INDEX

VOL 32— The Theory of Governance
and
other Miscellaneous Papers,
1921-1938


Ability, 73-75
Absolute, 28, 54-55, 199-200
Act-experience, 210-13
Actions: and deliberation, 411-13;
    Kierkegaard on, 405-6; Nietzsche
    on, 410-12; rational action, 479;
    Schelling on, 403-4; von Wiese on,
    105-7
Adler, Max, 21
Administration, 270. See also
    Governance
Aging, 401
Agoraphobia, 306-7, 309-10
Akterlebnis (act-experience), 210-13
Alcibiades, 474
Allport, Gordon, 451
America. See United States
Âmes tendres (gentle souls), 311
Analogies, 75, 89, 492
Analysis of the Mind (Russell), 452
Anamnesis, 229, 499
Anarchy, 354
Ancient Society (Morgan), 434
Anima (soul), 229, 498, 500
Animals, 51-52, 453
Animal spirit, 247
Animus, 500
Anmut und Würde ( On Grace and
    Dignity;
Shiller), 397
Answers to the Second Objections
    (Descartes), 239
Anthropology: philosophical
    anthropology, 12, 14; of spirit, 422
Anxiety, 405-9. See also Fear
Apperception, 37-40
A priori: and categories, 448; and
content, 124, 190; and eidetic knowledge, 191-92; and first basic form, 185-87, 186n3; German "a priori, " 173; as given, 191; as internal, 178; investigation into a priori forms, 27; and Kant, 196; and Kelsen, 185n2; and love, 170; and Novalis, 177; and positive law, 375; and Rickert, 219, 222; and Simmel, 189; and value, 222
Arabians, 441
Archimedes, 442
Aristotle, 346, 350, 352, 355, 455
Art, 214, 216, 290-91, 296, 383, 417,
    419, 428, 447, 461
Assimilation, 35, 55-56, 55n32
Associations, 114, 115, 132, 139
Attentio (attention, consideration),
    491, 492, 495
Audacity, 370
Augustine, Saint: on body, 229, 235,
498; compared with Descartes, 229-30, 239, 240, 244-45; on confession, 486-87; on creator and creation, 232-35, 237, 242, 483-86, 488, 494-95; on ego, 229-31, 240, 485-86, 488-89, 494, 496, 499; on eternal in human being, 16; on God, 227-38, 240, 245, 483-88, 495-501; on meditation, 8, 9-11, 15, 226-38, 240; and meditation on becoming, 235-38; and meditation on being, 235-38; on memory, 229-30, 496-501; on soul, 227-29, 231, 235, 238, 488, 489-90, 495-98; theory of the person by, 8, 224-38; on time, 231-35, 483-96, 493n2; on transcendental ego, 485-86
—Work: Confessions, 8, 226-38,
    483-501
Äussere Persönlichkeit (external
    personality), 175-76
Authoritarian relationships, 293
Autobiographical Reflections
    (Voegelin), 3
Autonomy, 60, 125-26, 263-67, 333

Baboef, François, 469
Bacon, Francis, 451, 452-53
Balzac, Honoré de, 459
Barbaroi-problem, 437
"Basic Forms" (Voegelin), 7, 184-223
Beauty, 163
Becoming: Augustine's meditation
    on, 235-38; Schelling on, 399
Behaviorism, 452
Being: Augustine's meditation on,
    235-38
Being-in-itself, 395-96, 396n18, 398
Being-in-the-world, 406, 408-9
Bei-sich-selbst-sein (being-with-
    one's-own-self), 240, 243
Bergson, Henri, 3, 13, 64-68, 409-10,
    412
Berliner Romantik, Die (Nadler), 22
Bewußter Zwecksetzung (conscious
    setting of goals), 96
Bewußtseinsinhalte (contents of
    consciousness), 114, 138
Bewußtseinspunkten (coordinates of
    consciousness), 35
Beziehungsnormen (relationship
    norms), 95
Bible, 459, 488, 493
Bichl, Alois, 222
Bindungslose Bindung (bond
    without binding element), 96-97
Biology, 84-85, 91, 92, 108
Body: Augustine on, 229, 235, 498;
    Elyot on, 353; Hobbes on, 390-91;
    Kant on, 49-50, 395. See also Corporeality
Boke named the Governour (Elyot),
    345-46, 350-56
Bond, 95, 96-98
Botany, 108
Bourgeois affreux (dreadful
    bourgeois), 310
Bourgeoisie, 310, 311, 431, 468-69
Brentano, Franz, 426
Briefe über die ästhetische
    Erziehung des Menschen
( On
    the Aesthetic Education of Man in
    a Series of Letters;
Schiller), 397
Britain. See England
Büchner, Georg, 178-79
Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box;
    Wedekind), 149, 154-57
Burckhardt, Jakob, 321

Caesar, 314, 474
Caritas, 6n17 Castle Wetterstein ( Schloss
    Wetterstein;
Wedekind), 144,
    150-51, 154, 157-58
Causality and causal relationship:
and collective-concepts, 32-33; and Hegel, 202-4; and human beings, 59; human causality, 396, 397; and interaction theorists, 54; Kistiakowski on, 96, 99; and natural science, 109; and psychophysical, 37n8; Schelling on causality of life, 397, 398, 402
Chance, Love, and Logic (Peirce),
Chanson spirituelle, 237-38
Charisma, 321, 322
Chemistry, 91, 93-94, 108
Chinese, 441
Christ, 326-32, 334, 459 Christianity, 315, 318, 320, 334, 351,
    434, 454, 455, 457, 458, 468, 474,
    493. See also Augustine, Saint
Citizens. See Rulers and ruled
Civil law codes, 378
Clan, 115
Class and class relations: bourgeois
    classes, 431; as collective unity,
    107; and conflict of values, 139;
    La Boétie on, 348; Marx on, 439;
    Plato on, 166-69; and state, 117,
    117n72; and subordination, 119;
    Wedekind on, 181-82
Coercion, 125, 399
Coexistence, 399-401
Cogitare (thinking), 244
Cogitatio, 248
Cogitationes, 248
Cogito, 112, 247, 427
Cogito ergo sum, 239
Cognition, sources of, 20
Cohen, Hermann, 41, 135
Collective unities, 107
Cologne Quarterly Journal of Social
   Sciences,
101-22
Command and obedience: and aporia
of problem of power, 262-63; Elyot on, 353; and legitimacy, 278-79; and material interests of rulers and ruled, 272-74, 276; moral obedience, 263; Necker on, 305-6; obedience for sake of obedience, 274-78, 305; passive resistance against, 347; and personal view of obeying person, 274, 275; and physical force, 294; Scheler on, 263-68; sociological validity of command, 272; Spranger on, 260; and value-whole, 262-63, 277-78; Vierkandt on will to obedience, 119, 255-59; Weber on, 270-79, 305. See also Governance; Power
Common ground, 357-58
Common weale, 350-51
Communal spirit, 130
Communion, 338, 339-41
Communism, 183, 469
Communitas sanctorum, 332
Community: and Freyer on
social form, 427-28; individual- community relationship, 42-44, 64, 90, 122-40; and intentionality, 4; Kistiakowski on, 96; Litt on, 122-40; Spann on, 71; Stephinger on, 114-15; Tonnies on society compared with, 94, 96. See also Spiritual community
Community of essence, 130
Comte, Auguste: on bourgeois
society, 431; on class and class relations, 181; on history, 433-34, 460; on national types of mind, 433-40, 448, 456; positivism of, 433, 434, 435, 436, 460; sociology of, 21; on spiritual crisis, 5-6
Concepts: dichotomic concepts, 48,
    53-54, 55, 59, 68; Hegel on, 203-4
Confessio (confession), 496-97
Confession, 486-87, 496-97
Confessions (Augustine), 8, 226-28,
    483-501
Confessions (Rousseau), 494
Conflict: of models, 139; Schelling
    on, 398; Schmitt on, 365-66; of
    values, 138-39; Vierkandt on
    conflict relationship, 116
Conjuration des Égaux, 469
Conscious bond, 95
Consciousness: collective's
consciousness of itself, 132- 33; collective self-consciousness, 138; contents of, 114, 138; and demonstrative gestures, 427-28; and expressive movements, 427; Freyer on, 426-28; Giddings on consciousness of kind, 455-57, 463; Husserl on, 37-40, 39-40n1, 246; intentionality of, 426-27; Kant on, 49n2o, 423; Kistiakowski on, 97-98; laws of, 86; Litt on, 127, 128, 132-33, 137-38; Schiller on, 423; and solidarity, 114, 137-38; Stephinger on, 112; and totality of all pure forms, 58; Vierkandt on "we consciousness, " 118-19. See also Ego; Psychology
Consciousness of kind, 455-57, 463
Constitutional law, 417
Content: of consciousness, 114,
138; and context of meaning, 137; definition of, 87; ego-content, 59-61, 73, 190; potency of content as second basic form, 86, 190-92, 197; as problem of sociology, 87n57; Simmel on, 7, 81-83, 86, 87-88, 206, 420-21; Spann on sovereignty of, 297-302, 341; transition from form to, 87; and value, 222
Context of life, 138
Context of meaning, 61-66, 90, 119,
    126-28, 132, 133-34, 137
Contradictio (contradiction), 486
Cooperatives, 114
Corporeality, 41-42, 91, 92, 390-91,
    394. See also Body
Corpus (body), 229, 498
Corpus mysticum Christi, 468
Creative spirit, 28-29
Creator and creation, 232-35, 237,
    242, 244, 483-86, 488, 494-95
Critique of Practical Reason (Kant),
    50
Critique of Pure Reason (Kant), 199
Crystallization, 106-7, 113
Cultural occurrence, 111-12
Cultural Science and Natural
Science
(Rickert), 222
Cultural sociology, 14-15, 441-43
Culture: morphology of, 441-43;
    nature versus, 109; Nietzsche,
    317-20; sociology of, 14-15,
    441-43; Spengler on, 441-43;
    Stephinger on, 109, 111-12

Dasein (existence), 281, 289, 292,
    406-10, 412
Daseinsbeschreibung (existential
    description), 281
Daseinslehre (theory of human
    existence), 286-87
Daseinsverfassung (constitution of
    human existence), 279-81
Daseinswirklichkeit (sphere where
    human beings really exist), 276
Dasein-with, 406-7
David (Michelangelo), 214
Day (Hodler), 216
Death: and aging, 401; eroticism
    of, 157-58; fear of, 401; Hobbes
    on, 390-91, 401; Kant on, 395;
    Schmitt on, 366, 368; Weber on,
    368
De Cive (Hobbes), 389-91
Deliberation, 411-13
Democracy, 314, 469-71, 475-76,
    480
Demons (Dostoevksy), 460
Demonstrative gestures, 427-28
Denkakt (cognitive act), 60
Denkende Existenz (existence as
    thinking being), 285
Denk-ich (thought ego), 60
    506
Dependence, 136
Descartes, René: on animal spirit,
247; on cogito ergo sum, 239; compared with Augustine, 229- 30, 239, 240, 244-45; and divisio mundi, 14; on ego, 240-44, 247; and existential self-givenness of existence, 284-86; on faith, 285; on God, 241, 242-45, 283, 284-86; on intuition, 283-86; on meditation, 226, 285, 340; and meditation and internalization of idea of the person, 8, 237, 238-46; and meditation on becoming, 243-44; and meditation on being, 242-43; on memory, 499; on nature, 352; on openness of existence, 283-84; on person as thinking being, 239-41; and phenomenological reduction, 254; on philosophy, 285-86; and progressive development of philosophy, 493; skepticism of, 238-39, 241-42; on soul, 239
—Works: Answers to the Second
    Objections,
239; Meditations,
    238-46, 283-84
Devonshire, William, Earl of, 389
Dewey, John, 458-59
Dichotomic concepts, 48, 53-54, 55,
    59, 68
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 417
Diminished society, 176-77
Ding (thing), 44
Dinghafte (thing-like), 44, 484
Discourse on Voluntary Servitude
    (La Boétie), 345-50
Distentio (distraction), 234-35, 492,
    497
Distentio animi (spiritual
    distraction), 487, 488, 495,
    497
Divisio mundi (split between
    subjective-psychological sphere
    and objective-logical sphere), 14
Domination. See Governance; Power
Dort wo es Gott ist (where it unites
    with God), 335
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 11, 311, 320,
    326-32, 335, 342, 343, 460
Drives, 256
Du-Evidenz (Thou-evidence), 242
Duhem, Pierre, 22, 443, 446
Durkheim, Émile, 89, 115
Duty, 201
Dvorak, Max, 416
Dynamic element as second basic
    form, 186

Earth Spirit ( Erdgeist; Wedekind),
    144-50
Ecce distentio est vita mea (behold,
    my life is but a distraction), 492
Eckhart, Meister, 3
Economics, 108, 110, 111, 185, 218,
    219
Education, 451-52
Ego: Augustine on, 229-31, 240, 485-
86, 488-89, 494, 496, 499; Bergson on, 409-10; and demonstrative gestures, 427-28; Descartes on, 240-44, 247; ego-form and ego- content, 59-61, 72, 73, 190; ego process of realizing postulates, 61-64; Fichtean ego, 69; Husserl on, 246-55, 427; Kant on, 247- 48, 485; Litt on spontaneity of experiences of, 133; of psychology, 60; psychophysical ego, 45, 46-47, 50, 58; pure form ego, 57, 58, 60, 74; relationships of ego spheres, 58-59; Scheler on, 242; Simmel on, 206-7; social ego, 29, 43-47, 50; 53, 57; spiritual ego, 58, 74, 82; thought ego, 60; and time, 494; transcendental ego, 485-86; types of, 45; value ego, 57, 58, 61, 74-75
Ego cogitans (thinking ego), 240-41
Ego-content, 59-61, 73, 190
Ego-form, 59-61, 72, 73, 190
Egoicity, 59-60, 68, 72, 190
Ego ipse (very core of the self), 230,
    231, 499
Ego-subject, 40
Eidetic knowledge, 123, 192
Einfälle (ideas), 280, 282
Eingebungen (inspirations), 280
Electrodynamics, 121-22
Elyot, Sir Thomas, 10, 345-46,
    350-56, 357, 358
Empire, 467
Empty spaces, 245
Engels, Friedrich, 434-35
England, 36, 443, 444, 446, 449,
    450-55, 458, 460, 471, 474, 476
English pragmatism, 21
English social philosophy, 354
Enlightenment, 10
Ens realissimum, 6n17
Entleerung (exhaustion), 417
Entzweiung (dividing into two), 71
Epistemology, 20, 92, 111, 124, 289,
    394, 444
Epoché, 249
Equality, 315, 335, 345, 353, 355,
    357, 388n11, 390, 394, 423, 454,
    468
Erdgeist ( Earth Spirit; Wedekind),
    144-50
Erlebnis (life experience), 393
Erlebnis-Totalität (entire life
    experiences), 62
Erlösungswer t (salvational value),
    180
Eroticism, 151-58, 421
Erzeugungsregel (generative-rule),
    85
Esprit animal (animal spirit), 247
Essai sur les données immédiates de
    la conscience
(Bergson), 409-10
Essay on Government (Locke), 458
Essays on the Active Powers of the
    Human Mind
(Reid), 450-55, 458
Essence: collective essence, 100;
community of, 130; and creative spirit, 28; defining essence, 263; of governance, 255-68; of human beings, 235, 383, 389; in natural law, 384-86; of spirit, 426; unity of, 57; value essence, 266
Essential will, 96
Ethics: ego form and, 60-61; Hobbes
    on, 398; of Kant, 60; of Litt,
    122-40; of national types of mind,
    444; Schelling on, 398-99
Ethnic groups, 115
Euclid, 442
Evil. See Good and evil
Evolution, 21
Exhaustion, 417
Existence: assumption of and
objective spirit, 287-88; Dasein as, 281, 289, 292, 406-10, 412; divine existence, 368; finiteness of, 288; Heidegger on, 406-9; Kierkegaard on, 408; national existence, 462- 63; question of subject in theory of, 288-90; Schmitt on, 362; and spiritual openness, 367-68; of whole, 367-68
Existential constitution of the ruled,
    325-32, 343-44
Existential insight, 267
Existential self-givenness of
    existence, 284-86
Expressive movements, 427
External governance, 323
External personality, 5, 175-76, 178

Faith, 14, 285, 482, 486
Family: as collective unity, 107;
as community created by consanguinity, 115; and conflict of values, 139; and domination, 296; in France, 445-46; genealogical concept of, as causal relationship, 32; in Germany, 446; La Boétie on, 347, 350; obedience to parents, 347; in Wedekind's works, 150-57
Fascism, 470
Faustian culture, 441, 442
Faustian destiny, 147
Fear: of death, 401; definition of,
390; Heidegger on, 406-9; Hobbes on, 389-94, 396, 398, 400-401, 407; Kierkegaard on, 405-6, 407; relationship between freedom and, 12, 389-408; Schelling on, 398, 400-401, 407-8
Fechner, Gustav, 41
Fécondité (Zola), 148
Ferguson, Adam, 387n9
Fichte, I. H., 7, 9, 9n23
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 3, 21, 47,
    69, 460, 473
Fischer, Aloys, 419n3
Foresight, 307-8
Formal and Transcendental Logic
    (Husserl), 253-54
Formal ontology, 20
Formal potency, 184-87, 190-92, 197
Form des amerikanischen Geistes
    (Voegelin), 457-58
Form-oriented love, 170, 172-73
Forms: basic forms, 7, 184-223;
concept of, in sociology, 22-23, 192-93; enduring and absolute forms, 28; and example of bottle, 192-93; Freyer on social form, 427-28; potency of content as second basic form, 186, 190-92, 197; potency of form as first basic form, 184-87, 190-92, 197; and Rickert, 208-23; Simmel on, 7, 81-83, 87, 102, 205-8, 420-21; transition from form to content, 87; and value, 222
Formsprache (conceptual structure),
    344-45
Foundation, concept of, 45, 46-47
Foundations of Character (Shand),
    452
Founding relationships, 47-55
"Fragment on Love" (Simmel),
    169-70
France and French: family in,
445-46; and French Revolution, 10, 303-4, 345, 468-69; and governance, 309-11; influence of culture of, 179; kingship in, 350; national mind of, 27, 436, 437, 443-46, 449, 456, 460, 476; and state, 417
Frederick the Great, 464
Freedom: Bergson on, 409-10;
conflict between governance and, in natural law, 333, 345; Heidegger on, 409; Hobbes on, 389-94; Jacobi on, 394-95; Kant on, 13, 381-82, 388, 388n11, 394, 395, 396, 422-23, 424; Kierkegaard on, 404-6, 409; La Boétie on, 346-47; Litt on, 125, 425; organic life of determinate forms versus, 14; and personality, 59; relationship between fear and, 12, 389-408; Schelling on, 396n18, 398-400, 404; Schiller on, 13, 424; Siéyés on, 310; Simmel on, 421-22; and tragedy, 147; and the will, 126; Wolters on, 334-35
Free will, 406
Freie Tathandlung (free act), 69
French Revolution, 10, 303-4, 345,
    468-69. See also France and
    French
Freyer, Hans, 7, 420, 426-28
Fries, Jakob, 12, 376, 377, 378, 384
Frühlingserwachen ( Spring's
    Awakening;
Wedekind), 144
Full culture society, 176-77
Function: Litt on, 134-35, 137
Furchtsamkeit (fearfulness), 407

Gabel, Gabelung (fork, fork in a
    tree), 71
Gandhi, Mahatma, 347
Ganzheit (totality complete in
    itself), 48, 52, 95, 128
Ganzheiten (integral wholes,
    spiritual wholes), 54, 365
Ganzheitliche Existenz (existence of
    the whole), 367
Ganzheitslehre (theory of the
    whole), 74
Geistige Anregung (spiritual
    awakening), 61-64
Geistkontinuum (spiritual
    continuum), 288
Geist (spiritual), 37n8, 47
Geist von seinem Geist (spirit of its
    creator), 133
Geistwesen (spiritual being), 279
Geltungsfor m (validation), 89
Gemeinsamkeit (common bond), 68
Gemeinschaft (community), 71, 94,
    96, 97, 112, 124, 131-32
Genesis, Book of, 488
Gens, 115
Gens mediocres, 311
Geometry, 80, 81, 81n55
George, Stefan, 10, 11, 326, 340, 342,
    356
German idealism, 7, 198, 392
Germany and Germans: in alien
society, 33, 36; constitution of, 470-71; empire of, 467; and external personality, 175-76; family in, 446; and idealism, 7, 198, 392; national mind of, 27, 441, 443, 444, 446, 449, 460, 476; in 1930s, 297; political theory of, 417-29, 470-72; and a priori, 173; seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in, 179; and sociology, 461; and theory of national economy, 219
Gesamterlebnis (experience of the
    whole), 132, 132n81
Gesellschaft (society), 94, 96, 98n62,
    112, 124, 131-32
Gesellschaftliche ("social" element),
    41, 88
Gesellschaft und Einzelwesen
    (Kistiakoswki), 91-101
Gesetzeswissenschaft (nomothetic
    science), 112
Gesolltheit (imperativeness), 201
Gezweiung (spiritual community),
    4, 22, 71-75, 122, 463
Giddings, Franklin Henry, 455-49,
    463
Gleichheit (sameness), 56, 63
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur de, 174
God: Augustine on, 227-38, 240,
245, 483-88, 495-501; creator-creation relationship, 232-35, 237, 242, 244, 483-86, 488, 494-95; Descartes on, 241, 242-45, 283, 284-86; Elyot on, 351-53; equality of humans before, 315, 454, 468; eternal substance of, 484-85, 488; existence of, 368; faith in, 14, 486; and human beings' openness to divinity, 340; Jacobi on, 395; Kant on, 422; nation's view of, 433; Paul on, 459; Spann on bond with, 282-83; Wolters on habit of service to, 333-43. See also Religion
Good and evil: Dostoevsky on evil of
governance, 326-32, 342, 346; evil of governance, 314-19, 325-32, 336, 342, 346; Kierkegaard on, 406; Nietzsche on evil of power, 317, 318-19, 332; and order, 12-13; and original sin, 486; Reid on, 453-54; Scheler on, 11, 263-68
Goods: Rickert on, 209, 212-15,
    217-19, 221-22
Gottesfrieden, 467
Governance: actions of, 343-44;
aporia of problem of power, 261-63; Augustine's theory of the person, 224-38; Christ's rejection of governance over the earth, 329; and concept of the person, 224-55; and Descartes's meditation and internalization of idea of the person, 238-46; Dostoevsky on, 326-32, 335, 343, 346; Elyot on, 345-46, 350-56, 357, 358; essence of, 255-68; evil of, 314-19, 325-32, 336, 342, 346; and existential constitution of the ruled, 325-32; and ground of being, 9, 10; Husserl and Scheler on the person, 246-55; and institutional character of the state, 296; La Boétie on, 345-50; and legitimacy, 278-79; and meditation, 8, 9-11; Necker on, 303-13, 318, 319, 321, 325-28, 343, 368-70; Nietzsche's theory of, 7, 9, 316-25, 343; and origin of power, 291-92; and physical force, 292, 293-96; Plessner on, 368-72; and powerful and powerless persons, 255-68; Scheler on, 263-68; Schmitt on, 7, 360-66; and sovereignty of content, 297- 302; and Spann on constitution of human existence, 279-81; Spann on external governance, 323; Spann on "inner rule" and sovereignty of the factual, 297- 302; subject in theory of, 290-92; theory of, 2, 7-11, 224-372; types of theories of, 268-372; Vierkandt on, 255-59; Weber on, 7, 8, 9, 270-79, 305, 416; and Weber's definition of domination, 270-79, 292-93; Wolters on service and, 326, 333-43, 346, 356. See also Command and obedience
Governance and Service (Wolters),
    10, 326, 333-43
Government. See Governance
Grammar of Politics (Laski), 471-76
"Grand Inquisitor" (Dostoevsky),
    11, 326-32, 346
Greece and Greeks, 297, 320, 440,
    441, 442, 455, 468, 474, 477
Groups, 106-7, 128
Gundolf, Friedrich, 416

Habits, 450-52
Hafiz, 159-63, 165-66, 171, 179
Hegel, G. W. F.: on bourgeois society,
431; on concepts, 203-4; on history, 434, 460; on human beings, 383n6; on liberty, 434, 435; on national types of mind, 434-40, 448, 456; on principles and purposes, 201-4; on reason, 383n6; sociology of, 21; on spirit, 59, 199; on transition of possibility to reality, 404
Heidegger, Martin, 13, 406-9
Henry VIII, 350
Herakleitos, 431
Hidalla (Wedekind), 181-83
Hierarchy: Elyot on, 351; Kant on,
351-52; Necker on, 307-9; Plato's hierarchy of metals, 167-68, 170 History: anamnetic bond between nature of human being and process of, 12; Comte on, 433-34, 460; field of, as soul of man, 12; Hegel on, 434, 460; Kant's history of humanity, 422-23; and law of the mind, 437-38; Marx and Engels on, 434-35, 439; openness of historical sequence, 372; philosophy of, 12, 21, 385; Rickert on historical science, 27, 209, 218-19, 222
Hobbema, Meindert, 139
Hobbes, Thomas, 12, 389-94,
    396-402, 407
Hodler, Ferdinand, 216
Horizontal values, 5-6, 169, 174-80,
    183
Huber, Max, 476
Human beings: anamnetic bond
between process of history and, 12; Augustine's theory of the person, 8, 224-38; and corporeality, 41-42, 91, 92, 390- 91, 394; cultural human being, 217; Descartes's meditation and internalization of idea of the person, 238-46; Elyot on, 353; equality of, 315, 335, 353, 355, 357, 388n11, 390, 394, 454, 468; as ethical postulate, 41; external personality, 5, 175-76, 178; and fear, 12; and freedom, 12, 13, 14, 59, 125, 126, 381-82; and ground of being, 1, 9, 10; Hegel on, 383n6; Hobbes on, 389-91; Husserl and Scheler on the person, 246-55; and ideal, 222-23; imago Dei nature of, 2; and immanent transcendence, 7, 187-89; and individual- community relationship, 42-44, 64, 90, 122-40; individual's ability, 73-75; individuals as wholes, 42-43, 47-48; interaction theorists on, 54; Kant on, 381-82, 422-23; Kistiakowski on, 94-95; machine compared with living being, 51-52; and meditation, 8, 9-10, 15; as natural being, 194; Novalis on, 193; and openness to divinity, 340; and part-whole relationship, 42-53; and personality, 50-51, 59; Plessner on, 369-71, 395; and powerful and powerless persons, 255-368; and psychophysical ego, 45, 46-47, 50, 58; and psychophysical foundation, 47-55; and psychophysical relationship, 37, 37-38n8, 40-42, 43, 55-56; and reason, 13, 60, 195-96, 383n6, 423, 453-54; relationship of ego spheres, 58; and relationships of individuals, 29-32, 40; Rickert on, 222-23; Schelling on, 395-96; and social ego, 29, 43-47, 50, 53, 57; and sociation, 29, 63-64, 68, 71-72, 78, 80-83, 87, 104, 107; and soul, 49-50; and spiritual awakening, 61-64, 73; spiritual nature of, 2-3, 4, 47-55, 279-81, 287-88; Stephinger on, 113-14; and thinking, 60, 239-44. See also Ego; Individualism; Individuals; Personality; Spiritual community Humanity: Kant on, 422-23; Schelling on, 397; Simmel on, 80-81
Hume, David,
Hungary, 446
Husserl, Edmund: on consciousness,
37-40, 39-40n1; and division of sciences, 22; on duality of sources of cognition, 191; on ego, 246-55, 427; on eidetic knowledge, 123, 192; on founding relationships, 48-49; on immanence and transcendence, 20, 38-40, 39- 40n11, 248, 249-50, 254-55; on intentionality of consciousness, 426-27; on intuition, 120; on life of the world, 248-49, 251-54; on material ontology, 136; on nature, 39-40; on object-directed life, 248; on the person, 8, 246-55; and phenomenology, 14, 120, 121, 123, 246-47; on psychic, 37n8; and psychologism, 252; on psychophysical, 38-37n8; and reflection, 248-51, 254-55; on retention (retention), 492; on theory of any object, 20; and theory of wholes and parts, 49; and Voegelin's dissertation, 3, 4; and Voegelin's "Theory of Governance," 8, 9
—Works: Formal and Transcenden-
    tal Logic,
253-54; Ideas, 4; Logical
    Investigations,
4; "Yearbook, " 426
Hyle (matter), 249
Hypostasis, 111

Ichheit (egoicity), 59-60, 68, 72, 190
Ideal, 97-98, 222-23
Idealism, German, 7, 198, 392
Ideas: Plato on, 169, 281; political
    ideas, 462-63; Spann on, 280-81,
    282
Ideas (Husserl), 4
Ideology, 368n65
Imagination, 305-7
Imago Dei, 2
Imitatio Christi, 332
Immanence: Augustine on, 230-31;
    Husserl on, 38-39, 39-40n11,
    248, 250; Plessner on, 371; and
    power, 291; Simmel on immanent
    transcendence, 7, 187-89, 198-99,
    204-5, 4I9-21, 426
India, 467
Individualism, 68-69, 73-74
Individualität (individuality itself),
    74
Individuals: ability of, 73-75;
Litt on, 122-40; relationship between community and, 42-44, 64, 90, 122-40; relationships of individuals, 29-32, 40; Spann on duality of, 189-90; spiritual relationships among, 128-30, 133; spiritual unity of, 54; spontaneity of, 131, 133, 135-36; supra- individual structure, 31-32, 88-89; transcended individual, 125; as unity within multiplicity, 126-27, 128, 129; as wholes, 42-43, 47-48. See also Ego; Human beings
Individuum infecundum (barren
    individual), 339
Innere Anschauung (intuition), 120
"Inner rule" and sovereignty of the
    factual, 297-302
"Inner-worldly religions," 6n17
Inspiration, 280-81
Instincts, 256, 422-23, 450-53
Institutional character of the state,
    296
Intellectus (intellect), 498, 500
Intelligence, 450-51
Intentio (stretching toward), 233-37,
    240, 245, 247, 248, 485, 487, 488,
    495, 501
Intentionality of consciousness, 14,
    426-27
Interaction: definition of, 4, 34;
Kistiakowski on, 99-101; and Litt, 122-23, 130; Simmel on, 13, 38n8, 78-80, 83-84, 99, 102, 104; and society, 34-35; and spiritual unity of the individual, 54; Stephinger on, 113-14; substance, social relationship, and, 35-37, 55-56
"Interaction and Spiritual
    Community" (Voegelin), 2-5,
    19-140
International, definition of, 476-77
Internationalism, 476, 481-82
International law, 431, 481
Interstate relations, 463, 476-82
Intuition: Augustine on, 487;
Bergson on, 64-67; Descartes on, 283-86; and eidetic knowledge, 191-92; Elyot on, 352; existence of, 367-68; Husserl on, 120, 191-92; and Schmitt on conflict, 365; Spann on, 281-85, 287, 341; and validity of governance, 313; Wolters on, 337
Italy, 471, 476

Jacobi, Friedrich, 394-95, 396
Jaspers, Karl, 3-4, 417
Jesus Christ. See Christ
John, Saint, 318
Journal of the Research Institute for
    Social Sciences,
Cologne, 101-22
Judaism, 179

Kant, Immanuel: and Augustine,
15; on autonomy, 263, 333; on body-soul foundation, 49-50; compared with Schelling, 397; on consciousness, 49n20; on critique, 196; on ego, 247-48, 485; and ends, 399; on equality, 345, 357, 423; ethics of, 60; on freedom, 381-82, 388, 388n11, 394, 395, 396, 422-23, 424; importance of, 7; on law, 380-83; on metaphysics, 194-97; on moral theory, 393; on natural laws, 199, 351-52, 473; and Neo-Kantian schools, 19; on personality, 50; and progressive development of philosophy, 493; on reason, 13, 60, 195-96, 423; on rights of humans, 388, 388n11, 389; on rules, 217; on sensuality, 395; on spirit, 199; on state, 333; and theory of law, 12
—Works: Critique of Practical
    Reason,
50; Critique of Pure
    Reason,
199; "Probable Beginnings
    of the History of Humanity,"
    422-23
Kelsen, Hans: influence of, on
Voegelin, 2; and norms, 116; and pure theory of law, 185n2; on relationship of society to state and to law, 95n59; on state, 115; and Voegelin's dissertation in sociology, 2; on Wundt's idea of the state, 21

Keyserling, Hermann Graf, 174
Kierkegaard, Søren, 395, 404-9
Kistiakowski, Theodor: analogies
used by, 89; on community, 96; compared with Simmel, 91, 93, l00-101; comparison between physics and physiology by, 81n55, 93-94; on consciousness, 97-98; on difference between psychic and social, 94-95, 98, 99; on ideal, 97-98; on interaction, 99-101; on objects, 92; on psychology, 91, 98; on social psychic process, 94-99; on society, 96-101, 98n62; sociology of, 91-101; and theory of two sides, 91-92, 94
Klassenstaat (state divided by
    classes), 117n72
Knowledge: eidetic knowledge, 123,
    192; Elyot on self-knowledge, 355;
    relativity of scientific knowledge,
    65; transcendental knowledge, 196
Kraft (power, force), 192, 261
Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe
    (Wölfflin), 22
Kunstwissenschaft (theory of art),
    383

La Boétie, Étienne de, 345-50
Language, 65, 111, 129, 218
Laski, Harold, 294, 471-76, 478, 479
Law: as a priori, 185; civil law
codes, 378; and communities, 115; concrete essential law, 384-86; constitutional law, 417; Fries on, 12, 376, 377, 378, 384; genesis of, 11-12; Hobbes on, 12, 389-94, 396, 397-401; international law, 431, 481; Kant's theory of, 380-83; Kelsen's pure theory of law, 185n2; natural law, 11-12, 199, 333, 345, 375-89; ontology of, 386-87; outline on, 373-75; positive law compared with natural law, 11-12, 375-89; positive science of law versus legal philosophy, 123; reality of law, 13; Rickert on, 218; Schellingon, 12, 395-402; Simmel on, 126; as social form of spiritual beings, 14; as social science, 108; of spiritual worlds, 13; and state, 117-18; theory of, 111, 373-413
Law of the mind, 437-38
Law of transformation, 178-79
League of Nations and Its Problems
    (Oppenheim), 481
Lebensanschauung (Simmel), 126,
    418
Lebenseinheit (living social unity),
    131
Lebensprobleme (problems of life),
    54
Lebensrechte (existential rights), 335
Lebenstotalität (totality of life), 46
Lebenszusammenhang (context of
    life), 138
Leerstellen (empty spaces), 242
Legal relationship, 115-17, 117n71
Legislation, 378-79, 386
Legitimacy and governance, 278-79
Leibseele (soul of the body), 239
Leitbild (model), 132-36
Leviathan (Hobbes), 391
Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, 21
Liberty, 397, 434, 435, 458, 479
Liberum arbitrium (free will), 406
Life: Husserl on, 248-49, 251-54;
Litt on, 424-25; Novalis on, 198-99; object-directed life, 248; Schelling on, 396-97, 400, 407-8; Simmel on, 187-89, 198-201, 204-8, 418-20, 423-24; and theory of human existence, 286-90, 311; unity of, 400
Likemindedness, 458-59
Lincoln, Abraham, 438
Lipps, Theodor, 41
Litt, Theodor: on communal spirit,
130; on community and society, 131-32; on community of essence, 130; compared with Simmel, 122, 124-25, 128; on conflict of models, 139; on freedom, 125, 425; on function, 134-35, 137; on groups, 128; on individual and community, 122-40; on interaction, 130; and interaction theory, 122-23; on joining or weaving into social whole, 130; on language, 129; on life, 424-25; on model, 132-39; on objective spirit, 130-31; and psychology, 137; on self-manifestation and understanding, 128-29, 132-35; sociology of, 22, 122-40; on spiritual relationships among individuals, 128-30, 133; on whole, 132-34, 132n81, 136-38
Locke, John, 458, 492, 493n2
Logic, 65-66
Logical Investigations (Husserl), 4
Louis XIV, 474
Love: Elyot on, 355; form-oriented
love, 170, 172-73; Greek concept of, 169; in Hafiz's and Wedekind's works, 159-63; modern love as a priori, 170; Novalis on, 171-72, 176; Simmel on, 169-70, 421; as transcendental value, 5, 6; as vertical value, 171-73

Macedonia, 457, 467
Machtwesenheit (power essence),
    397
Magic of rulers, 321-23
Man's Place in the Cosmos (Scheler),
    351, 422
Marguerite de Navarre, Princess,
    237-38
Marriage. See Family
Marx, Karl, 59, 434-35, 439, 461, 468
Marxism, 461
Masses, 107, 311, 314-15, 329, 357
Material interests of rulers and
    ruled, 272-74, 276
Material ontology, 20, 22
Material symbolization, 428
Mathesis universalis, 20, 136
McDougall, William, 115, 119, 452
Meaning: context of, 61-66, 90, 119,
    126-28, 132, 133-34, 137; and
    intuition, 64-67; and language, 65,
    Rickert on, 211, 215; of spiritual
    awakening, 61-64
Mechanics, 121-22
Meditation: of Augustine, 8, 9-11,
15, 67, 226-38; on becoming, 235-38, 243-44; on being, 235-38, 242-43; Descartes's meditation and internalization of idea of the person, 226, 237, 238-46, 340; Wolters on, 340
Meditations (Descartes), 238-46,
    283-84
Memoria (memory), 229, 491, 492,
    498, 500
Memory: Augustine on, 229-30,
    496-501; Descartes on, 499
Metaphysical state of mind, 433, 434
Metaphysic of morals, 197
Metaphysic of nature, 197
Metaphysics: Bergson on, 64-68;
    and German idealism, 198; Kant
    on, 194-97; and Marx, 461; and
    objective spirit, 288; and Simmel,
    127-28, 187-89; and Spann,
    287-88; and tree example, 286
Metternich, Prince Klemens von,
    321
Michelangelo, 214
Middle Ages, 175, 433, 434, 467, 468,
    474
Milieu theory, 59
Mind of a nation. See National types
    of mind
Mine-Haha (Wedekind), 182
Model, 132-39
Moral philosophy, 472-73
Morals, 197, 454
Morgan, Lewis, 434
Morphological postulate, 15, 441-43,
    459, 462
Mussolini, Benito, 471
Mysticism, 3, 4, 6n17

Nadler, Josef, 22, 174
Napoleon, 321-22, 474
Nation, 358-59, 476. See also
    Nation-state; State; and specific
    nations
National types of mind: Comte
on, 433-40, 448, 456; description of, 444-59; difficulties of study of, 430-31, 449; epistemological aspects of, 430-44; ethical aspects of, 444; familiarity of, 430-31; Hegel on, 434-40, 448, 456; influence of, on mathematics and physics, 443, 446; and institutional types of state, 446; and interstate relations, 463, 476-82; Laski on, 471-76; Marx and Engels on, 434-35, 439; and morphological postulate, 15, 441-43, 459, 462; and national existence, 462-63; and national self-justification and superiority, 432-33, 438, 444, 460; and national will, 461; overview of, 14-15; and Platonic postulate, 14-15, 441, 443, 449, 455, 459, 462; Plato on, 431-33, 436; and political thought, 462-76; and realm of the mind, 461-62; Spengler on, 441-43; structural unit of national mind, 448-49. See also specific nations
"National Types of Mind and the
    Limits to Interstate Relations"
    (Voegelin), 14-15, 430-82
Nation-state, 466. See also Nation;
    State; and specific nation-states
Natorp, Paul, 38n8, 123-24, 127n80
Natural law: classes of, 387-89;
classical theory of, 380-83; and coercion, 399-400; conflict between freedom and governance in, 333, 345; critical attitude of positive law toward, 380; Elyot on, 352; essence in, 384-86; and Fichte, 473; Fries on, 384; Hobbes on, 392-93; Kant on, 199, 351-52, 380-83, 473; and legislative process, 378-79, 386; and ontology of law, 386-87; and philosophy of history, 385; positive law compared with, 11-12, 375-89; and rights, 387-89; and Schelling, 395-402
Natural occurrence, 111-12
Natural science. See Science
Nature: as context for human beings,
194; culture versus, 109; Descartes on, 352; Husserl on, 39-40; Kant on, 351-52; La Boétie on, 347-48; metaphysical assumptions of, 288; metaphysic of nature, 197; Rickert on, 214-15, 220, 221-22; Schelling on, 397; Stephinger on, 108-9, 112; von Üxküll on, 53
Necker, Jacques, 303-13, 318, 319,
    321, 325-28, 343, 368-70
Neo-Kantians, 7, 19, 195
Nietzsche, Friedrich: on action,
410-12; on class and class relations, 181, 182; compared with Wedekind, 180-83; on culture, 317-20; on deliberation, 411; on evil of power, 317, 318-19, 332; on governance, 7, 9, 316-25, 343; on herd animal morality, 175, 183; on magic of rulers, 321-23, 325; on motives, 411-12; and reality of law, 13; on rulers, 320-25; on slavery, 317-20, 323, 344; on spiritual crisis, 5-6; on state and civil society, 320-21, 323-25; and Zarathustra, 332
Night watchman theory of the state,
    344
Noema, 249-51
Noesis, 249, 251
Norms: and conscious bond, 95, 97;
    and governance, 296; Hobbes on,
    393; and Kelsen, 116; Kistiakowski
    on, 95, 97, 98; legal norm, 117-18;
    philosophical foundation of, 416
"Notes on Augustine: Time and
    Memory" (Voegelin), 15-16,
    483-501
Novalis, 171-72, 176, 177, 178, 193,
    198-99

Obedience. See Command and
    obedience
Objectifications: of constitution
    of being, 286-87; historical
    objectifications, 210; Simmel on,
    206-8, 424; Spann on system of,
    45-46; of spirit, 427-28; von Wiese
    on, 106-7
Objective spirit, 130-31, 287-88,
    298-300, 312-14, 426
Objects: definition of, 79; Descartes
    on, 239-40; Husserl's object-
    directed life, 248; Kistiakowski
    on, 92; Rickert on, 210; Schelling
    on, 399; Simmel on, 78-83, 87-88;
    of sociology, 78-83, 87-88, 92-93,
    112, 113
Objektiver Geist (objective spirit),
    130-31
Obligation, 398
Occidental culture, 441, 456
On Education (Bacon), 451
On Grace and Dignity (Schiller), 397
On the Aesthetic Education of Man
    in a Series of Letters
(Schiller), 397
"On the Erotic" (Wedekind), 151-52
On the Form of the American Mind
    (Voegelin), 14
"On the Foundations of Social
    Science" (Stephinger), 108-15
Ontology: formal ontology, 20; of
    law, 386-87; material ontology,
    20, 22
Openness: to divinity, 340; of
    existence, 283-84, 291, 367-68; of
    spiritual world, 372
Opinions, 306
Oppenheim, L. F. L., 481, 482
Optics, 121-22
Order and History (Voegelin), 1
Ordnung (elements of an order), 100
Organism: as analogy for society,
75; biological view of, 84-85; and germ plasma, 85; machine compared with, 51-52; Simmel on, 84, 85; Stephinger on, 113; unity of parts of, 84-85
Organization of the hinterland,
    294-95
Organizations, 115
Original rights, 387
Original sin, 486
Ornament, 148
Otto, Rudolf, 416

Pandora's Box (Wedekind), 149,
    154-57
Parallelführung (parallel guidance),
    494
Parallel guidance, 494
Parents. See Family
Parts-whole relationship, 42-53, 96,
    136
Pascal, Blaise, 443
Passive resistance, 347
Paul, Saint, 457, 459
Paulsen, Friedrich, 195
Pax Americana, 467
Pax Romana, 467
Pax sarva-baumica, 467
Peirce, Charles S., 282,
Pericles, 314
Persia, 457, 467
Personality: external personality,
    5, 175-76, 178; and freedom, 59;
    Kant on, 50. See also Human
    beings; Individuals
Persons. See Human beings;
    Individuals; Personality
Phenomenology, 14, 103-4, 116-21,
    123, 246-47
Philosophical anthropology, 12, 14
Philosophical nature of sociology,
    3-4
Philosophical Reflections on
    Equality
(Necker), 303-13
Philosophy: Descartes on, 285-
86; Husserl on transcendental philosophy, 20; legal philosophy, 123; moral philosophy, 472-73; progressive development, 493-94; Rickert on, 210; Stephinger on nature of, 108, 111

Philosophy of history, 12, 21, 385
Phoenician lie, 315-16, 331
Phoenicians, 432
Physical force, 292, 293-96, 400
Physics, 22, 81n55, 91, 93-94, 108,
    111, 352, 443, 446, 463
Physiology, 81n55, 91, 93-94
Piety, 337, 338
Plato: and anamnesis, 229, 499;
Barbaroi-problem of, 437; on estates in Platonic state, 166-69, 175; Stefan George on, 10, 11; and hierarchy of metals, 167-68, 170; on ideas, 169, 281; influence of, on Elyot, 352; on national types of mind, 431-33, 436; on Phoenician lie, 315-16, 331; politics of, 10; on soul, 431-32; on state, 166-69, 175, 315-16, 317, 324, 346, 356; Voegelin's study of, in Spann's seminars, 3, 10; on whole, 69
—Work: Politeia (Republic), 166-69,
    315-16, 431-33
Platonic postulate, 14-15, 441, 443,
    449, 455, 459, 462
Pleasure, 159-60
Plebeii (commoners), 351
Plebs (commonaltie), 351
Plenitudo potestatis, 468
Plessner, Helmuth, 368-72, 395
Poland, 446
Politeia (Plato), 431-33. See also
    Republic
Political: Schmitt on, 360-66; Weber
    on, 359-60, 361
Political ideas, 462-63
Political Religions (Voegelin), 6n17
Political science: and national types
of mind, 462-76; outline for and introduction to Voegelin's proposed book on, 414-17; and types of national mind, 14-15, 430-82

"Political Theory as Human
    Science" (Voegelin), 13-14, 414-29
Populus (people), 351
Positive law: critical attitude toward
natural law by, 380; Fries on, 384; and legislative process, 378-79, 386; natural law compared with, 11-12, 375-89; a priori content of, 375; as "pure" theory of law, 380
Positivism, 433, 434, 435, 436, 460
Positivity of Wedekind, 164-66
Postulates, 64, 67-68
Potency of content, 186, 190-92, 197
Potency of form, 184-87, 190-92,
    197
Potenzen (powers), 73, 252
Power: aporia of problem of, 261-63;
de facto power, 293; definition of, 73, 292, 368; destruction of, by passive resistance, 347; and good and evil, 263-68; governance and powerful and powerless persons, 255-368; Hobbes on, 392-93, 397; Litt on, 125; Nietzsche on evil of, 317, 318-19; origin of, 291-92; and physical force, 292, 293-96; Plessner on, 370-71, 395; potency of content as second basic form, 186, 190-92, 197; potency of form as first basic form, 184-87, 190-92, 197; Scheler on, 263-68; Schelling on, 396-98; Schmitt on, 7, 360-66; Spann on, 73, 74, 297- 302; spiritual element of, 259-60; Spranger on, 259-61; Vierkandt on, 115-17, 117nn71-72, 255-59; Weber's definition of domination, 270-79, 292-93; Wolters on evil of 336, 342. See also Command and obedience; Governance; Rulers and ruled
Pragmatism, 21
Prima causa, 402
Principles and purposes, Hegel on,
    201-4
"Probable Beginnings of the History
    of Humanity" (Kant), 422-23
"Program for a Formal Theory of
    Society" (Vierkandt), 115-22
Property, 292, 396, 458, 479
Protentio (stretching forward), 492
Prudence, 353
Prussia, 214, 218, 277, 437, 446
Przywara, Erich, 416
Psychic versus social, 94-95, 98, 99,
    104-5
Psychologism, 252
Psychology: of drives, 256; and ego,
    6o; experimental psychology,
    38n8, 86; Kant on, 49-50;
    Kistiakowski on, 91, 98; and Litt,
    128, 137; Simmel on relationship
    of sociology to, 85-90; in United
    States and England, 452-55;
    Vierkandt on, 119. See also
    Consciousness
Psychophysical ego, 45, 46-47, 50,
    58
Psychophysical foundation, 47-5 5
Psychophysical relationship, 37,
    37-38n8, 40-42, 43, 55-56
Psychophysischer-Wechselwirkung-
    zusammenhang
(psychophysical-
    interaction-context), 42
Public weale, 350-51
Pure form ego, 57, 58, 60, 74
Pure theory of law, 185n2, 380, 384
Purity of sin, 160-61
Pythagoras, 88, 89

Rabble. See Masses
Race and State (Voegelin), 2, 7, 8, 9
Ratio, 479
Rationality, 292-93
Rational will, 96
Reason: Hegel on, 383n6; Hobbes
    on law of reason, 392, 393; Kant
    on, 13, 60, 195-96, 423; Reid on,
    453-54
Rechtsverhältnis (legal relationship),
    115-16
Rechtswirklichkeit (reality of law),
    13
Recognition relationship, 115-17
Reden an die deutsche Nation
    (Fichte), 460
Reflection, 248-51, 254-55
Réflexions philosophiques sur
    1'égalité
(Philosophical Reflections
    on Equality; Necker), 303-13
Reformation, 494
Reid, Thomas, 450-55, 458, 473,
    474, 475, 491, 493n2
Relations. See Theory of relations
Relationship norms, 95
Relationships of individuals, 29-32,
    40
Relativity, 65, 122
Religion, 6n17, 218, 364, 461. See
    also
God
Renaissance, 27, 434, 442, 494
Republic (Plato), 166-69, 315-16.
    See also Politeia
Respect, 256
Res plebeia (common weale), 351
Res publica (public weale), 350-51
Retentio (retention, backward
    tension), 492
Revolution, 365, 439. See also
    French revolution
Rickert, Heinrich: on act-experience
210-13; compared with Simmel, 90, 215-16; on cultural science versus natural science, 214-22; on goods, 209, 212-15, 217-19, 221-22; on historical science, 27, 209, 218-19, 222; on ideal, 222-23; on meaning, 211, 215; on nature, 214-15, 220, 221-22; as neo-Kantian, 7; on objects, 210; on philosophy, 210; on science, 109, 208-9, 214-19; on value, 209-23
Riegel, Alois, 415
Right action, 391-92
Rights of humans, 381-82, 387-89,
    388n11, 399-400, 458, 468-69
Roman Catholic Church, 477
Romans, epistle to the, 459
Romanticism, 152, 174, 177, 178
Rome, 297, 356, 457, 467
Rothacker, Erich, 417
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 494
Rulers and ruled: and beliefs of
actors in political life, 464-65; Dostoevsky on, 326-32, 330-31, 335; Elyot on, 352-56, 357, 358; and evil of governance, 314-19, 330-32, 342; La Boétie on, 346-50; magic of, 321-23, 325; material interests of, 272-74, 276; Necker on, 303-13, 325-26, 368-70; Nietzsche on, 320-25; passive resistance by ruled, 347; Plato on, 316, 324; and Plato's Phoenician lie, 315-16, 331; power of, 291-92; and security for ruled, 344, 370; Spann on, 341; Weber on, 270-79; Wolters on, 326, 333-43. See also Command and obedience; Governance
Rules, 85, 97, 98, 217, 464-65
Russell, Bertrand, 452
Russia, 460

Saecula, 232, 237, 483-84, 487-88,
    495
Salvational value, 180
Sameness: of contexts of meaning,
    62-63; of human beings belonging
    to a society, 56-57, 61-63. See also Likemindedness
Sander, Fritz, 116, 416
Scandinavia, 446
Schaffender Geist (creative spirit),
    28-29
Scheler, Max: on anthropology
of spirit, 422; on autonomy, 263-67; on empty spaces, 245; on good and evil, 11, 263-68; on governance, 9, 263-68; on insight into value versus willing of value, 265-67; on obedience, 263-68; on the person, 8, 246-55; philosophical anthropology of, 14; on Thou-evidence, 242
—Work: Man's Place in the Cosmos,
    351, 422
Schelling, Friedrich: on being-in-
itself, 395-96, 396n18, 398; on causality of life, 397, 398, 402; compared with Hobbes, 397-402; ethics of, 398-99; on fear and freedom, 396n18, 398-401, 404, 407-8; importance of, 7; on life, 396-97, 400, 407-8; on nature, 397; on obligation, 398; on power, 396-98; on property, 396; on soul, 200; and theory of law, 12, 395-402; on unity of life, 400
Schiller, Friedrich, 13, 397, 423, 424
Schloss Wetterstein ( Castle
    Wetterstein;
Wedekind), 144,
    150-51, 154, 157-58
Schmitt, Carl, 7, 360-66, 470,
    477-78
Schöpfer, 133
Science: biology, 84-85, 91, 92, 108;
and causality, 109; chemistry, 91, 93-94, 108; electrodynamics, 121-22; Husserl's division of sciences, 22; mechanics, 121-22; optics, 121-22; physics, 22, 81n55, 91, 93-94, 108, 111, 352, 443, 446, 463; physiology, 81n55, 91, 93-94; relationship of cultural sciences and natural sciences, 214-22; relativity of scientific knowledge, 65; Rickert on, 109, 208-9, 214-19; Stephinger on division of sciences, 108-10, 124; theory of relativity, 122. See also Mathematics
Scythians, 432
Security, 344, 370
Selbstgebung (self-giving), 287, 340,
    366
Self-alienated persons. See External
    personality
Self-defense, 390-93, 400, 403-4
Self-formation, 133
Self-knowledge, 355
Self-manifestation, 128-29, 133-35
Self-preservation, 392, 398
Self-reflection, 254-55
Self-responsibility, 254
Self-surrender, 338, 339
Sensuality, 395
Sensus (senses), 229, 498
Sentiments habituels, 305
Service: La Boétie on, 345-50;
    Wolters on, 333-43
Sexuality, 143-46, 150-58, 423
Shand, Alexander, 452
Siéyés, Emmanuel Joseph, 310
Sigwart, Christoph, 32-34, 36
Simmel, Georg: on absolute, 199;
compared with Kistiakowski, 91, 93, l00-101; compared with Litt, 122, 124-25, 128; compared with Rickert, 90, 215-16; compared with Spann, 7, 189-90, 206; compared with von Wiese, 102, 104, 106, 107; on conflict of values, 139n83; on duty, 201; on ego, 206-7; on form and content, 7, 81-83, 86, 87-88, 102, 205-8, 420-21; on freedom, 421-22; on humanity, 80-81; human science approach of generally, 415-16; on immanent transcendence, 7, 187-89, 198-99, 204-8, 419- 21, 426; on individual-society relationship, 90; on interaction, 38n8, 78-80, 83-84, 99, 102, 104, 113; on law, 126; on laws of spiritual worlds, 13, 423; on life, 7, 187-89, 198-201, 204-8, 418-20, 423-24; on love, 169-70; and metaphysics, 127-28, 187-89; on objectifications, 206-8, 424; on organism, 84, 85; and problem of variety of phenomena, 192; on reality as principle of order, 215-16; on relationship between psychology and sociology, 85-90; on sociation, 78, 80-83, 87; on society, 42-43; sociology of, 3, 4, 6-7, 77-90, 101, 102, 115; on supra-individual structure, 87-89
—Works: "Fragment on Love, "
    169-70; Lebensanschauung, 126,
    418
Sinnerfüllung (realizing meaning),
    50-51
Sinnerlebnis (experience of
    meaning), 66
Sinning of pure heart, 160-61
Sinnversenkung (meditation), 67
Sinnzusammenhang (context of
    meaning), 62, 90, 119, 132, 133-34
Slavery, 317-20, 323, 344, 455
Social class. See Class and class
    relations
"Social Determination of
    Sociological Thought" (Voegelin),
    22
Social ego, 29, 43-47, 50, 53, 57
Social instincts, theory of, 119-21
Socialization, 107
Social phenomenon, 26-28, 87-89,
    91, 124
Social psychic process, 94-99, 104-5
Social relationship, 28-29, 35~37, 43,
    55-56, 67-68, 71-72, 128-30. See
    also Spiritual community; Theory
    of relations
Social science: definition of, 110,
    112; laws of, 113; Stephinger on,
    108-15; and value, 109. See also
    Psychology; Sociology
Social sub-systems, 46
Social versus psychic, 94-95, 98, 99
Sociation: and collective unities,
    107; and common bond, 68;
    as deepening and organizing
    meaning, 63-64; and groups, 107;
    and masses, 107; Simmel on, 78,
    80-83, 87; sociated spiritual being,
    29; Spann on, 71-72; von Wiese
    on, 104, 107
Society: assumption on existence
of, 30; bourgeois society, 431; and class relations, 119-20; and community, 131-32; continuation or sameness of, 31; definition of, 30-31, 96-97; differences among societies, 27; estates in Platonic state, 166-69, 175; forest compared with, 32-34, 36, 41; full culture versus diminished society, 176-77; German society, 175-76, 179; human relationships in, 30-32; individual-community relationship, 42-44, 64, 90, 125; and interaction, 34-35; Kistiakowski on, 96-101, 98n62; Litt on, 122-40; membership in, 33; Nietzsche on civil society, 323; organism analogy for, 75; as postulate, 64; and principle of sociological method, 56-57, 61; and psychic states, 92-93; and psychophysical relationship, 37, 37-38n8, 40-42, 43, 55-56; sameness of human beings belonging to a society, 56-57, 61- 63; Simmel on, 42-43; and social ego, 43-47, 53, 57; sovereignty of, 136; and spatial-temporal relation, 32-34; and spiritual awakening, 61-64, 73; and spiritual community, 72-73; and state, 139; Stephinger on, 113; Tönnies on community compared with, 94, 96; Vierkandt's theory of, 115-22; and Wedekind, 141-83; as whole, 42-43, 59
Sociological method, 55-57
Sociology: and absolute world-views,
54-55; and apperception, 37-40; basic forms in, 7, 184-223; of Comte, 21; concepts of value and form in, 22-23; cultural sociology, 14-15; of culture, 441-43; definitions of, 83, 111; and dichotomic concepts, 48, 53-54, 55, 59, 68; different branches to, 19-22; as eidetic science, 123; of Giddings, 455-59, 463; goal and focus of, 64, 77; of Hegel, 21; individual-community relationship, 42-44, 64, 90, 125; and interaction, 34-35; Jaspers on philosophical character of, 3-4; of Kistiakowski, 91-101; of Litt, 22, 122-40; material ontology of, 22; objects of, 78-83, 87-88, 92-93, 112, 113; origins of, as science, 431; postulates in, 64, 67-68; principle of sociological method, 55-57, 61; and psychophysical relationship, 37, 37-38n8, 40-42, 43, 55-56; relationship between psychology and, 85-90; and relationships of individuals, 29-32, 40; of Simmel, 3, 4, 6-7, 77-90, 101, 102, 115; and social phenomenon, 26-28, 87-89, 91, 124; and social problems, 30; and social relationship, 28-29, 35-37, 43, 55-56, 67-68, 128-30; and sociological method, 22; of Spann, 68-69, 104; and spatial-temporal relation, 32-34; of Spencer, 20-21; Stephinger on, 111-14; theoretical versus applied sociology, 123; and theory of relations, 101-22; and theory of social instincts, 119-21; in United States, 455-59; of Vierkandt, 7, 8-9, 115-22; Vierkandt on, 115-16; Voegelin's definition of, 4-5; Voegelin's dissertation in, 2-5, 19-140. See also Governance; specific sociologists
Sociology (Spann), 297-300
Sociology (Vierkandt), 258-59
Sociology of culture, 441-43
Solar system, 32
Solidarité, 463
Solidarity, 114, 137-38
Soll-Reihe (series of imperatives),
    200-201
Somata, 169
So Sein (being thus), 185, 368, 407
Soul: Augustine on, 227-29, 231,
235, 238, 488, 489-90, 495-98; Descartes on, 239; Elyot on, 353; field of history as, 12; and finiteness of human existence, 288; Kant on, 49-50; Plato on, 431-32; and psychology, 91; Schelling on, 200; Vierkandt, 257; von Wiese on, 104-5; and "we consciousness, " 118
Sovereignty: of content, 297-302;
dissolution of theories of, 478; of the people, 301, 468-69; and political existence, 467-68; Schmitt on, 364; of society, 136; Spann on "inner rule" and sovereignty of the factual, 297-302
"Soziale" ("social" aspect), 29
Soziologie (Simmel), 77-90, 106
Soziologischen Grundlagen des
    Völkerrechts, Die
(Huber), 476
Spann, Othmar: and analytical and
ontological levels of thought, 281- 83; and assumption of existence and of objective spirit, 287-88; compared with Simmel, 7, 189-90, 206; on constitution of human existence, 279-81; on duality of individual, 189-90, 192; on ego form, 59-61, 72, 190; on egoicity, 72, 190; on external governance, 323; on idea, 282; on individual's ability, 73-75; influence of, on Voegelin, 2-3, 4; on inspiration, 280-81; on intuition, 281-85, 287, 341; on law of life, 70; and philosophical nature of sociology, 3, 4; on psychophysical ego and social ego, 45, 46-47; on race problem, 2; and relationships of individuals, 40; on rulers, 341; on seeing problem in particular matters of fact, 30; seminars on Plato by, 3, 10; sociology of, 68-69, 104; on sovereignty of content, 297-302, 341; on spiritual community, 4, 22, 68-75, 140; on spiritual nature of human beings, 2-3, 4, 279-81, 287-88; on super-Thou, 281-83; on system of objectifications, 45-46; terminology of, 16; on theory of relations, 104; universalist theory of, 68-69, 74, 75, 119; valid results achieved by, 29-30; and Voegelin's dissertation in sociology, 2; on whole, 44-47, 69-70, 73-74, 299-300
Sparta, 314
Spatial-temporal relation, 32-34
Spencer, Herbert, 20-21, 431
Spengler, Oswald, 14, 169, 441-43
Spirit: animal spirit, 247; communal
spirit, 130; creative spirit, 28-29; definition of, 418; essence of, 426; Freyer on, 420; in German political theory, 417-29; Hegel on, 59, 199; and immanent transcendence of life, 7, 187-89, 198-99, 204-5, 419-20; Kant on, 199; objectification of, 427-28; objective spirit, 130-31, 287-88, 298-300, 312-14, 426; Scheler's anthropology of, 422; Simmel on laws of spiritual worlds, 13, 423
Spiritual awakening, 61-64, 73
Spiritual community: and
apperception, 37-40; definition of, 72; individual-community relationship, 42-44, 64; and interaction, 34-35; Litt on, 122-40; and Simmel's sociology, 3, 4, 6-7, 77-90; and social phenomenon, 26-28; and social relationship, 28-29, 35-37, 43, 55-56, 67-68, 128-30; Spann on, 4, 22, 68-75, 140; and spatial-temporal relation, 32-34; and spiritual awakening, 61-64, 73; and spiritual nature of human beings, 2-3, 4, 47-55; and substance, interaction, and social relationship, 35-37, 55-56
Spiritual ego, 58, 74, 82
Spiritual empire, 333-43
Spiritual relationships among
    individuals, 128-30, 133
Spontaneity, 131, 133, 135-36
Spranger, Eduard, 9, 259-61, 417
Spring's Awakening ( Frühlings-
    erwachen
; Wedekind), 144
Staatslehre (theory of state), 1, 7, 13,
    300
Ständestaat (corporate state), 3, 302
State: Aristotelian-scholastic theory
of, 350; and beliefs of actors in political life, 464-65; and class relations, 117, 117n72; as collective unity, 107; institutional character of, 296; institutional types of, and national types of mind, 446; Kant on, 333; Kelsen on, 115; Laski on, 472-73; and law, 117-18; Litt on relationship between society and, 139; Nietzsche on, 320-21, 323-25; night watchman theory of, 344; Plato on, 166-69, 175, 315-16, 317, 324, 346, 356; and relationships of individuals, 31; Rickert on, 218; Schmitt on, 477-78; Simmel on, as supra-individual structure, 88-89; Stephinger on, 115; Vierkandt on, 117-18, 117nn71-72; Weber on, 359-60; Wundt on, 21. See also Nation; Nation-state
Stein, Lorenz von, 431
Stephinger, Ludwig, 94, 108-15, 124
Stimmung (mood), 406
Subjective time, 493n2
Subjectivity, 289, 492
Subjects: in governance theory,
    290-92; Rickert on, 209-10;
    Schelling on, 399; in theory of
    human existence, 288-90
Subjugation, 136
Subordination, 119-20, 121, 125,
    255-59. See also Command and
    obedience; Rulers and ruled;
Slavery
Substance: and assimilation, 35,
    55-56; definition of, 41-42, 55-56;
    interaction, social relationship,
    and, 35-37, 55-56; as value, 57-59
Substance relationship, 56
Substantiality, 417
Suffering, 390, 401, 404
Summum bonum, 12-13
Summum malum, 12-13
Super-ego, 230, 245, 285, 336, 500
Super-personal existence, 268, 280,
    286, 287, 291, 302, 371-72
Super-Thou, 281-83
Supra-individual structure, 31-32,
    59, 87-89
Synthetic thought, 123
System of objectifications, 45-46

Tabula rasa, 74
Tarde, Jean-Gabriel de, 115
Teilgestalten (sub-systems), 46
Teilinhalte (part-contents), 53
Teilorgane (partial organs), 75
Teleology, 13, 96, 99, 133, 202-4, 423
Tempora, 237, 483-84, 487-88, 495
Tempora et saecula (times and
    centuries), 232, 483-84, 487-88,
    495
Theological state of mind, 433-34
La théorie physique: Son objet et sa
    structure
(Duhem), 443, 446
"Theory of Governance" (Voegelin),
    2, 7-11, 15, 224-372
Theory of human existence, 286-90,
    311
Theory of influences, 179
"Theory of Law" (Voegelin), 7,
    11-13, 373-413
Theory of relations: and actions,
105-7; in Cologne Quarterly Journal of Social Sciences generally, 101-2; definition of relation, 102-3; and groups, 106-7; Spann on, 104; Stephinger on, 108-15; as theory of being, 103-4, 107; Vierkandt on, 115-22; von Wiese on, 102-7
Theory of relativity, 122
Theory of social instincts, 119-21
Theory of two sides, 92, 94, 101
Thinking, 60, 239-44
Thou-evidence, 242
Thought ego, 60
Threat, 370
Tieck, Ludwig, 177-78
Time: Augustine on, 231-35, 483-96,
493n2; dimensions of, 489; and ego, 494; Locke on, 492; objective temporal occurrences of, 489; Plessner on, 368-69; subjective experience of, 489-93; subjective time, 493n2
Tolstoy, Lev, 347, 464
Tönnies, Ferdinand, 94, 96, 111, 115
Totalität (totality), 69
Tragedy, 143-50, 170, 206, 207, 424.
    See also Wedekind, Frank
Traité de la vie élégante (Balzac), 459
Transcendence: Augustine on, 16;
and ground of being, 1, 9, 10; Husserl on, 20, 38-40, 39n11, 248, 249-50, 254-55; Natorp on, 127n80; Simmel on "immanent transcendence," 7, 187-89, 198- 99, 204-8, 419-21, 426; Spann on, 280-81; Wolters on, 341-42
Transcendental knowledge, 196
Transcendental philosophy, 20
Transcendental values, 5-6
Transformation, law of, 178-79
"Treasures" (Hafiz), 159-60
Treatise on Human Nature (Hume),
    240n7
Triebpsychologie (psychology of
    drives), 256
Truth, 191
Two-sided theory, 92, 94, 101
Tyranny, 346, 348-50

Über-Dir (super-Thou), 281
Über-Ich (super-ego), 230, 245, 286,
    500
Über-Welt (superworld), 236
Ultima ratio, 481-82
Unconsciousness, 118, 127n80, 128
Understanding: Elyot on, 352; Litt
    on, 129, 132-35; von Wiese on,
    105-6
United States, 363, 417, 438, 444-45,
    449, 450, 452, 454, 455-59, 460,
    467, 476
Unity within multiplicity, 126-27,
    128, 129
Universalism, 68-69, 72, 74, 75, 119,
    173
Universal phenomena, 57
University of Heidelberg, 3
University of Vienna, 2, 4, 7
Untergang des Abendlandes, Der
    (Spengler), 441-43
Üxküll, Jakob von, 51-53, 54, 84-85,
    170

Validity of command, 272
Validity of governance, 313
Value: concept of, in sociology,
22-23; conflict of values, 138-39, 139n83; as context of meaning, 61-66; as form and content, 222; form-ordered value of Greeks, 169-70; love as transcendental value, 5, 6; Rickert on, 209-23; salvational value, 180; Scheler on insight into value versus willing of value, 265-67; social relationship as, 67-68; and social science, 109; Spranger on, 260; substance as, 57-59; transcendental values, 5-6; vertical and horizontal values of society, 5-6, 166-80, 183
Value ego, 57, 58, 61, 74-75
Value-related or historical method,
    27
Veneration, 337, 338
Verfassungslehre (Schmitt), 477
Vergegenständlichungs-oder
    Objektivikationssysteme

    (objectification systems), 46
Vergemeinschaftung (socialization),
    71
Vergesellschaftet-Sein (sociated-
    being), 80
Vergesellschaftet-Sein des Geistes
    (sociated spiritual being), 29
Vergesellschaftung (sociation),
    71-72
Vertical values, 5-6, 166-74, 176,
    178-80
Via negationis, 227, 244
Vierkandt, Alfred: on command,
258-59; on governance, 255-59; and phenomenology, 123; on power, 115-17, 117nn71-72; on powerful and powerless persons, 256-59; on psychology, 119; on respect, 256; sociology of, 7, 8-9, 115-22; on soul, 257; on state, 117-18, 117nn71-72; and theory of instincts, 256; and theory of relations, 115-22; on "we consciousness, " 118-19
—Works: "Program for a Formal
    Theory of Society, " 115-22;
    Sociology ( Gesellschaftslehre ),
    258-59
Violence. See Physical force
Vita propria, 281
Voegelin, Eric: dissertation of, at
    University of Vienna, 2; Kelsen's
    influence on, 2; Spann's influence
    on, 2-3, 4. See also specific works
Volk, 115
Völkerpsychologie, 21-22, 88
Volksgeist (spirit of the people), 88
Voluntas (will), 501
Von Wiese, Leopold, 102-7, 115, 122
Vorgegebenheit (preexistence), 200
Vor-Sein (pre-being), 283

War, 48-82, 362-63, 366, 390, 439,
    440, 464, 479
Warren, Josiah, 458
Washington, George, 438
Watson, John B., 452
Weber, Max: on administration, 270;
on authoritarian relationships, 293; on charisma, 321, 322; on common substance of state and politics, 359-60, 361; on de facto power, 293; domination defined by, 270-79, 292-93; on governance, 7, 8, 9, 11, 270- 79, 305, 416; and Herrschaft, 11, 11n30; on legitimacy and governance, 278-79; on material interests of rulers and ruled, 272-74, 276; memorial service of, 3-4; on obedience, 270-79, 305; on pathos of death, 368; on personal view of obeying person, 274, 275; power defined by, 292; on rationality, 292-93; on violent social action, 360
Wedekind, Frank: on class and class
relations, 181-82; compared with Hafiz, 159-63, 165-66; compared with Nietzsche, 180-83; eroticism in works by, 151-58; eroticism of death in works by, 157-58; limitations of Voegelin's study of, 141-42; on love and pleasure, 159-63, 171-73; marriage and family in works by, 150-57; on new society, 180-83; positivity of, 164-66; on purity of sin, 160-61; sexuality in works by, 143-46, 150-58; significance of, 142-43; tragedy by, 143-50; on vertical and horizontal values of society, 5-6, 171-72, 179, 183
—Works: Büchse der Pandora
( Pandora's Box ), 149, 154-57; Erdgeist ( Earth Spirit ), 144-50; Fruhlingserwachen ( Spring's Awakening ), 144; Hidalla , 181-83; Mine-Haha, 182; "On the Erotic, " 151-52; Schloss Wetterstein ( Castle Wetterstein ), 144, 150-51, 154, 157-58
"Wedekind: A Contribution to
    the Sociology of Contemporary
    Society" (Voegelin), 5-7, 141-83
Weltanschauung, 55
Werteinsicht (insight into value),
    265-67
Werterscheinung (phenomenon of
    value), 127
Wertganze (value-whole), 262-63,
    277-78
Wertgewissheit (certainty of values),
    260
Wertlehre (doctrine of value), 109
Wertwesen (value essence), 266
Wertwollen (willing of value),
    265-67
Wesen (being, nature), 29, 48, 243,
    244, 370
Wesen an sich (being-in-itself),
    395-96
Wesen der Person (essence of the
    person), 235
Wesenheit (entity), 88
Whole: existence of, 367-68; Husserl
    on, 48-49; Litt on, 132-34, 132n81,
    136-38; relationship between parts
    and, 42-53, 96; Schmitt on, 365-
    66; Spann on, 42-53, 69-70, 73-74,
    299-300
Will: essential will, 96; and freedom
    and necessity, 126; individuality
    of, 399; Kierkegaard on free
    will, 406; Litt on, 125; national
    will, 461; rational will, 96; of
    ruler, 270; to subordination and
    obedience, 255-59; Tonnies on,
    96; universality of, 399
William Lovell (Tieck), 177-78
Wirbewußtsein (we consciousness),
    118-19
Wit, 352-53
Wölfflin, Heinrich, 22, 139, 416
Wolters, Friedrich, 10, 326, 333-43,
    346, 356
World synthesis, 46
Writers, 177-178, 180-81
Wundt, Wilhelm, 21, 41

Zauber (enchantment), 336
Zeiler, Heinrich, 387-88
Zeitgeist, 27
Zola, Émile, 148
Zoology, 108


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