INDEX

VOL 3  THE HISTORY OF THE RACE IDEA
from Ray to Carus

"[The Nazi annexation of Austria] is the reason why this book, which I consider one of my better efforts, has remained practically unknown, though it would be of considerable help in the contemporary, rather dilettantic, debates between evolutionists and anti-evolutionists.
Autobiographical Reflections, Chapter 7, Political Stimuli, p 25.

Adaequatio rei ac intellectus, 12
"Aesthetic state, " 161-63
African tribes, 61
Afterlife, 4-6, 68, 70, 90, 148
Aleutians, 63
American peoples, 63, 76-77, 78, 174
"Analogon of life," 129-30, 149
Anima, 67, 147
Anima immaterialis, 105
Animal functions, 103-106
Animal ipse (animal in itself), 103-105,
     122
Animal species. See Species
Anschauungswelt (concrete
     worldview), 164
Anthropology, 19, 22, 37, 69
Antinomies, critique of, xvi, 14, 127
Arabs, 61
Armenians, 62
Artunterschiede (differences in kind), 64

Baist, Gottfried, 80, 82
Baugesetz (building principle), 143
Beauty, 161-63, 178
Being, 45, 45nl
Belon, Pierre, 56
Bernoulli, Jean, 120, 120n9, 121nl0,
     148
Besonderungen (development of partic-
     ularities), 154
Biblical arguments, of Ray, 41
Bildungstrieb (formative drive), xv, 8-
     9, 123-26 Biology: classification systems in,
     7-8, 31; knowledge about, in seven-
     teenth and eighteenth centuries,
     7-8; history of biological theory, 19,
     20, 22, 24; Linnaeus' axioms of, 29-
     31, 30nn 1-4; contemporary biol-
     ogy, 39. See also Botany; Species;
     Zoology
Black races, 61, 61-62nn9-10, 62-63,
     65, 76-78, 174
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich: race
     classification of, xv, 66, 73-79, 86,
     86n, 174; on formative drive, 8-9,
     123-26; on humans distinguished
     from animals, 8, 74; on organism as
     living substance, 13; on Ray, 35n8; on
     reason, 73-74; on species, 74, 74n3;
     De generis humani varietate nativa
     by, 85-86; use of word race by, 85-85;
     Goethe on, 124-25; Kant on, 125-26
Body: Carus on body-mind unit, xvi,
     169-76; and demon, 10-11; Buffon
     on, 45, 45nl, 122-23, 122-23nnl-2;
     Fichte on body-soul, 69; Herder on,
     69-72; Wolff on, 105-106; Scheler on,
     106; Leibniz on, 107-11, 108nn2-3;
     Oken on, 113; animal's body, 122;
     Humboldt on, 167-68; Schiller on,
     167; and well-born humans, 169.
     See also Internalization of the body
Body-soul, 69
Body-spirit unity, 22, 23, 24, 46, 50
Boerhave, Hermann, 94-95nnl-5, 96
Bontier, Pierre, 56
Bory de St. Vincent, Jean Baptiste Gene-
     vi�ve Marcellin, 174
Botany, 18, 31, 32, 33-34, 34n5, 75
Buffon, Georges Leclerc, comte de:
     race classification of, xv, 50, 57-
     66, 73, 78; on organism as living
     substance, xvi, 12, 13; on aliveness
     of nature, 8; on humans' position in
     system of nature, 8, 44, 45-50, 54-
     55, 57-58, 74; on infinite succes-
     sion, 14, 117-20, 117-19nnl-6;
     Blumenbach on, 35n8; and Kant, 36;
     as Cartesian, 45, 66; on existence
     of one's body, 45, 45n1; on sens in-
     térieur,
45; on the soul, 45-46, 65;
     classification system of, 46-48,
     47n6, 54-55, 70-71; on inner spiri-
     tual human versus outer physical hu-
     man, 46, 46n5, 50; on God, 47, 65; on
     early life versus adult life, 49-50,
     49nl0; significance of, 50; Goethe
     on, 55; Histoire naturelle by, 55, 119-
     20; travel reports in writings of, 55-
     56; on espé ce humaine and its va-
     rié té,
57-58, 58n2, 63-64, 75; on the
     norm and the exotic, 58-60, 63, 65,
     77, 177; on races, 60-61; on differ-
     ences among races, 61-63, 73; on uni-
     fied nature of humans, 63-65; on spe-
     cies and variety, 64, 117-19;
     compared with Herder, 70-71; use of
     word race by, 75; translation of New-
     ton by, 120, 120n8; on inner form,
     122-23, 122-23nnl-2, 124; on pro-
     creation, 123n; on preformation, 125
     Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 10, 171-
     72

Caesar, 17
Cancionero de Baena, 81-82
Cantor's set theory, theory of
     transfinite cardinal numbers,sets
     of sets, 121n10
Cartesian dualism, 12-13, 16, 45, 66,
     67, 69, 105
Carus, Carl Gustav: race theory of, xv,
     xvi, 18, 22, 173-80; on Goethe as
     ideal, xvi, 11-12, 22, 169-73; on hu-
     man as well-born, xvi, 22, 23, 169-
     74, 178; on person as body-mind unit,
     xvi, 169-76; on elite and the masses,
     157; on health and disease, 169-72;
     on energy, 171-72; on reciprocity,
     173-74; on norm, 177; on Greeks,
     179
Caucasian race, 76-77, 174
Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca, xv
Celts, 178
Chardin, Jean, 56
Chinese, 60, 176
Christ, 4, 10, 17
Christianity: and human nature, xii,
     xiii, xiv, 3-6, 9, 65; overthrow of
Christian cosmos, xiii; and the soul,
     4-5, 10, 11, 15, 16, 65, 148; and image
     of nature, 8; and charisma bestowed
     on elected soul, 10; and reason, 10; on
     species, 13; and construction type of
     differential concepts, 15; world view
     of, generally, 18
Circassians, 61, 61 n9, 62
Classification: human place in, 7-8,
     44-53; systematic, 7-8, 31; Linnaean
     system of, 8, 31, 50-53, 54; of Ray,
     32, 33-34, 34nn5-6, 73; of Wil-
     lughby, 32-33; scholastic, 35-38; of
     Buffon, 46-48, 47n6, 54-55, 70-71;
     Herder on, 70-72. See also Race clas-
     sification; Species
Clauss, Ludwig Ferdinand, 174-75, 179
Climate, 62-63
Compagni, Dino, 81
Conception: preformation and epigene-
     sis, 42, 42n20, 93-98, 123-24, 125;
     Darwin's theory of pangenesis, 94,
     123; as borderline case of nourish-
     ment, 101-102
Consciousness, 24
Construction type of differential con-
     cepts, 15
Continuity of forms, 135-37
Continuity principle, 133-37, 144
Continuum: Leibniz on, 133-35; Kant
     on, 135-37
Corpora vegetabilia (vegetal sub-
     stance), 102
Corpus Christi mysticum, xiii
Customs, 62
Cuvier, Georges, 142

Daimonion, xvi
Dämmerungsvölker (twilight peoples),
     174
Danes, 59
Darleben (spirit), 172
Darwin, Charles, 19, 20, 94-95, 123n2,
     142
Darwinism, xvi, 20, 29
Death, 68, 70, 108n3, 111-12, 151
Demonic, xvi, 10-12, 16, 22-23, 161,
     164
Denkbilder (images of thought), xiii,
     xiv
Descartes, René, 45, 54, 95, 95-96n6.
     See also Cartesian dualism
Descent of species, 22, 141-42, 143
Diet, 62
Diez, Friedrich Christian, 80, 81
Differentia essentialis, 35
Differentia specifica, 33, 35, 52, 53nl5,
     74
Differential concepts, 15
Disease, 169-72
Division of labor, 155-57
Doppelgänger und Vielfachgänger (dou-
     bles and clones), 23
Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne, 80, 81-82
Dualism. See Cartesian dualism

Egg cells, 93-98, 101
Elite, the, 157-58, 177
Embryos, 93-100
Encapsulation theory, 94, 116, 120
Energy, 171-72
Engelmann, Willem Herman, 80, 81-82
Engels, Friedrich, 17
Enlightenment, 90
Entéléchie dominante, 113
Epigenesis, 95-99, 123-24, 125
Erdenhaftigkeit (human existence in
     earthly character), 10
Erdflüchtig (oriented away from earthly
     life), 90
Eskimos, 59
Essence of life form, 35, 38-41,
     38nnl3-14, 73, 76
Essential force, 124
Ethiopian race, 60-61, 76-77, 174
Ethnography, 18
Eugenics, xvi, 23
Europeans: Linnaeus on Homo euro-
     paeus,
50-53, 53nl5; physical traits
     of Gothi, 53nl5; Buffon on, as the
     norm, 58, 60, 62, 65, 77; Carus on,
     174, 177, 178-79
Eve, 116
Evolution, xvi, 14, 19-20, 31, 94, 142-
     44
Exegeses of experiences, xiv
Exoticism, 58-60

Factual order of series: Herder on, 137-
     40; Kant on, 140-42
Feingestimmt (soul of sensitive mood),
     163
Fetus, 95, 101
Fichte, I. H., 67, 69, 89, 103nl5
Finiteness of existence, xvi, 115-21,
     151-55, 165-67
Fixity of species, 44, 115-16, 135, 138,
     142, 143
Formative drive, xv, 8-9, 123-26, 130
Fragmentation of modern humans,
     155-57
Franklin, Benjamin, 74
Frederick the Great, 9, 165

Garden of Eden, 52, 52n 13
Geistige Dinge (matters of the mind),
     25
Gene structure, 39
Generatio heteronyma, 144
Generationis leges (laws of generation),
     100
Genetics, 20-21, 30, 75-76
Genio vagante del conte Aurelio degli
     Anzi,
56
Genius, xvi
Gens (people), 85-86
Genus proximum, 31, 33
George, Stefan, 23, 158
Georgians, 62
Germanic people, 178
Gesamtwesens (total being), 72
Geschlecht (whole race), 148
Girtanner, Christoph, 32n2, 74-75
God: Linnaeus on, 29-31, 30nn 1-4, 41,
     52, 115, 117, 119; Ray on, 41, 42nl8,
     44, 93; Buffon on, 47, 65; Haller on,
     97; as transcendent authority, 97-98,
     132; Leibniz on, 108-109, 134; Oken
     on, 112; Kant on, 151-52
     Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von: as ideal,
     xv, 9, 11-12, 160-64, 165, 167, 169-
     73, 178; Carus' appraisal of, xvi, 11-
     12, 22, 169-73; on the demonic, 10-
     12; hundredth anniversary of birth
     of, 18, 173; on most intimate com-
     pany, 23, 163; on osteology, 40, 40-
     41 n 16; on Buffon, 55; use of word
     race by, 84; on Blumenbach's forma-
     tive drive, 124-26; on transcendent
     factual order of series, 137-40, 144;
     and Herder, 139n16; and theory of
     the "type, " 139nl6; Schiller on, 160-
     64, 160n4; Greek spirit of, 161-62; op-
     position to, 171
Gothi, 53n15
Graafian follicle, 113
Greeks, 62, 166-62, 178, 179
Greenlanders, 59
Günther, Hans, 51, 175, 179

Haller, Albrecht von, 93-97, 96-
     97nn7-9, 99, 100
Hamann, Johann Georg, xvi
Happiness, 149, 154, 177
Harvey, William, 69
Health, 169-72
Heaven, 4-6. See also Afterlife
Henry III, King, 81
Herder, Johann Gottfried von: race clas-
     sification of, xv, 66-72, 77, 78, 139-
     40, 177; on classification of humans,
     8, 70-72; significance of, 22; com-
     pared with Kant, 67-68; lack of appre-
     ciation for, 67; on reason, 67-68, 70;
     on death and afterlife, 68, 70, 90; on
     meaningfulness of earthly life, 68-
     69; on human body and soul, 69-70,
     89-90, 140, 177; on "vital organic
     force, " 69, 98; compared with Buffon,
     70-71; Ideen by, 70, 84, 89, 174; on
     humans as unified whole, 70-72; on
     nation, 71; on spirit, 71-72; avoid-
     ance of word race by, 75, 84, 177;
     Kant's critique of, 89, 140-41; on hu-
     mans as "intermediate creatures,"
     89-90, 139-40, 177; on unified form,
     89, 174; on the state, 130n3; on tran-
     scendent factual order of series, 137-
     40, 144; on species, 138-39; and
     Goethe, 139nl6
Heredity, 20-21, 37, 75-76
Historical community, 24-25
History: of ideas, 17; and the present,
     18-25
H�lderlin, Friedrich, 156-57
Holiness, 149
Homo europaeus, 50-53, 53nl5
Homo politicus, 11
Homogeneity principle, 135
Hottentots, 63
Hudde, Johan, 133
Hugon, Jean, 56
Human beings: Christian image of, xii,
     xiii, 3-6, 9, 65; post-Christian or pa-
     gan image of, xii-xiii, xiv, xvi, 3-12,
     16; primal image of, xiv, xvi, 3-12; as
     one species, xv, 64, 78; Carus on well-
     born, xvi, 22, 23, 169-74, 178; and fi-
     niteness of existence, xvi, 151-55,
     165-67; Voegelin on explanations of,
     xvii; inauthentic existence of, in
     Christian paradigm, 4; Thomas a
     Kempis on, 4-5; Kant on nature of,
     5-6, 11, 15, 16, 37-38, 67, 149-55,
     159, 178; place of, in classification
     system, 7-8, 70-72; Humboldt on na-
     ture of, 11; finite image of, 16; Schil-
     ler on sensory-rational nature of, 16;
     thought images of, 16; body-spirit
     unity of, 22, 23, 24, 46, 50, 172; lib-
     eral ahistorical notion of, as equal ex-
     emplars of species, 23-24; Plato on,
     23; and historical community, 24-
     25; uniqueness of, 37-38, 177-78; dis-
     tinguished from animals, 46-48,
     46n3, 48n8; speech of, 51nl2; unified
     nature of, 63-65; as "tool-making an-
     imals," 74; Herder on, as "intermedi-
     ate creature," 89-90, 139-40, 177;
     and singularity of the person, 140;
     Kant on animal existence of, 152-53;
     fragmentation of modern, 155-57; so-
     ciability of, 155, 166; Schiller on
     great personality, 159-64; individual
     as "representative" of humanity,
     162-63; individuality as spiritual
     force, 164-68. See also Body; Inter-
     nalization of the body; Internaliza-
     tion of the person; Soul; Spirit
     Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 11, 164-68

"Ideal types, " 39-40, 40-41n16
Images of thought. See Thought images
Imitation of Christ (Thomas a Kempis),
     4-5, 17
Immanence, xv-xvi, 97-98, 115-16,
     134, 135-40, 138, 140-43
Immaterial soul, 104, 105, 106
Immortality. See Infinity
Indian tribes, 63, 174. See also Ameri-
     can peoples
Individuality: Carus on, xvi, 22, 23,
     169-74, 178; Humboldt on, 164-68
Inextensive diversity, 39
Infinity: "infinity speculation, " xv-xvi;
     Leibniz on mathematical question
     of, xvi, 14, 120-21, 120-21nn9-10,
     148; Buffon on infinite succession,
     14, 117-20, 117-19nn 1-6; versus fi-
     nite concept of organism, 16; in
     mathematics generally, 121nl0; Kant
     on immortality of person, 149-53
Inner form, 122-23, 122-23nnl-2, 124
Interfertility, 35, 36, 74
Internalization of the body: and new
     concept of organism, xv-xvi; over-
     view of, xv-xvi, 147; Kant on, 9, 135-
     37, 140-44; preformation and epigen-
     esis, 42, 42n20, 93-98, 123-24, 125;
     Wolff on, 99-106; Leibniz on, 107-11,
     120-21, 133-35; reinterpretation of
     mechanism as organism, 107-14;
     Oken on, 111-14; infinite series and
     finitization, 115-21; Buffon on infi-
     nite succession, 117-20; Buffon on in-
     ner form, 122-23, 122-23nnl-2, 124;
     Blumenbach on formative drive,
     123-26; and organic forms, 131-44;
     Goethe on transcendent factual order
     of series, 137-40; Herder on transcen-
     dent factual order of series, 137-40
Internalization of the person: overview
     of, xv, xvi, 147; Carus on well-born
     human being, xvi, 22, 23, 169-74,
     178; finiteness of existence, xvi, 151-
     55, 165-67; Goethe as ideal of, 9, 11-
     12, 159-63, 164, 167, 169-73, 178;
     ideal realization of, in great figures, 9;
     and the demonic, 10-12, 16, 22-23,
     161, 164; construction type of differ-
     ential concepts, 15; unified form, 15-
     16, 89; immortality of the person and
     perfection of generic reason, 147-53;
     specialization by division of labor,
     155-57; elite and the masses, 157-
     58, 177; Humboldt's concept of indi-
     viduality, 164-68
Isolating type, 73, 89-90

Jacobi, Friedrich, 130
Jesus. See Christ
John I, King, 81
John II of Castile, 81

Kaffirs, 61, 61n9
Kant, Immanuel: race theory of, xv, 64,
     66-67, 73-79; critique of antinomies
     by, xvi, 14, 127; on evolution, xvi,
     142-44; and half-Christian image of
     humans, 5-6, 11, 18; on human na-
     ture, 5-6, 11, 15, 16, 18, 37-38, 67,
     149-55, 159, 178; on kingdom of
     heaven, 6; and human beings in clas-
     sification systems, 8; Critique of
     Judgment by, 9, 19, 127-30, 141, 144;
     on Frederick the Great, 9, 165; on in-
     ternalization of the body, 9; on life as
     primary phenomenon, 9, 19, 142-44;
     on reason, 9, 11, 67, 73-74, 127, 160;
     on organism, 13, 127-30, 149; on im-
     manent evolution of living world, 14;
     on sensory nature and rational sub-
     stance of humans, 15, 67; on descent
     of species, 22, 141-42; significance
     of, 22; and scholastic system, 33, 35-
     38, 75; on essence of life form, 35, 73;
     on species, 35-38; on bodily singular-
     ity of each person, 37-38; on physiog-
     nomical uniqueness of human face,
     37-38; on travelogues, 54, 54nl; com-
     pared with Buffon, 64; compared
     with Herder, 67-68; on meaning-
     lessness of earthly existence, 68; and
     Ray, 73; and justification for use of
     word race, 75, 75n5; on phylum and
     type, 75-76, 77; critique of Herder by,
     89, 140-41; on formative drive, 125-
     16, on preformation theory, 125; Cri-
     tique of Pure Reason
by, 127; on natu-
     ral purpose, 128-29; on organic, 128;
     on the soul, 129; on continuity of
     forms, 135-37; on diversity of living
     forms under regulative idea of contin-
     uum, 135-37; compared with Leib-
     niz, 136; on immanent factual order
     of series, 140-42; on happiness, 149,
     154; on holiness, 149; on immortal-
     reason, 149-53, 158; on finiteness of
     existence, 151-55, 165-66; on God,
     151-52; Idee zu einer allgemeinen
     Geschichte in weltb�rgerlicher An-
     sicht
by, 152; on animal existence of
     humans, 152-53; compared with
     Schiller, 158; on laws and ruler, 159;
     on nature, 162; on cosmopolitan com-
     munity, 163; on the state, 163
     Kant-Laplace universal formula, 133
Karl August, Grand Duke, 9, 10
Kaufmann, Felix, 121nl0
Keims�fte (germ fluids), 95
Klages, Ludwig, 171, 175
Klemm, Gustav, 174
Kollektiva (collectives), 57
K�rper (body), 103nl5
Korting, Gustav, 80, 81

La Bruy�re, Jean de, 155
La Rochefoucauld, Fran�ois de, 155
Language, 167-68
Laplanders, 58-59, 60, 62-63
Lassalle, Ferdinand, 157
Le Gentil de la Galaisi�re, Guillaume
     Joseph Hyacinthe Jean Baptiste, 56
Lebensdichte (intensity of life), 10
Lebensneid (life envy), 171
Lehre (theory), 177
Leib (pneumatic living body), 103nl5
Leibartung (nature and character of the
     human body), 98
Leibfremd (not part of the body), 137
Leibjenseitig (transcending the body),
     136, 141
Leiblich-geistig (physical-spiritual),
     147
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm: on organ-
     ism as mechanism, xv, 13, 107-11,
     113, 114, 122, 129; on infinity, xvi,
     14, 120-21, 120-21nn9-10, 148; on
     evolution, 14; significance of, 22; on
     monadic entelechy, 107-11; on God,
     108-109, 134; and continuity princi-
     ple, 133-35, 136, 144; on diversity of
     living forms as real continuum of rea-
     son, 133-35, 136, 144; Kant on, 136
Lenz, Fritz, 175, 179
Leopold, Emperor, 56
Lery, Jean de, 56
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 148-49,
     152
Liberalism, 23-24
Linnaeus, Carolus: compared with Ray,
     xiv; on humans' position in system of
     nature, 8, 44, 50-53, 55, 74; and sys-
     tematic classification in botany, 8,
     31, 36, 54; on God, 29-31, 30nn 1-4,
     41, 52, 115, 117, 119; on species, 29-
     32, 41, 42, 115, 117, 119, 138, 143;
     Regna III Naturae by, 29; on Ray and
     Willughby, 32n2; Systema Naturae
     by, 32n2, 55; on Homo europaeus,
     50-53; on reason in humans, 51,
     51n12; on speech in humans, 51n12;
     on Paradise, 52, 52nl3
"Literatoren" ("literators"), 171

Macbeth (Shakespeare), 84-85
Machine. See Mechanism
Machine artificielle, 109-10, 110n
Machine divine, 109, 110n, 114, 122,
     129
Malaysian race, 76-77, 174
Mandelslo, Johann Albrecht, 56
Mandeville, Bernard, 155
Marxism, xvii, 23
Masses, the, 157-58, 177
Mathematics: and question of infinity,
     120-21, 120-21nn9-10, 148; conti-
     nuity principle in, 133; Kant-Laplace
     universal formula, 133
Matter, Buffon on, 45
Mechanism: organism as, 13, 15, 102-
     103, 103nl5, 107-14, 122, 129; defi-
     nition of, 109-10; machine artifi-
     cielle,
109-10, 110n; machine divine,
     109, 110n, 114, 122, 129
Mendelian laws, 76
Menscheitst�mme (various human
     races), 173
Mensch-Sein (supreme human being),
     161
Metaphysicum, 136
Meyer-L�bke, W., 80, 81, 82
Mind, xvi, 169-76, 177
Mingrelians, 62
Monadic entelechy, 107-11
Mongolian race, 76-77, 78, 86, 174
Monogenesis, Ray on, 41-42
Moors, 61
M�ser, Justus, 40-41n16
Moule int�rieur (inner form), 122-23,
     123n
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 10
Muscovites, 60
Mutations, 36, 37

Napoleon, 9, 10, 11
Nation, 71
National Socialism, xi, xii, xvii
Natural history, 75-76, 77
Natural purpose, 128-29
Natural system, 32-38, 73
Nature: and classification systems, 7-
     8; knowledge about, in seventeenth
     and eighteenth centuries, 7-8; Buffon
     on human's position in, 8, 44, 45-50,
     54-55, 57-58, 74; Christian image of,
     8; Linnaeus on human's position in,
     8, 44, 50-53, 55, 74; primary force
     within, 8; Romantic philosophy of,
     111; Kant on, 162; Schiller on, 162
Naturzwecke (natural purposes), 128
Negroes. See Black races
Neo-Latin nations, 178
New Aristocracy, 158
Newton, Sir Isaac, 120, 120n8
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 158, 170-71
Nisus formativus (drive), 124-25
Nordic people, 22, 50, 178, 179
Norm: Buffon on Europeans as, 58, 60,
     62, 65, 77, 177; Cams on, 177
Notae characteristicae, 33-34
Nourishment, 100-102
Nouvelle relation du Levant, 56
Nuances, 61, 61-62n 10

Oken, Lorenz, 111-14
Order of series. See Factual order of
     series
Organic forms: Buffon on, xvi, 123;
     Wolff on "inorganic" vegetal sub-
     stance, 102-103; Oken on, 111-14;
     Kant on, generally, 128; unfolding of
     world of organic forms, 131-44; Leib-
     niz on diversity of living forms as
     real continuum of reason, 133-35;
     Kant on diversity of living forms un-
     der regulative idea of continuum,
     135-37; Goethe on transcendent fac-
     tual order of series, 137-40; Herder
     on transcendent factual order of se-
     ries, 137-40; Kant on immanent fac-
     tual order of series, 140-42; Kant on
     life as primary phenomenon, 142-44
Organism: and infinity speculation,
     xv-xvi, 16; Leibniz on, xv, 107-11,
     113, 114, 122, 129; new concept of, as
     intemalization of the body, xv-xvi,
     13, 16; Wolff's theory of, xv, 13, 99-
     106; Cartesian worldview of, 12-13;
     Kant on, 13, 127-30, 149; as mecha-
     nism, 13, 15, 102-103, 103nl5, 107-
     14, 122, 129; creation of, as thought
     image, 19; problematic of, 19; em-
     bryo of, 93-100; plant organisms,
     100-103, 105; mechanistic versus an-
     imalistic functions, 103-105; Oken
     on, 111-14
Osteology, 40, 40-41n16
Ostyaks, 59
Ovington, John, 56

Palafoxy Mendoza, Juan de, 56
Pangenesis, 94, 123
Paradise, 52, 52n 13
Pelasgian people, 178
Perfection, 147-55, 158, 160-63
Persian people, 178
Person. See Intemalization of the
     person
Peter the Great, 10
Phenotype, 39
Phenotypical habitus, 35
Philosophy: changing goals of, xii, 5;
     criteria for evaluation of, 12
Phylum, 36, 37, 75, 76, 77
Physiology, 97
Physis, xvii
Pigafetta, Antonio, 56
Plant animals, 133-34
Plant organisms, 100-103, 105
Plato, 17, 23
Pneuma, 4
Polo, Marco, 56
Polygenesis, Ray on, 41-42
Preformation, 42, 42n20, 93-99, 117,
     120, 121nl0, 125
Primal experiences, xiv
Primal images: definition of, xiii-xiv;
     of human beings, xiv, xvi, 3-12; of
     the demonic, 10-12, 16, 22-23, 161,
     164; development and defense of, 16-
     17; embodiment of, in persons, 17;
     function of, and society, 17; relation-
     ship of, to thought images, 17-18; de-
     cline of, 21-25
Primal way of See ing, xiv, 3, 12, 16, 21-
     22, 24
Primary phenomenon, 8, 9, 19, 20, 22,
     142-44
Principium generationis (principle of
     generation), 100
Procreation, 43, 43n21, 93-98, 101-
     102, 123n, 125
Progenies classifica, 77
Protozoa, 111-12
Pyrard, Fran�ois, 56


Race and State (Voegelin), xi, xiii, 18,
     36nl0, 46n4, 72nl0
Race as word: Buffon's use of, 75; Herd-
     er's avoidance of, 75, 84, 177; Kant's
     use of, 75, 75n5; Ray's use of, 75, 83;
     history of, 80-86; origin of, 80-82,
     82n 16; early meanings of, 83-85;
     coarse, slangy character of, 84-85;
     Goethe's use of, 84; Blumenbach's
     use of, 85-85
Race classification: of Blumenbach, xv,
     66, 73-79, 86, 86n174; of Buffon, xv,
     50, 57-66, 73, 78; of Herder, xv, 66-
     72, 77, 78, 139-40, 177; of Kant, xv,
     64, 66-67, 73-79; of Homo euro-
     paeus,
53; in Sweden in eighteenth
     century, 53nl5; and travelogues, 57;
     of Carus, 174-80
Race theories: Voegelin's criticism of
     contemporary theory, xi, xvi-xvii,
     19-25; of Blumenbach, xv, 66, 73-79,
     86, 86n, of Buffon, xv, 50, 57-66, 73,
     78; of Carus, xv, xvi, 18, 22, 173-80;
     of Herder, xv, 66-72, 77, 78, 139-40,
     177; and human beings as one spe-
     cies, xv, 64, 78; of Kant, xv, 64, 66-67,
     73-79; Voegelin's selection of mate-
     rials on, 18-19; and liberalism and
     Marxism, 23-24; difficulties in un-
     derstanding history of, 25; Voegelin's
     purpose in history of, 25; of Clauss,
     174-75
Races, as variations within phyla, 36
Racine, Jean, 83
R�dl, Emanuel, 32n2, 42n20, 103nl5
Ratio, 67, 132, 136
Ray, John: importance of, xiv, xv, 7,
     32n2, 35n8, 54; and natural system,
     32-38, 73; on species, 32-35, 35n8,
     41-43, 114; classification system
     of, 33-34, 34nn5-6, 73; Methodus
     Plantarum
by, 34-35; on essence of
     life form, 35, 38-41, 38nnl3-14, 73,
     76; on interfertility, 35, 36, 74; on
     phenotypical habitus, 35; on "typi-
     cal" versus "inessential" traits, 39-
     40, 39-40n 15; biblical arguments of,
     41; on God, 41, 42n18, 44, 93; ques-
     tions on species posed by, 41-43, 44;
     Three Physico-Theological Dis-
     courses
by, 41-43, 42-43nn 17-21,
     83; on creation of new species in mod-
     ern times, 42, 42nl8; on preforma-
     tion, 42, 42n20, 93; on procreation,
     43, 43n21; and Kant, 73; use of word
     race by, 75, 83
Reaktionsnorm (reaction norm), 39
Realgrund (real cause), 116
Reason: and internalization of the per-
     son, xvi; Kant on, 9, 11, 67, 73-74,
     127, 149-53, 160; Christian hue of,
     10; Linnaeus on, 51, 51n 12; Herder
     on, 67-68, 70; Blumenbach on, 73-
     74; Leibniz on diversity of living
     forms as real continuum of, 133-35.
     See also Internalization of the person
Reciprocity, 173-74
Regelhaftigkeit (habitual regularity), 53
Regitur ritibus (spirit), 53
Rikkert, Heinrich, 39
Romantic era, 111, 112-13
Ronsard, Pierre de, 83
Rudolphi, Karl Asmund, 174
Russians, 59

Sacchetti, Franco, 81
Sachhaltig (factual principle), 137
Samoyeds, 59
Sarx (body), 4
Scheler, Max, 69, 70, 106, 166
Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
     von, 125
Schemann, Ludwig, 82nl6
Schiller, Friedrich von: on nature of
     sensory-rational human, xvi, 10; on
     history of humankind, 11; on chosen
     circle, 23, 163, 164, 178; use of word
     race by, in translation of Macbeth,
     84-85; on fragmentation of modern
     humans, 155-56; on elite and the
     masses, 157-58, 177; compared with
     Kant, 158; on perfection of individu-
     als, 158; Letters on the Aesthetic Edu-
     cation of Man
by, 160-63; on Goethe
     as ideal, 160-64, 160n4; on beautiful
     life, 161-63, 178; on nature, 162; on
     body, 167
Schlag (type), 75-76
Scholastic system, 33, 35-38, 75
Seelenlage (spiritual condition), 171
Semitic people, 178
Sens int�rieur, 45
Series order. See Factual order of series
Shakespeare, William, 10
Simmel, Georg, 39
Sinnerf�llung (fulfillment), 150-51,
     160
Skeat, Walter William, 83
Smith, Adam, 155
Sociability of humans, 155, 166
Society, 155, 173
Solidescibilitas (nourishing sap), 99-
     101
Soma, 140
Soul: Carus on body-mind unit, xvi,
     169-76; Christian image of, 4-5, 10,
     11, 65, 148; thought images of, 15, 16;
     Buffon on, 45-46, 65; and race theo-
     ries generally, 66; Fichte's idea of
     body-soul, 69; Herder on, 69-70;
     Wolff on immaterial soul, 104, 105-
     106; Leibniz on, 107-11, 108nn2-3;
     Kant on, 129, 149-53; Lessing on in-
     finite migration of individual imma-
     terial soul, 148-49. See also Spirit
Specialization by division of labor,
     155-57
Species: human beings as one, xv, 64,
     78; Christian view of, 13; and struc-
     tural law of substance, 13-14; cre-
     ation of, as thought image, 19; prob-
     lematic of, 19; descent of, 22, 141-42,
     143; Kant on, 22, 35-38, 141-42; Lin-
     naeus on, 29-32, 41, 42, 115, 117,
     119, 138, 143; Ray on, 32-35, 35n8,
     41-43, 114; Woltereck on, 36-37;
     fixity of, 44, 115-16, 135, 138, 142,
     143; Buffon on, 64, 117-19; Blumen-
     bach on, 74, 74n3; Herder on, 138-39;
     ascending order of animal species,
     140
Specification principle, 135
Speculation on infinity. See Infinity
Spenser, Edmund, 83
Sperm, 101, 113
Spirit: body-spirit unity, 22, 23, 24, 46,
     50, 172-74; Buffon on, 46, 46n5, 50;
     Herder on, 71-72; Humboldt on indi-
     viduality as spiritual force, 164-68.
     See also Soul
Stahl, Georg Ernst, 107
Stamm (line), 169
State, 130, 130n3, 163
Structural law of substance, 13-14
Struys, Jean, 56
Subintellegiert (not seen), 136

Substantia vegetans, 100
Swammerdam, Jan, 93-94, 94nl
Swedes, 59
Symbolization, xiv
Systematic classification, 7-8, 31. See
     also
Classification

Tatars, 59, 60, 61, 61n9
Telos, 110
Theories, 19-21, 24. See also Biology;
     Evolution; Organism; Race theories;
     Species
Th�venot, Jean de, 56
Thinking and being, 45, 45n1
Thomas a Kempis, 4-5
Thought images, xiii, xiv, xvi; of hu-
     mans, 12, 16; of organism, 12-13, 16;
     of species, 13-14; of evolution, 14;
     and construction type of differential
     concepts, 15; of the soul, 15, 16; and
     unified form, 15-16, 89; construc-
     tions of, 16; relationship of, to primal
     images, 17-18; decline of, 22-25; of
     material realm of being, 22
Titian, 161
Transcendence, xv-xvi, 97-98, 115-16,
     134, 135-40, 138, 140-43
Travelogues, 54-57, 54nl
Trieb (drives), 151
Truth, 12
Turks, 62
Type ( Schlag ), 75-76

Uneigentlich (inauthentic), 4
Ungef�hr (chance), 152
Unified form, 15-16, 89, 174
Unified nature of humans, 63-65
Uniqueness of human beings, 37-38,
     177-78
Univoca, 144
Urbilder (primal images), xiii-xiv, 3-12
Urgeistig (primordially spiritual), 170
Urweise des Sehens (primal way of
     Seeing), 3

Vacher de Lapouge, Georges, 50-51
Varietas, 85-86
Varignon, Pierre, 133
Verinnerlichung. See Internalization of
     the body; Internalization of the
     person
Verlebendigung (vitalization of mat-
     ter), 147
Verrier, Jean le, 56
Verschachtelung (interlocking), 17
Versinnlichung (making sensory), 147
Villamont, Jacques de, 56
Vis corporis qua illa formatio praesta-
     tur
(power of the body), 100
Vis essentialis, 99-101, 102-103,
     105
Vis motrix, 102, 105
Vor-Leben (model), 17

Weber, Max, 39
Well-born human being, xvi, 22, 23,
     169-74, 178
Weltganzes (whole universe), 149
Weltgehalt (world contents), 18
Welthaltung (world attitude), 18
Weltzusammenhanges (continuity of
     whole universe), 134
Wesensf�lle (complete essence), 169
Wesenskraft (essential force), 124
White races, 61-63, 61-62nn9-10, 65,
     76-78, 174, 177, 178-79
Willk�r (capriciousness), 161
Willk�r (volition), 151
Willughby, Francis, 32-33, 32-33nn2-
     4, 54
Wilson, Alan, xv
Wohlgestalt (body form and shapeli-
     ness), 62
Wolff, Caspar Friedrich: organism the-
     ory of, xv, 13, 99-106; on primary phe-
     nomenon of nature, 8; Theoria Gene-
     rationis
by, 13, 99-107; significance
     of, 22, 103nl5, 105-107; as influence
     on Herder, 69; on vis essentialis and
     solidescibilitas, 99-101; on concep-
     tion as borderline case of nourish-
     ment, 101-102; on "inorganic" vege-
     tal substance, 102-103; on organism
     as mechanism, 102-103, 103nl5; on
     mechanistic and animalistic func-
     tions of, 103-106; on essential force,
     124
Wolff, Christian, xv
Woltereck, Heinz, 36-37, 39

Zeichenkraft (symbolic force), 9
Zerfallen (fragmented), 158
Zerrissenheit (fragmentation), 157
Zoology, 7-8, 18, 32, 75
Zoophytes, 133-34

BACK TO TOP
BACK TO BIBLIOGRAPHY
BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOEGELIN MAIN PAGE
NEXT INDEX

-->