
    "Neutral" state, 59-61, 68, 69
New Science of Politics (Voegelin), 2,
    3, 5, 30
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 93-94
Nobility, 94-95, 112-13, 114, 117, 123
    "Noetic" mode of knowledge, 2
Nomos (law), 216
"Non-noetic" mode of knowledge, 2
"Normative sphere," 4
Normativity of law, 103
Normlogisch (normative-logical)
    method, 5
Norms: "basic norm," 177, 215-16;
    "compulsory norm," 185-87, 215;
    of constitution, 51, 211-17, 221-23;
    "content" of, 210-11; and formal
    language, 212; of human behavior,
    180-82, 207; "ideology" of, 174;
    Kelsen on "norm order," 178;
    Kelsen's doctrine of "basic norm,"
    177, 215-16; ontological basis of, 5;
    and pure theory of law, 6-7, 172-78,
    180-82, 185-86, 199, 206-11, 213,
    220-22
Nowotny, Alexander, 25n53
Numerus clausus (limited admission)
    for Jewish students, 11-12

Obligationenrecht (liability law), 201
October Diploma of 1860, 140
Octroi (action of constitutional
    legislation), 130-32, 134, 135, 137,
    140, 141
Oesterreichische Jungvolk, 374
"Oesterreichische Mensch," 376
�ffentliche Sache (public concern), 67
On the Form of the American Mind
    (Voegelin), 25
"Open self" versus "closed self," 7-8
Ordines, 281n9
Ordnungsgewalt (disciplinary force),
    316
Ordnungssenat (disciplinary panel),
    316-17
Ordo, 281n9
Ortsgemeinden (municipalities), 253,
    271
Ostm�rkische Sturmscharen, 371, 374
Ottoman Empire, 114

Pan-German Party, 17-19, 21, 158
Parlamentsrechtlich (parliamentary)
    forms, 310
Parliament: in Austrian Constitution
of 1920, 17, 38, 281-82, 360; corporatist parliament, 275-82; demands made by representatives of producers, 325-26; Disraeli's proposal of multicameral system of, 295; Grey's reform proposals on, 287-96, 299, 304, 309; Hegel on English Reform Bill of 1831, 284-87; National Council as "rump parliament, 239-41, 243-44; and pluralistic party state, 325; Seipel's criticism of, 281-82. See also Legislature; National Council; Representation of the people Parliamentarianism, 14, 17, 31, 38, 103, 261, 278, 290-93, 305, 309-10, 376-77
Parliamentary state, 288
Participio, 89-90
"Party state," 61, 68
"Patrician plebeians," 89
Patriotic Front (Vaterl�ndische Front),
    301, 307, 373, 378
Paul, Saint, 280n9
Pensions, 326
Pernice, Herbert, 192
Pflichtcharakter (compulsory nature),
    318
Pillersdorff Constitution, 130-31, 133,
    135, 136,136n1, 140, 141
Piloty, Robert, 223n11
pioneers, 70-71
Pius XI, Quadragesimo anno, 32,
    67-68, 278-80, 279-81n9, 377
Plato, 2, 8
Plebeians, 89
Plebiscite, 357-59
Plessner, Helmuth, 8
Pluralistic party state, 325
Poland, 87
Political activation, 103-5
Political parties, 27, 28, 152, 156-57,
    369-71, 373. See also specific
political parties
"Political religions," 3
Political science, 195, 200-201, 204,
    205
Political symbols. See Symbols
Positive law, 206-12
Positivism, 5, 6-7, 30, 163-71, 174,
    178, 184-85, 190, 194-95, 199, 206-7,
    214, 221, 237
Positivrechtlich-inhaltlich (positive-
    legal), 165
Pouvoir constituant, 133, 137, 255,
    333,352,354,355,361
Pouvoir de droit (legally ordered
    power), 103, 106
Praeter legem, 34, 226-30
Pragmatism, 7
President: accountability of, 349-51,
351n4, 354-55; and Bundestag resolution becoming law, 320; election of, in Constitution of 1920, 17, 19, 256, 350; election of, in Constitution of 1934, 22, 257, 272-73, 355; emergency powers of, 337-38; and federal chancellor, 350; powers of, in Constitution of 1920, 19, 262; powers of, in Constitution of 1934, 256, 257-61, 258n1, 263-65, 310, 354-55
Primitivism, 188-89
Principles, theory of, 120-23
Professional groups, 277-81, 284, 291,
    299-301, 325, 326, 376-78
Progress, 188-89
Proletariat, 66-67, 91, 151-52, 369
Propaganda, 105, 106
Provincial Council: establishment
    procedures for, 303-4; interests
    represented by, 298; organization of,
    305, 313; position of members of
    agencies of federal legislature, 316;
    and representation in Bundestag,
    304; term of office of, 310
Provincial diets, 306-7, 330-31,
    334-35, 350
Provincial governor and provincial
    government, 256, 266-71, 273,
330-31, 350
Provisional federal government,
    265-66
Provisional National Assembly,
    148-51,150-51n2, 154
Prussia, 97, 125
"Pseudo-democracy," 276
"Pseudoproblems," ( Scheinprobleme ) 4, 178-79
Public law, 192-94, 199, 202, 204-5
Publizistische Begriffsbildung (public
    formation of concepts), 201
Pure theory of law: and "administrative
style," 51; and Austrian wartime economic decrees, 231-32; and "compulsory norm," 185-87, 215; on continuity of legal order, 213-23; and delegation, 173, 176, 214; and disintegration of the person, 182-83; and disintegration of the state, 184; and doctrine of "basic norm," 177, 215-16; and eliminating reality of state from object of theory of state, 179-80; and "ethical-political postulates," 179; and "ideology" of norm, 174; and interpretation of positive law, 206-12; Kelsen on generally, 4, 13, 30; legal order as context of "norms" and "acts," 176-77; legal order as unit from standpoint of practitioner of law and dogmatist of law, 171-72; and neo-Kantianism, 165-67, 169-70, 172-74, 176, 178, 182, 199; and norms, 6-7, 172-78, 180-82, 185-86, 199, 206-17, 220-22; and positivism, 163-71, 174, 178, 184-85, 190, 199, 206-7, 214, 221; and problem of ordering being by establishing norms of human behavior, 180-82; and progress, 188-89; and revolution, 213-15; and sociology, 173, 175-76, 178-79, 207, 217; state as relevant unit of order, 172-73; and system of metaphysical battle concepts, 177-79; and theory of "norm order," 178; in tradition of Austrian theory of state, 189-92; and unity of object and self-constitution of social reality, 169-70; and unity of object and unity of being, 167-69; and universal law, 189; and vacillation between scientific context and real structure of law, 170-71; Voegelin on inadequacy of, 30
"Purification," 4-5, 6

Quadragesimo anno (Pius XI), 32,
    67-68, 278-80, 279-81n9, 282-83,
    328, 377

Race and State (Voegelin), 2, 4
Race ideas, 2, 25, 83-85, 196-97. See
    also Nationalities
Ramek, Dr., 21
Ratio, 119-20, 127
Rechnungskontrolle (auditing
    controls), 253
Rechtsdogmatik (dogmatics of law),
    170-71
Rechtsfremd (objects extraneous to
    law), 172
Rechtslehre (theory of law), 4
Rechtsordnungen (legal system), 253
Rechtsregel (legal regulation), 99
Rechtssatzform (legal rules), 223-24,
    339
Rechtssch�pfung (acts of law creation),
    163-64
Rechtssetzend (law establishing) act,
    173
Rechtssgegenstand (limiting of legal
    object), 164
Rechtsstoff (legal material), 54
Rechtswesentlich (essential legal)
    content, 185
Redlich, Josef, 53, 109
Referendum, 357-59
Reformation, 121
Reform Bill of 1831 (England), 283-87
Reform of 1832 (England), 289, 290
Reform of 1873 (Austria), 141
Reform of 1929 (Austria), 18-19, 33,
    140
"Regentenpflicht" ("regent's duty"), 52
Regierungsdirektor (government
    director), 256, 269
Reich Council (Reichsrat), 140, 141,
    339-40, 352
Reichsrat. See Reich Council
Reichstag. See Imperial Diet
Reichszentralstellen (central
    authorities of Reich), 264
Reine Rechtslehre (pure theory of law;
    Kelsen), 175
Renan, Joseph-Ernest, 86n22, 282,
    293-96, 299, 303, 304, 328, 376
Renner, Karl, 16, 148-49, 153-54, 369
Representation of interests, 281,
    285-86, 328-30. See also Interest
    groups
Representation of the people: and
Austrian advisory chambers and the Bundestag, 296-306; and Austrian Constitution of 1934, 241-44, 249; and Austrian provincial diets and municipal diets, 306-8; and Grey's reform proposals on Parliament, 287-96, 291n17, 299, 304, 309; Hegel on English Reform Bill of 1831, 284-87; and organization of legislature by professional categories, 284; proportional representation, 291, 291n17; Renan on, 96-98, 294, 299, 303, 304; Seipel on, 282; and workers, 291, 295
Res privata, 277
Res publica, 29, 99, 100, 276-77, 378
Revolution, and pure theory of law,
    213-15
Revolutions of 1848, 60, 63, 140
Ricket, Heinrich, 198-99n17
Riehl, Walter, 15
Rights: in Austrian Constitution of
    1920, 17; in Austrian Constitution
    of 1934, 22, 253, 343; and emergency
    powers, 343; in Kremsier Diet's
    draft constitution, 137; Voegelin on
    importance of, 38
Risorgimento, 80
Robespierre, Maximilien, 121
Roman Empire, 98
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 86-87, 87n22,
    88, 89
Rule of law, 253, 254, 359-62
Rulers: authority of, 101; Hauriou on,
    29, 99-101; legitimacy of, 222-23,
    249; as representative of institution,
    99-101; and welfare of the people,
    132-35. See also Monarchy
Rump Bundestag, 312
Rump parliament, National Council
    as, 239-41, 243-44
Russian bolshevism, 3
Russian Revolution of 1905, 140

Salzburg province, 155-56
Santayana, George, 89
Scheinprobleme ("pseudoproblems"), 4,
    178-79
Scheler, Max, 8
Schelling, Friedrich, 183
Schiller, Friedrich, 60
Schindler, Dietrich, 115
Schmidt, Father Wilhelm, 25n53
Schmitt, Carl: compared with Seipel,
275; on constitution, 29, 53, 120; on democracy, 29, 219-20; on legality and legitimacy, 219-21; on "legislative state," 218; on pluralistic party state, 325; on total state, 29, 58-63, 66, 68, 69; on Weimar Republic, 29
Schober, police chief, 27
Schuppe, Wilhelm, 200
Schuschnigg, Kurt von, 20, 27
Sch�tz, Alfred, 23, 235n17
Schutzbund, 371
Schwarzenberg, Prince Felix, 136
Science and mathematics, 4-5, 167-72,
    174, 199, 200, 210
Scientific method, 4-5
Seelenleben (human spiritual life), 110
Seelisch (spiritual), 49, 104
Seignobos, Charles, 65n10, 66
Sein (existence), 199
Seinsauschnitt (realm of being), 168
Seinsgrundlagen (ontological basis) of
    norms, 5
Seinsleugnung des Geistes (denial of
    existence of mind), 7
Seinswirklichkeit (reality of being),
    182
Seipel, Ignaz, 17, 18, 149, 158, 275-82,
    325, 377
Self-constitution of social reality,
    169-70
"Self-organization of society," 68-69,
    82
Sieghart, Rudolf, 194
Silesia, 131
Sinneinheit (total meaning), 227
Slaves and slavery, 94
Social Democratic Party, 17-20, 27, 34,
    151, 154, 157-59, 239-40, 244, 373,
    375
Socialism and Socialist party, 13, 369,
    370-71, 375
Socialist Student Union, 12
Social reality, self-constitution of,
    169-70
Society: class interests in, 278-79;
corporative society, 275, 277; as "cosmion," 5; and individualism, 279, 283; industrial society, 60; Kelsen on, 175; national-economic society, 60; "self-organization of society," 68-69, 82; versus state, 59; vertical versus horizontal organization of, 278-81
Sociology, 173, 175-76, 178-80, 193,
    195-96, 207, 208, 210, 212, 217
Sollen (ought), 177-78
Sollenssph�re (realm of what ought to
    be), 5
Sondergutachten (separate opinion),
    298
Sonntheimer, Kurt, 28
Spann, Othmar, 13, 14-15, 23, 25,
    283n13
Springer Publishers, 1, 30
Srbik, Heinrich von, 53, 109, 122
Staatsgrundgesetz (Basic Law of 1867),
    193
Staatskorper (national body), 137
Staatslehre (theory of state), 4, 53
Staatsvolk (unified people), 117, 139,
    143, 154, 159, 194
Staatswillensbildung (formation of
    state will), 180
Stahl, Julius, 202 State: Austrian theory of, 189-98;
Austria's growth to statehood, 49-54; Austria's problems as, 6, 192, 367-69; Christian idea of, 251; corporative state, 22, 275-84, 297, 376-78; development of, 49; development of European state, 326-27; disintegration of, 184; economic and political phases of, 63-66; and emotional politics, 119-20, 125; E�tv�s on, 113- 25, 139-40; and French idea of people, 85-87; and French race idea, 83-85; German theories of, 59-62; Grey on parliamentary state, 288; Gumplowicz on, 194- 98, 199; Hauriou on, 29, 64-66, 99-101, 326-27; Humboldt on liberal state, 115; "juristic" theory of, 193, 210; Kelsen on, 4-5, 6, 172-73, 184, 206; as meaningful phenomenon independent from scientific investigation, 5; medieval corporative state, 277-78; Mussolini on, 76, 80; and nation, 76-77; "neutral" versus "total" state, 59- 61, 68, 69; and "normative sphere," 4; object "state" as identified with "law," 169, 170; "party state," 61, 68; pluralistic party state, 325; Schmitt on "legislative state," 218; Seipel on types of state construction, 276-77; Stein on, 60, 63-66, 64n8; structural element of, 75-76; Tezner on, 203-4; and theory of principles, 120-23; theory of state ( Staatslehre ), 4; versus "society," 59. See also Authoritarian state; Total state
Stein, Lorenz von, 60, 63-66, 64n8, 72,
    125
Stoerk, Felix, 198-203, 205-6
Studienreform (educational reforms),
    190
Styria, 156
Styrian Home Defense, 12
"Succession states," 10
Summum bonum, 3, 280n9
Swiss Federal Constitution, 16
Switzerland, 114, 115, 151, 155
Symbols: distinctions between
    theoretical concepts and political
    symbols, 2, 28, 57-58; and Fascism,
    79-80; historical significance of,
    81-83; and National Socialism, 81;
    situation value of, 79-81; "total" and
    "authoritarian" as, 2, 27-28, 32, 53,
    58, 105-6

Technology: and education, 104-5; and
    propaganda, 105, 106
Tezner, Friedrich, 52, 53, 194, 198,
    203-6
Theoretical concepts. See Concepts
    versus symbols
Theory of principles, 120-23
Thomas Aquinas, 8, 280-81n9
"Total": Averroist factor in, 72-75,
    81; and destruction of "private"
    sector, 72; doing without definition
    of, 58; and "domination," 71-72;
    Fascism and National Socialism as
    totalitarian, 74-79; Huber on, 73,
    75-79, 83; Sontheimer on, 28; as
    symbol, 2, 27-28, 32, 53, 58, 105-6.
    See also Total state
Totalitarian, 370-71
Totality of ideology, 73-75
"Total mobilization," 31, 58-59
"Total revision," 342-43
Total state: activist element in, 103-5;
    economic element in, 66-72, 98;
    and education, 87-90; and ethnic
    nationalities, 116; Schmitt on, 29,
    58-63, 66, 68, 69
Trades membership, 326
Transitional Constitution Law of 1945,
    19
Treaties, 320-21
Turkey, 113
Tyranny versus monarchy, 103
Tyrolian Defense Corps, 34

Ulbrich, Joseph, 192-94, 199, 205
Unger, Josef, 203
Ungeraden ("odd ones"), 12
Unicameral legislative system, 298
Union of German National Parties,
    152
United States, 259, 295, 376
Unity of being, 167-69
Unity of object, 167-70
Universal law, 189
Universal male suffrage, 140
Universities, 10-16, 291, 326
University of Cologne, 13, 15-16
University of Vienna, 10-16, 23, 25
Unrechstakt (unlawful act), 215
Unstaatlich (non-state [libertarian]),
    203
Upper Austria, 156
Urheberschaftlich (authorial) work,
    282, 333
Urst�ndigkeit (primitivity), 77

Vacatio legis, 320
"Value-selection," 200-201, 202
Vaterl�ndische Front (Patriotic Front),
    301, 307, 373, 378
Vaterlandstreu (patriotic),
    301
Vaugoin, 20
Verfassungsgerichtshof. See
    Constitutional court
Verfassungsminister (constitutional
    minister), 329n6
Verfassungsrecht (constitutional law),
    54
Vergegenst�ndlichung (cognitive
    model of objectification), 8
Vertretungskolegium (representative
    board), 273
Verwaltungssprengel (administrative
    districts), 253
Vielheit (multitude), 77
Vienna city parliament, 307, 331
Voegelin, Eric: and cancellation of
license to teach (venia legendi), 15; and Geistkreis, 23; as Kelsen's student and assistant, 23, 24; move from Cologne to Vienna, 10; and political parties in Austria, 27, 28; teaching positions of, 25-27; university education and further studies of, 23-24; University of Vienna courses and seminars by, 25-27, 25n56. See also specific titles of works
Vogelsang group, 377
Volk (people in political sense):
Austrian Volk, 123-25, 136, 137, 252, 376; and emotional politics, 119-20, 125; French race idea, 83-85; Fiihrer as embodiment of, 96n32; German concept of, 33, 38, 50, 73, 15-19, 77n17, 81-85; Hauriou on, 84; leader as embodiment of, 103; and National Socialism, 75-79, 81
V�lker-Herrscher (ruler over different
    peoples), 194
Volksf�hrer (leaders of the people), 251
Volksgeist (genius of the people), 77,
    103
Volksheer (people's army), 104
Volkstum (ethnic-national character),
    116
Volksvertretung (representation of the
    people), 153
Volont� objettiva (suprapersonal
    being), 73
Volont� g�n�rale, 86n22, 87, 315
Vorarlberg, 155
Vorm�rz, 121
Vor-Urteil (pre-judgrnent), 168
Votum consultativum, 317
Votum decisivum, 317, 329

Waber, Leopold, 152-53
Waelder, Robert, 23
Waffenring, 12
Waidenhofer Resolution, 11
Wartime Enabling Act of 1917. See
Enabling Act of 1917
Weber, Alfred, 24
Weber, Max, 7, 28, 70, 120, 180,
    199n17, 201, 218-21
Wehrverb�nde, (volounteer defense units) 372, 374
Weimar Republic: antidemocratic
    and fascist tendencies in, 18;
    Constitution of, 16, 244, 257-58,
    263, 264; downfall of, 29; Schmitt's
    critique of, 29
Weinzierl, Erika, 10-38
Wellington, Duke of, 286
Weltanschauung, (world view) 371, 376
Weltrechtsordnung (universal law),
    189
Wertbezogen (value-related) types, 204
Westphalen, Ferdinand, 15
Wilde, Johannes, 23
Willenseinheit (people as political
    entity of will), 76
Willenstr�ger (subject of the will), 214
Windelband, Wilhelm, 198-99n17
Winkler, G�nther, 3
Wirkkraft (social effectiveness), 283
Wirklichkeitstradition (tradition of
    realism), 155
Wissenschaft, Politik, und Gnosis
    (Voegelin), 7
World War I, 10, 11
Wurzburg Constitution, 11

Youth organization, 374

Zwangsordnung (compulsory order),
    184
Zweiseiten-Theorie ("double-sided
    theory"), 169

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