INDEX

VOL 27 —THE NATURE OF THE LAW

and Related Legal Writings


Action: science of, 73
Agathon: transcendent being, 77;
    methexis in, 79; Plato's inability to
    define, 79
Aidos, 62
Aletheia, 80
Alexander, 85
Analysis: Voegelin's relentlessness in,
xv; philosophical questions must
arise from, 6; analytical legitimacy
and truth distinguished, 7-8; pre-
analytical experiences in relation
to, 9; must precede definition, 11;
classification of phenomena not
analysis, 58
Analytical jurisprudence: Voegelin's
    works on, ix; John Austin, law as
    command of sovereign, 109; Cairns's
    denial his theory same as Austin's,
    96
Analytical legitimacy, 7-8
Anthropological civilizations, 76, 77
Aquinas, Thomas: social crisis prompt-
    ing reflections on law, xix, 108;
    rationality of system, 78; duplex
    veritas in Contra Gentiles, 105
Aristocracy, 60
Aristotle: no philosophy of law, 6; law
calculated to achieve good order, 26;
identity of polis after constitutional
change, 33; status of citizens in po-
lis, 34; polis defined, 41; differing
analyses of polis, 41; bios theoreti-
kos,
41, 57; forms of government,
42, 60; spoudaios as measure of
order, 63; ethics as science of order
in soul, 80; natural justice, 81; rec-
ommendations for action, 82
Articles of confederation, 36
Augustine, 71, 85, 108
Aurelius, Marcus, 71
Austin, John, 46, 56
Authority: normative sources, 68; fu-
    sion of normative authority and
    power, 68
Axis time of mankind, 76

Beatific vision, 78
Bergson, Henri, 76
Bios theoretikos: criterion for civil
    order, 41, 57; relation to happiness,
    74; relation to mature man, 74, 81,
    82; relation to full unfolding of per-
    sonality, 74, 81, 82
Bodenheimer, Edgar, 91-94
Bodin, Jean: authority of sovereign, 27;
    substance of order according to, 27;
    sources of norms for law, 27, 31

Cairns, Huntington: reply to Voege-
lin's criticism, xxiv; his Theory of
Legal Science
reviewed, 95-112; al-
leges a legal science does not yet
exist, 95; critique of Austinian and
sociological jurisprudence, 96; his
exaggeration of field of legal science,
97; orientation toward modern state,
97; elements of his proposed legal
science, 97; his assimilation of legal
science to natural science, 100; fail-
ure to recognize philosophical an-
thropology, 101; his idea of man,
104, 105, 108, 111; use of Gibbon,
105; envisions ethics as a natural
science, 106; unconcern with legal
technology, 106; his principle of di-
vision of labor criticized, 106, 107;
his will to overcome disorder, 108;
his unconcern with past learning,
109; as symptom of current disorder,
112
Calculus of error, 60
Cartesian philosophy, 109
Censorship, 75-76
Christian and classical bases for legal
    and political theory, xxi-xxü
Christian civilization's division of au-
    thority, 78
Christianity: spiritual singularity of
    man, 104; spirituality annihilated by
    Cairns, in
Church and Empire, 27
Church-states: immanentist, 72
Cicero, 85
Civilizations: classified, 76-77
Classical and Christian bases for legal
    and political theory, xxi-xxü
Codex Justinianus, 85
Communication: conditions and prin-
    ciples, 74-76
Comparisons of legal orders, 11
Complex of order: 29-38; tension
    between existential order and law-
    making process, 30; tension between
    social order and true substantive
    order, 30
Confucius, 81
Constitution: U. S., 37
Constitutional law: source of proce-
dural rules for lawmaking, 30; no
higher positive rules on lawmaking,
31; validity based on extralegal
sources, 31; posited hypothetical
higher norm, 31; relation to power
structure in society, 32; adaptation
to changing conditions, 32; octroi
constitutions, 35; limits of amend-
ment, 36; change in America, 1776-
89, P. 37
Constitutions: role of, 20
Consubstantiality, xx, 79
Contemplative life: 41, 57, 74; as high-
    est good, 74
Contemporary legal theory: confusion
    in, 8
Contract theory of society: 82-83;
    distinguished from social instinct
    theory, 83
Contra Gentiles, Summa, 105
Cosmological civilizations, 76, 77, 81
Creative imagination, 110
Creed: official American, 57
Crisis of order: occasions for inquiry,
    81
Criteria of rationality, 78
Critias, 110
Culture: modern, 68; relation to civi-
    lization types, 77
Customs and moral rules, 58

Dante, 71
Decalogue, 80
Decretum Gratianum, 85
Definitions: must follow analysis, 11
Democracy, 42, 60
De lege ferenda, 15, 50
Descartes, René, 109
Dianoetic virtues, 74
Dike, 76
Divertissements: of Pascal, 77
Divine law, 31, 56. See also Lex di-
    vina, Ius divinum


Elliott, W. Y., 110
Episteme politike, 6, 28, 41, 52, 60
Equality of persons, 77
Eros, 76
Eroticism of soul, 79
Essence of law: presupposes ontologi-
    cal status, 6; not discoverable by
    comparison of legal orders, 11
Ethical virtues, 74
Ethics: science of order in soul, 80;
    as component of legal order, 88
Ethics: Aristotle's, 54
Eudaimonia, 74
Experiences of transcendence, 76, 77, 79

Facism, 72
Faith: in Heraclitus, 76; Christian def-
    inition in Hebrews, 76
Force: to secure obedience to laws,
    61-64; purposes of punishment, 64
Fichte, Johann, 71
Free speech, 75-76
Frankfort, Henri, 79

German National Socialist revolution,
    36
Gibbon, Edward, 105
Gnostic creed movements, 68
God, 77
Goods: ranking of, 74
Government: forms of evaluated, 42,
    60
Grace, 68
Great Britain, 51
Grotius, Hugo, 85

Happiness, 57, 74
Hauriou, Maurice, 110
Hegel, G. W. F., 72
Hellas, 108
Helmholtz, Herman von, 110
Heraclitus, 71, 76/ 77, 82
Hesiod, 71
Hierarchy of legal rules, 21
Highest good: prerequisite to rational
    science of action, 73; Aristotle's
    conception of, 73, 74
Hippias, 11
Historic era, 85
History of law: as part of history of
    society, 68
Hobbes, Thomas, 27
Holbach, P. H. Thiry, 108
Homo Ludens, 46
Homonoia, 77, 82
Hooker, Richard, 85
Hope, 76
Huizinga, Johan, 46
Human nature: impersonal character
    of, 64; constancy by definition, 78
Hypothetical basic norm, 28, 31

Idée directrice, 110
Identity: of legal order after change in
    laws, 29-33; of state after constitu-
    tional change, 33-35
Ideology, xiv
Immanentist church-states, 72
In-Between, xiv
Isidore of Sevilla, 85
Israel, xix, 68, 71
Israelite prophets, xix, 85
Ius : as right order, 24; s ociale et histo-
    riale,
56; divinum et naturale, 56,
    66; positivum, 66

Jaspers, Karl, 76
John of Salisbury, 85
Judicial decisions: role of, 20
Jurisprudence: analytical, ix, 109, 200;
    neglect of central problem, 68; ori-
    gins, 70; delimitation of field, 70;
    contemporary trends, 72; rational
    science of action required, 73; prin-
    ciples, 77-80; development from
    substantive axioms impossible, 79;
    study by reenacting classical experi-
    ences, 80
Jurisprudence course: editors' sum-
    mary, xviii-xxi; outline of, 70-72;
    supplementary notes to, 73-83
Jus. See Ius
Justinian jurisprudence, xix, 70, 71
Just order: substantive definition im-
    possible, 79; progress in under-
    standing, 80; formulations largely
    negative, 80

Kallikles, 110
Kant, Emanuel: Christian progressivist
    ideas of perfection, 79; Critique of
    Pure Reason,
109
Kelsen, Hans: Voegelin's critique of his
    theories of law and state, xxi; nor-
    mative jurisprudence, 28; notions of
    law and state, 28; hypothetical pos-
    ited supreme norm, 31
Knowledge: growth of, 78
Koinon, 82

Law: ontological existence, xix, 6, 29,
    30, 64; plurality of legal orders, 7; as
    substance of order, 24; sociology of,
    28; as structure of society, 29; equiv-
    ocal use of term, 29f.; promulgation,
    47-48; substantive norm of, 55; as
    command, 56; social customs and
    moral rules, 58; purpose of, 68; his-
    tory of, 68
Lawmaking process: emphasis in his-
    tory, 26-29; made autonymous with
    secularism, 27; equated to law by
    Kelsen, 28; ontologically part of so-
    cial order, 47; empirical and philo-
    sophical, 53-55
Lawyers: as instruments of promulga-
    tion, 47-48
Legal cultures: types, 68, 77; succes-
    sion in West, 71; correspondence to
    civilizational types, 77; their pri-
    mary source of order, 79; experienc-
    ing transcendent reality, 79
Legal justice, 81
Legal orders: plurality of, 7; as aggre-
gates of rules, 8, 15; all laws essen-
tial in their orders, 9; validity of
legal rules essential, 9; as single
specimen of a species, 10; identity
in spite of substantive changes,
12-20; organic (biological) analogy
inappropriate, 14; as series of rule
aggregates, 14ff.; Zenonic problem
of validity, 16-20; social context,
20-29; as realms of meaning, 21;
lawmaking process as part, 22; law-
ful and unlawful acts, 23; ordering
substance of, 24, 44; relation be-
tween ordering principle and truth,
24; inherent in society, 25; defi-
ciency of if-then formulations, 25,
26; tension between existential
order and lawmaking process, 30;
tension between existential order
and truth, 30; validity dependent on
power structure, 31, 86; identity
after change in constitution, 32-38;
part of social complex, 37; legal and
political authority affecting validity
of, 37; lastingness, 39f.; ethics as
component, 88; influence of reli-
gion, 103
Legal philosophy: contemporary
    trends, 72
Legal rules: validity of each rule essen-
tial, 9, 11; 21; public
character, 44ff.; tension between
true rule and empirical rule, 54; im-
personal validity, 55-64; persons
capable of issuing, 56; source of
their normative authority, 56; issued
by representative of society, 59; cal-
culus of error in substance, 59-61;
noncognitive character, 65
Legal science: James Brown Scott,
84-96; selective use of relevant ma-
terials not scientific, 85; role of
power, 81, 88; Max Weber's work,
89, 90; Bodenheimer's Jurisprudence
reviewed, 91-94; Timasheff's Sociology of Law reviewed, 87-91;
many disciplines involved, 94; con-
struction through formulation of
central problem, 96; general rules re-
quired, 97; construction on ideal
types, 98; natural-science model in-
adequate, 99; ontology determines
model and method, 99; complex-
ity, 100; dependency on concept of
human nature, 102; Cairns's un-
concern with technology of law, 106
Legal theory: Christian and classical
    bases essential, xxii, 104; Scott's
    Law, the State, and the Inter-
    nationaI Community
reviewed,
    84-86; Bodenheimer's Jurispru-
    dence
reviewed, 91-94; Cairns's
    The Theory of Legal Science re-
    viewed,
95-112
Lex aeterna, 81
Lex divina, 81, See also Ius divinum
Locke, John, 72
Logos: man's, 52; divine, 77
Love, 76

Maat, 24-25, 44
Macedonian conquest, 52
Machiavelli, 82, 85, 103
Man (humanity): social character of
human existence, 49; one capable of
issuing rules, 56; constancy of na-
ture, 78; self-understanding. 78;
contemplative life as fulfillment, 81;
human history not a straight line,
85; idea of man a creation of the hu-
man spirit, 104; spiritual singularity,
104; Cairns's idea of. 104, 105, 107,
108, 111; mechanistic interpreta-
tion, 107
Mankind: notion not associated with
    world government, 77; history of,
    not a straight line, 85
    Marx, Karl, 72
Marxist-Leninist communism: Voege-
    lin's reaction to, xiv; fusion of nor-
    mative and power authorities, 68
Mathematical symbols, 99
Mature man, 62-63, 74, 80, 81
Medieval philosophy: struggle with
    soul as "form" of man, 35
Mesopotamian city-state, 42, 102
Metaxy. See In-Between
Methexis, 79
Monarchy, 60
Moral rules and customs, 58
Moses, 80
Mussolini, Benito, 109

National Socialism: Voegelin's reac-
    tion to, xiv; fusion of normative and
    power authorities, 68
Natural law: Bodin's use as source of
    law, 31; definition, kinds, limita-
    tions, 80-82; origin in social crisis,
    81; contract theory as, 82-83
Natural science: differs from social
    science, 104
Nature of the Law, The: editors' sum-
    mary, xv-xxi
Nihilism: spiritual, 107
Nomos, 24, 44
Norm. See Rule and norm
Normative jurisprudence, 28
Norms: hypothetical, 31
Nous, 76, 77, 82

Ought: ontological basis, 42-45; aris-
    ing from tension between true and
    existential orders, 43; experienced
    by all humans, 43, 44
Obligation: ontological character of,
    42-45
Opening of the soul, 76, 77
Order, primary experiences. See Pri-
    mary experiences of order

Paradoxa (Zenonic): in law envisioned
    as aggregate of rules, 16-20; in Aris-
    totle's analysis of polis, 33-35
Parsons, Talcott, 98
Participation: as mode of cognition, 79
Pascal, Blaise, 77
Paul, Saint, xx
Peisistratus, 42
Philosophical anthropology: true hap-
    piness indicated by, 74; Cairns's
    failure to recognize, 101; weighing
    elements of human nature, 103
Philosophical constructions of law:
    calculation to achieve true order, 26;
    state-articulated order, 27; law di-
    vorced from substantive order,
    27-29
Philosophical inquiry: relation to
    analysis, 6
Philosophies of law: rationality of dif-
    ferent kinds, 78
Philosophy: medieval struggle with
    soul as "form" of man, 35; differ-
    entiation from myth, 68; results
    from opening of soul, 76; original
    meaning, 76
Philosophy of law: high rationality of
    Christian, 78; low rationality of
    positivist, 78
Plato: no philosophy of law, 6; law cal-
    culated to achieve true order, 26;
    forms of government evaluated, 60;
    cognition of transcendence, 79
Polis: defined, 6; "form" and "nature"
    in Politics III and 1, 35; sequences of
    power structure in, 42
Polity, 60
Positive law theory: varieties of, 72
Positivist legal philosophy, 78
Power: conferring validity to law, 31;
    condition for true order, 68, 86
Primary experiences of order: listed,
    71; return to, 72
Prince: as lawmaker, 27
Projects for law: 48-55; kinds, 49;
Plato's and Aristotle's, 51-55; util-
    ity of philosophical models, 54, 55
Promulgation of laws, 47-48
Protagoras, 11
Pseudos, 80
Psyche: participation in transcen-
    dence, xix, 71, 76, 77; sensorium
    of transcendence, 76
Punishment, 64
"Pure Theory of Law," 28

Ratio aeterna, 79
Rationality: objective criteria of, 78
Rational science of action: defined, 73
Reason: as condition for true order, 68
Representation of society, 58-59
Representatives in government:
    issuers of rules to society, 59; source
    of their authority, 5 9
Republic, 53, 71, 82, 108
Revelation: condition for true order,
    68; differentiation from myth, 68
Revolutions: and law, 35-38
Rickert, Heinrich, 89
Roman Empire: law in, 68
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 57
Rule and norm: rule as description of
pattern, 39; rules dependent on last-
ingness of social patterns, 39-40;
rule as description of "ought, " 44;
rule as norm, 44-45; rule intends
a truth, 44, 45; rule to be heard
and obeyed, 45; communication or
promulgation of rule, 45-47; public
character of legal rule, 45-48; im-
personal validity of legal rule, 55-64

Sandoz, Ellis: The Voegelinian Revo-
    lution,
xivn3, xxin4
Science of action, 73
Science of law: requirements for con-
    structing, 87-112 passim
Scholastic philosophy, 35
Scott, James Brown, 84-86
Secular national state, 71
Self-understanding, 78
Slaves by nature, 63
Social crises: and reflection on law, 71
"Social instinct" theory, 83
Social order: legal order part of, 30;
weight of relation on social side, 30;
tension between empirical and sub-
stantive orders, 30; tension between
social order and lawmaking process,
30; lastingness of structure, 41; true
order unattainable, 61; truth diffi-
cult to ascertain, 61; hampered by
human nature and ignorance, 62-
64; normative sources, 67; culture
and environment affect true order,
67, 68; various principles of organi-
zation, 68; power, reason, and reve-
lation as normative sources, 68;
historical types, 68; primary expe-
riences of, 71, 72; source in tran-
scendent being, 77; coordination of
means to highest good, 78; religion
influencing, 103; invention of man,
110
Social science: natural-science model
inadequate, 99; differs from physical
science, 99f.; ontology determines
model and method, 99f.; illegitimate
propositions in, 102; dependency on
concept of human nature, 103
Society: structure, 41; self-organizing
entity, 55; reason for being, 57;
issues rules to itself, 57; creation
through acceptance of represen-
tative, 59; representative of society
issues rules or laws, 59; as order
of human existence, 66; concrete-
ness, 68; as microcosmos, 77; as
macroanthropos, 77; as partici-
pant in transcendence, 77; contract
theory, 81; "social instinct" theory,
83
Sociological jurisprudence, 28, 29
Sociology: as monographic or idio-
    graphic science, 89
Sociology of law: 28, 29, 89; Tima-
    sheff's Sociology of Law reviewed,
    87-91; Max Weber and, 89, 90
Socrates, 71, 108
Solon, 79
Soteriological civilizations: 76, 77
Soul: sensorium of transcendence, 76;
    opening to transcendence, 76, 77;
    sensitiveness to injustice, 79; at-
    tunement to transcendence, 80
Spiritual and temporal orders: imma-
    nentist reunion of, 72;
    differentiation, 78
Spiritual singularity of man, 104
State: identified with law by Kelsen,
    28; change of identity after constitu-
    tional change, 32-38; not subject to
    "form-substance" analysis, 33-35
Stoics, 11, 77
Suarez, Francisco, 85
Symbolization: of experience, 44, 78
"Symbolization of Order, " xxi

Tao, 24, 44, 81
Temporal and spiritual orders, 78
Thanatos, 76
Theory: preanalytical observations,
    37; requirements for constructing,
    87-112 passim
Timasheff, N. S., 87-91
Toynbee, Arnold, 42
Transcendence: types of experience of,
    76; cognition of experiences of, 79
Transcendent reality: names assigned,
    77; participation in, 77; universal
    experience of, 79; sensitive re-
    sponses to rare, 79
Tyranny, 33, 60

United States Constitution, 37

Vico, Giambattista, 108
Virtues, 74
Vitoria, Francisco de, 72, 85
Voegelin, Eric: reaction to German
national socialism, racism, and
Marxist-Leninist communism, xiv;
natures of philosophy and revela-
tion, xiv; Walgreen Lectures, xiv;
intellectual journey, xiv; rejection of
Kelsen's notions of "state" and
"pure law, ' xiv, 28; methodology,
xv; editors' summary of The Nature
of the Law,
xv-xviii; editors' sum-
mary of jurisprudence course outline
and notes, xviii-xxi; interest in
analytical jurisprudence, xxi; never
a logical positivist, xxi; editors'
accounts of book reviews by, xxii-
xxiv; Anamnesis, xxin4; "Anglo-
American Analytic Jurisprudence, " X;
Autobiographical Reflections,
xivn2, xxin4, xxiinn5, 6; Der Auto-
ritaere Staat,
xxin4; The Collected
Works of Eric Voegelin,
x; Israel
and Revelation,
xiiin1; "Kelsen's
Pure Theory of Law, " x; xxin4; The
New Science of Politics,
xi11, xiiin1;
On the Form of the American Mind,
X; Order and History, xiii, xiiin1;
Plato and Aristotle, xiiin1; Reine
Richtslehre und Staatslehre,
xivn2,
xxn5; "The Symbolization of
Order, " xxi; Ueber die Form des
amerikanischen Geistes,
x, xxi,
xxin4; The WorId of the Polis,
xiiin1

Weber, Max: sociology of law, 89, 90;
    construction of legal science on
    ideal types, 98; Wirtschaft und
    Gesellschaft, 98; Protestant Ethic
    and the Spirit of Capitalism, The,
98
Weimar Constitution, 36
Windelband, Wilhelm, 89

Zenonic problem: legal order as a suc-
    cession of aggregates, 16-20; society
    as a flow of human beings in time,
    34
Zeno, 71

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