CUMULATIVE INDEX

HISTORY OF POLITICAL IDEAS (VOLS 19-26)

Roman numerals preceding page numbers refer to the eight volumes in History of Political Ideas

Spirit: autonomy of, VI: 113-14; Bodin
    on spirits, V: 202-3; Geist as political
    spirit, VII: 2, 29-30; and matter,
    IV: 165; Nietzsche on, VII: 276-78,
    280-81; Pascal on, VII: 278, 280-81;
    separation of politics from, III: 68-69.
    See also Soul; Spiritualism; and
    headings beginning with Spiritual
Spiritalis intelligentia, II: 126, 133-34
Spirito italiano, IV: 84, 86-87
Spiritual eunuchism, VI: 212
Spiritual harmony, III: 257-58
Spiritual hierarchy, II: 200-203, 204
Spiritualism:English spiritualism
    and Piers Plowman, III: 175-84;
Franciscan Spiritualism, III: 14, 17,
    79, 105, 112-14, 123, 176, 180,
    182n14, 239, 243; overview of, I: 35-
    39; regional movements, III: 171-75;
    of Rienzo, III: 239-43; of Wydiffe,
    III: 189
Spiritualis renovatio, III: 241
Spirituality, definition of, II: 9-10
Spiritualization, I: 161
Spiritually dead, V: 201, 202
Spiritual movements: activism and
    nihilism, IV: 173-77; Albigensians,
    III: 172-75; IV: 135, 157, 158-60,
    164, 222; V: 109; and Apollonian
    imperium, IV: 11, 201-14; and
    Bosch, IV: 180,194-201; Catharism,
    IV: 139, 157-60,165; and Collier's
    sermon, IV: 165-67, 168; compared
    with Luther, IV: 246; conflict
    between church and sects,
    IV: 140-43; connections between
   social revolution and, IV: 145-51;
    destruction of materials from,
    IV: 177-78; Eastem influences on,
    IV: 151-57; and Erigena, IV: 10, 152,
    155-57,160-66, 177, 179, 184, 185,
    187, 191, 196,201,202; and Fifth
    Monarchy of Christ, IV: 167-73;
    Free Spirit, IV: 177-201,205; and
    Glimpse of Sion's Glory, IV: 10,
    145-48,165; and institutions,
    IV: 131-36; introductory comments
    on, IV: 9-11; and middle class,
    IV: 150-51; and Nine Rocks tract,
    IV: 185-90; Ortliebians, IV: 180-82;
    Paracletes, IV: 125, 154,190-94,
    246; periodization of, IV: 136-38;
    and problem of continuity, IV: 177-
    80; and Queries to Lord Fairfax,
    IV: 167-73, 174; range of, IV: 138-40;
    reform and anticivilizational effects,
    IV: 143-45; and reformation, IV: 134-
    36; secondary sources on, IV: 179-80;
    sexuality and sensuality in, IV: 195-
    201; social structure of, IV: 148-51;
    stupor and outburst, IV: 188-90;
    suppression of and resistance to,
    IV: 134, 135, 139-40; and towns,
    IV: 150-51; and two worlds, IV: 164-
    65, 167-73; violence in, IV: 148.
    See also People of God; specific
    movements
"Spiritual obscurantism," VI: 8, 61-62,
    95, 113
Spiritual politics, II: 36-38
Spiritual realism, I: 24-25, 24n, 34, 41;
    Ill:69-72; VII: 33-34
Spirituals, IV: 150, 184, 222
Spiritual-temporal community, II: 61-
    64
Staatslehre, VII: 12, 25, 107
"Staatslehre als Geisteswissenschaft"
    (Voegelin), VII: 12
Stalin, Joseph, IV: 175; VII: 143;
    VIII: 157, 203, 273, 287
Stammesherzogtumer, III: 195
Star Chamber, VII: 75, 78, 108
Star of Magi, V: 165, 165n75
Stars. See Astronomy
State: Althusius on, VII: 49, 49n2;
    Bakunin's antistatism, VIII: 255,
    297-99; Bodin on, IV: 205; V: 244-
    46; VII: 49; as church, VIII: 207-9;
    church-state relations, I: 151 ; IV: 116-
    19, 119n, 125; VI: 53-54; contractual
    origin of, II: 89n13; and control
    of opinion, VII: 70; creation of,
    IV: 131; Engels on state dying away,
    VIII: 233, 315-16n10; English versus
    Continental symbol of, VII: 106-7;
    Erigena on perfect state, IV: 154;
    Grotius on, VII: 58; Harrington on,
    VII: 102; Hegel on, VII: 157; Hobbes
    on commonwealth, VII: 67-72; and
    inequality, VII: 149-51; Locke on,
    VII: 149-50; Machiavelli on, III: 252;
    IV: 57, 73, 74, 75; VI: 13n; Marsilius
    of Padua on, III: 12-13, 84-102;
    Marxist view of, IV: 144; perfection
    of closure of, VII: 68-69; perfection
    of spiritual closure of, VII: 69-70,
    77; person- or community-centered
    ideas of, VII: 12; plurality of warring
    states, III: 96, 100; raison d'état,
    IV: 265; res publica, I: 136-37, 140,
    214, 217, 218; II: 12; IV: 123; V: 58;
    Schelling on power-state, VII: 223-
    27, 226n56; separation of church
    and state, IV: 117, 119n; V: 21,
    47; as stati, IV: 57, 73, 74, 75; as
    term, I: 217; Turgot on, VIII: 144-
    45; versus estates in seventeenth
    century, VII: 104-6; Williams on,
    VII: 88-92; world- imperium and
    state- imperium, III: 205-10, 216.
    See also City-states; Nations; Papal
    states; and specific states
State and Revolution (Lenin),
    VIII: 315n8
Statecraft, II: 148-49
State- imperium and world- imperium.
    III: 205-10, 216
State of nature, V: 101, 102
Statesmen, II: 148, 149, 175; IV: 42
Stati (states), IV: 57, 73, 74, 75
Statius, II: 114
Stato ferino, VI: 114, 137, 138
Statua Dei, V: 199
Statum totius ecclesiae, II: 203
Status ecclesiae, II: 203
Statute of 1220, III: 198
Statute of 1231, III: 198
Statute of Carlisle, III: 167, 168, 174
Statute of Laborers, III: 175
Statute of Praemunire of 1353, III: 167-
    68
Statute of Provisors of 1351, III: 167
Statutes. See Law
Stavrianos, Leften S., II: 35-36n2
Steele, Richard, VII: 162n2
Steenberghen, Fem and van, II: 180
Stella nova, V: 163
Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos
    (Scheler), VII: 30
Stephen, Leslie, VI: 173; VIII: 46n7
Stephen, Saint, II: 70
Stephen II, Pope, II: 57, 60n
Stephen Langton, archbishop of
    Canterbury, III: 133, 134
Stevenson, Robert Louis, VII: 190
Stifter, Adalbert, VII: 264n35
Stilicho, II: 56
Stirps Caesarea, II: 158, 177
Stöhr, Adolf, I: 18; II: 4n; VII: 15
Stoicism: and apoliticism, VII: 228;
    Bodin on, V: 209; Calvin on, IV: 272;
    and Cicero, I: 133, 191,199; II: 119,
   163; VI: 6; and community, I: 99-100;
    compared with Christianity, I: 99,
    200,201-2; IV: 141; and cosmopolis,
    I: 98, 135, 149, 199; and duty as
    concept, I: 99; and equality, I: 95-98,
    134; Erasmus on, IV: 99-100; and
    homonoia, I: 98; influence of, II: 110,
    171, 184; V: 18, 42; VI: 105; and
    kingship, I: 98; and koinai enoiai
    (common notions), I: 26, 52; and
    koinos nomos (natural or common
    law), I: 97-98; II: 227; and Latin
    language, I: 136; Machiavelli on,
    IV: 84-87; and Marcus Aurelius, I: 99-
    100, 191, 200; and moral personality,
    I: 98-99; and natural law, II: 226;
    IV: 63, 70; VI: 34; Newton on, VI: 62-
    63; and oikeiosis (consciousness of
    kind), VII: 57; Polybius on, IV: 62;
    and sapienza volgare, VI: 134-35; and
    soul, I: 98; Vico on, VI: 95n7, 115, 117,
    134-35; and virtù, IV: 84; and virtues,
    I: 98-99; and wise men, I: 97-99,101;
    Zeno as founder of, I: 75, 76, 95
Storch, Claus, IV: 236
Storia delle virtù e de' vizio, IV: 54
Storia etem a ideale, VI: 114, 126-32,
    137; VIII: 247
Storia fiorentina (Guicciardini),
    IV: 34n, 36
Storia ideale, VI: 109, 118, 121, 123
Strabo, V: 227
Strafford, Earl of, VII: 105,108, 109
Straight-line pattem of history, I: 222-
    23
Stralsund, Treaty of, III: 227
Strasbourg, bishop of, IV: 185
Strauss, David Friedrich, VIII: 254, 352
Strauss, Leo, I: 15; VI: 5n; VII: 7, 19,
"Straussians," VI: 4n10, 15n
Struys, Jean, VII: 171
Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth
Century,
VI: 39n
Studi Vichiani (Gentile), VI: 102
Study of History (Toynbee), I: 9;
    III: 143n; VI: 1, 7, 121; VIII: 121,
    134n44, 139
Stulti (fools), VI: 105n13
Stupor and outburst, IV: 188-90
Stuttgarter Privatvorlesungen
    (Schelling), VII: 224-26
Styria, III: 202
Suárez, Francisco, III: 158n29; V: 4, 18,
    62, 63, 66-69,100, 114, 114n4, 115,
    115n5; VII: 47
Subditi (subjects), I: 215
Subimperial politics:and colonization
    of the East, III: 199-203; East
Frankish kingdom and Italy,
    III: 194-96; in Germany, III: 193-203;
    imperial politics versus, III: 193-94;
    and interregna, III: :194, 196-99, 203
Subjection and obedience, I: 70-71
Sublimation, VII: 278
Subscripta, III: 209n
Subtractio particularis (partial
    withdrawal), III: 253, 255
Subtractio totalis (total withdrawal),
    III: 253
Subuniverse, I: 18
Suebi, II: 45, 47, 48, 56
Suetonius, I: 187; II: 114
Suffering Servant, I: 117-19, 150; II: 45
Suffrage. See Franchise
Sufism, VIII: 27
Sui juris, V: 127
Sully, Maximillian de Béthune, Duc
    de, III: 77; V: 112
Sumberg, Theodore A., VI: 15n
Summa, IV: 270
Summa contra gentiles (Thomas
    Aquinas), I: 35-36; II: 179, 207-8, 211,
   k 219; IV: 249-50; VII: 286
Summa et infinita concordantia,
    III: 258-59
Summa gloriae (Honorius of Autun),
    II: 127-28
Summa theologiae (Thomas Aquinas),
    II: 108, 179, 212, 214-15, 219, 220,
    221, 223, 230n; IV: 95, 225, 283n42;
    VII: 273n55; VIII: 89-90
Summum bonum (highest good or
    God), II: 190, 191; IV: 70, 114, 250,
    256; VII: 63, 65, 66, 235, 258, 286;
    VIII: 82
Summum malum (Hobbes), VII: 65-66
Sung dynasty, II: 3
Sun symbolism, I: 105, 142; V: 158, 162;
    VII: 125
Superbia (pride), IV: 120-25, 128;
    VI: 56-57; VII: 273n55
Superbia vitae, IV: 210; VII: 272
Superbum animal homo, V: 155
Superman, IV: 187,194; VI: 209;
    VIII: 158-59
Supremacy Act, III: 168
Survival of the fittest, IV: 48
Sutori delle nazioni, VI: 141
Swabian League, III: 228
Sweden, VI: 151
Swift, Jonathan, IV: 112; VI: 182-83
Swiss confederation, I: 110; III: 228-29
Switzerland, I: 114; III: 217, 218, 228;
    IV: 139, 150
Syllabus Errorum, III: 110, 112; VI: 162-
    63
Sylvester I, Pope, II: 60n
Symbiotici, V: 57
Symbols: and Calvin, IV: 17-18, 284; of
    Christianity, IV: 166-67; VI: 54-60,
    71; constitutionalism as, III: 22,
    144-46; of Continental versus
    English state, VII: 106-7; of Dante,
    III: 72, 73-74, 238; deformation
    of, into doctrine, II: 16; and divine
    kingship, I: 102; in Eclogue, I: 142n;
    of England, III: 144-45; VII: 75,
    106-7; English king as "mystical
    symbol," VII: 75; of freethinking,
    VI: 164; historicity of, IV: 223-28,
    285-91; and history, I: 41, 42, 50,
    228; IV: 3; of holy empire, II: 11;
    immanentization of transcendent
    symbols, II: 16; of Marx, VIII: 327-30;
    of materialism, VI: 164; of national
    kingdom, II: 7n17, 10; of natural right,
    VII: 48-50; of noetic and pneumatic
    meditative consciousness, I: 44-
    45; of political ideas borrowed
    from natural sciences, VII: 52; and
    reality, VII: 14; religious experiences
    expressed in, III: 19, 109; renaissance
    symbolism, III: 236; of Rienzo,
    III: 234; of science, VII: 50; of serpent,
    I: 92; sun symbolism, I: 105, 142;
    V: 158, 162; VII: 125; and thinning
    out of faith, VI: 183; Timur as power
    symbol, IV: 44-55; types of symbolic
    .forms, I: 53; Voegelin's single reality
    symbol, II: 16; yin and yang, I: 26-27
Symeon II, I: 124
Symmachus, II: 35
Sympathy, Hume on, VII: 161,163
Syndicalism, VIII: 91, 98
Syndici, III: 236
Synod of Albi, IV: 158
Synod of Chierzey, IV: 154n
Synod of Frankfurt (794), II: 61
Synod of Paris (829), II: 62
Synod of Rome (1046), II: 82
Synod of Rome (1047), II: 82
Synod of Rome (1075), II: 82
Synod of Sutri (1046), II: 82
Synod of Toulouse, IV: 158
Synod of Worms (829), II: 62
Synod of Worms (1076), II: 87n
Synoptic Gospels, I: 151, 154,179, 180
Synthèse subjective (Comte), VIII: 178-
    79, 178n21, 192
Syria, I: 176, 192-93, 198-99; II: 34;
    IV: 52, 53, 138
Systasis (constitution of a state), I: 127
"Systematic" theology, IV: 272
Systématisation, VIII: 186
Système de logique positive (Comte),
    VIII: 178
Système de politique positive (Comte),
    VIII: 163, 177-78, 183, 186-87, 195,
    196n37, 197-99, 206, 216
Système industriel (Saint-Simon),
    VIII: 233
Tableau des espérances , VIII: 153
Taborite branch of Hussite movement,
    IV: 148
Tabula rasa:and Descartes, VII: 47,
    206; and humans alone in early
    seventeenth century, VII: 47-48;
    and humans as starting point of
    new thought, VII: 51; and intem al
    order of national commonwealths,
    VII: 51; and nation as new social
    substance, VII: . 51; problems of
    new era beginning in seventeenth
    century, VII: 50-52; and symbol of
    natural right, VII: 48-50; and symbol
    of science, VII: 50; symbols of
    political ideas borrowed from natural
    sciences, VII: 52; tension between
    national bodies and humanity,
    VII: 51-52
Tacitus, II: 42; V: 29; VI: 140
Taedium vitae, IV: 200
Tagliacozzo, battle of, III: 39, 60
Talmud, V: 233, 234n75, 236
Tamerlane. See Timur
Tanit, I: 193
Tannenberg, battle of, III: 201
Tantum regale (Fortescue), III: 157-58
Tam , W. W., I: 91, 141-43, 142n
Tartar empire and Tartars, II: 170; V: 233
Tauler, Johannes, IV: 136, 187, 188,
    228, 268
Taylor, Charles, III: 2n3
Technical inventions, V: 146, 146n16
Technology, VII: 191-92; VIII: 103-4,
    133-34, 338-39
Telephus, II: 44
Tempier, Étienne, II: 179-80, 190
Templars, II: 73-74; III: 62, 113,171
Temporal Authority: To What Extent
    Should It Be Obeyed (Luther),
IV: 12,
    260-68
Temporale caput mundi seu populi
    Christiani,
III: 206
Temporalia, III: 117, 118
Temporal monarchy, III: 71-72, 74-75
Temporal order of history, V: 231-36
Tempus acceptabile, III: 74
Ten Commandments, I: 162,171, 201
Ténébres d'ignorance (darkness of
    ignorance), V: 144
Terence, II: 114
Territorial church, II: 60-61
Terror gentium, IV: 53, 55, 82n
Terrorism, VIII: 277-78
Tertiary Order, II: 139; III: 171; IV: 149,
    183
Tertullian, I: 177, 201; V: 93, 118; VI: 46
Tessier, Jean, V: 195
Test Act against Scotland of 1681,
    VI: 155
Test Act of 1673, VI: 155
Testament (Emperor Henry VI), II: 149
Testament (Francis of Assisi), II: 139
Testimonia (Rantzau), V: 153
Tetzel, IV: 230
Teutonic Order, II: 73, 74-75, 216;
    III: 201
Teutons, II: 30
Thaumaturgie kingship, I: 155-56;
    III: 57-59, 122, 127
Thearchy, V: 200
Thebes, I: 143; III: 222
"Theocentrism," IV: 283-84
Theocracy, V: 45-50; VII: 226n56;
    VIII: 209
Theodoric, King, II: 35, 56
Theodosius the Great, I: 205, 208; II: 56
Theologia Mystica, III: 177, 180
Theologia negativa, III: 257, 258-59
Theologia platonica (Ficino), VI: 105
Theologica Germanica, IV: 228
Theology, III: 52
Theology of Aristotle, II: 184
Theophilanthropism, VIII: 206, 209
Theoria Motus (Euler), VI: 200
Theorie de l'état, VII: 25, 107
Théorie du pouvoir politique dans la
    société civile
(Bonald), VIII: 220
    Theory. See Political theory
Theory of evocations, VII: 10-11,
    16-18, 21-22, 33
Theotokos (Mother of the God), I: 184
Thermidor, IV: 176
Thesaurus meritorum, IV: 230
Theseus, IV: 76, 81
"Thesis of generality," VI: 43, 44, 45
Thessalonica massacre, I: 205
Thetis, VII: 243
Thevenot, VII: 170
Thing-reality, II: 16
Third Imperium, IV: 203-4
Third Realm:and Communism
    and National Socialism, VII: 241;
    compared to "Third Imperium,"
    IV: 203-5; and Franciscans, II: 199;
    Joachim of Fiore on, II: 111, 126, 134,
    199, 213; IV: 154; leaders' role in,
    II: 132, 159; and modem ity, IV: 11;
    and Montanism, I: 182; political ideas
    of, I: 210; II: 111; IV: 164; Schelling on,
    VII: 230-34, 237; spiritual evolution
    of, II: 128-30
Thirty Years War, IV: 260; V: 25, 62,
    64, 90, 110; VI: 33, 84; VII: 53, 105;
    VIII: 20, 219
Thomas (apostle), I: 165
Thomas à Becket, Saint, II: 113; III: 131
Thomas Aquinas:on age of Christ,
    II: 213; Aristotelianism of, II: 80-
    81, 179, 185, 189n14, 215-19,
    222-23, 231; III: 85-86; IV: 250,
    272; V: 66-67; character of Thomistic
    thought, I: 32; II: 214-15; on Christian
    empire, VII: 19, 286; as "Christian
    intellectual," II: 13, 78; IV: 16-17,
    136; and "civilizational schism"
    between faith and reason, III: 18, 98;
    on community of free Christians,
    II: 218-20; compared with Dante,
    III: 75, 76; compared with Dionysius
    Areopagita, IV: 152, 155; compared
    with Piers Plowman, III: 179;
    compared with Schelling, VII: 26,
    240-41; compared with William of
    Ockham, III: 8, 106, 106n1, 116-17;
    compared with Wycliffe, III: 169, 189;
    and "compromise with the world,"
    II: 9, 14,111, 231-32; condemnation
    of, by Bishop Tempier, II: 179-80, 210;
    on consent as basis of civil society,
    VII: 140; and constitutionalism,
    II: 220-23, 229; III: 19-20, 41, 56,
    103; in Dante's Divina Commedia,
    III: 67, 67n; death of, II: 9,207; and
    Dominican Order, III: 66; VII: 193;
    as end of age, VII: 241; Erasmus on,
    IV: 93, 94, 95n4; on faith and reason,
    II: 209-10; III: 20,103, 105; IV: 221,
    228; on freedom and independence
    of the intellect, I: 33-37; III: 52; and
    Hellenic culture, IV: 250-51, 284; on
    hierarchies, II: 211-12; V: 100-101;
    and historical mind, II: 214-15; on
    history, II: 207-15; on human law,
    II: 224, 225, 227-28; ideas preceding,
    II: 65; influences on other thinkers,
    Ill:56, 257; intellectus compared
    with ratio, I: 39; on kingship, III: 162;
    on law, I: 113; II: 13-14, 223-31;
    V: 100; Luther on, IV: 237, 259; on
    natural law, II: 225-27; on Old Law
    and New Law, II: 229-31, 230n; on
    perfect community, II: 218, 226-27,
    229; V: 63; VI: 208; and philosophy
    of history, II: 213-14; on politics,
    II: 215-23; populist elements in,
    III: 91; on poverty, II: 200; on prince
    as divine analogue, II: 217-18; and
    ratio aetem a, VI: 100; rationality
    of ideas of, VII: 196; on as
    perfect society, III: 75; and Siger de
    Brabant, II: 195-96n; significance
    of, I: 232, 234; II: 29, 65, 106, 171,
    231-32; III: 37, 103; V: 7; on the soul,
    III: 67n; on superbia, VII: 273n55;
    on transubstantiation, IV: 224-25;
    on Truth and Being, II: 207-9; on
    tyranny, II: 221; Vico on, VI: 113
--Works: De regimine principum,
    II: 212, 215-17, 221-22; IV: 111;
    De unitate intellectus contra
    Averroistas,
II: 179; Summa contra
    gentiles,
II: 179,207-8, 211, 219;
    IV: 249-50; VII: 286; Summa
    theologiae,
II: 108, 179, 212, 214-15,
    219, 220, 221, 223, 230n; IV: 95, 225,
    283n42; VII: 273n55; VIII: 89-90
Thomas of Stitny, III: 175
Thomists, IV: 94
Thom , Peace of, III: 202
Three, as mystical number, VIII: 223
Thucydides, I: 124; IV: 107
Tiberius Gracchus, I: 188
Tierisch (beastly), VIII: 355
Tillich, Paul, VII: 199
Timaeus (Plato), IV: 119n; V: 147, 203;
    VI: 213n; VII: 237
Timaeus of Locri, V: 158n56
Timur, IV: 6, 44-55, 46-47n12, 49-
    50n16, 57, 82n; V: 137, 138, 140-43,
    K; VI: 4
Timurid empire, IV: 44-45
Tiraboschi, Girolamo, IV: 54
Tiro Prosper, I: 146
Titus, I: 175
To All Christians (Francis of Assisi),
    II: 137
Tocqueville, Alexis de, VI: 150
Toennies, VII: 50
Toga Virilis (coming of age), I: 191
Toland, John, VI: 76, 179-83
Toleration: Bodin on, V: 205-19,
    237, 239-40; and Cromwell,
    VII: 113; exclusions of groups from,
    VII: 91, 93, 94, 144-45; facets of, in
    seventeenth century, VII: 144-45;
    and French Enlightenment, V: 237;
    Harrington on, VII: 103; Locke on,
    IV: 117; VII: 141-45, 153; Milton on,
    VII: 92-96, 144; and new pattem of
    revolution, VII: 142-44; Spinoza on,
    VII: 144; and Williams, VII: 88-91,
    144, 145
Toleration Act of 1689, VI: 154, 155
Toleration Edict of Milan, I: 207
Tolstoy, Leo, V: 30; VIII: .280-82
Tomyris, II: 44
Tota Italia, III: 240
Totalitarianism, III: 50, 52-53; IV: 15;
    V: 74-75; VI: 207-8, 214; VII: 71;
    VIII: 4, 4-5
Totam Italia obsequentem, III: 240
Toulouse, kingdom of, II: 32, 56, 78
Toulouse, Synod of, IV: 158
Towns:in England and France, III: 136,
    217; and feudal world, III: 218-19;
    intem al structure of, III: 229-32;
    Italian town politics, III: 93-94;
    and spiritual movements, IV: 150-
    51; trade routes, food supply, and,
    III: 220-21. See also City-states
Toynbee, Am old: chrysalis of,
    VI: 125; on city-states, III: 217; on
    civilizational destruction, VIII: 94,
    127; compared with Vico, VI: 85,
121-23; 0n "creative minority" and
    civilization, VIII: 131; on Crusades
    against Turks, III: 166n; and English
    political structure, III: 143, 143n;
    VI: 1l; historical perspective of,
    VI: 148; on intem al and extem al
    proletariats, VIII: 116, 126; and
    intem ational cycles of plurality,
    IV: 86, VI: 3; interregnum of, VI: 144;
    on Norman Conquest, III: 161n; on
    papacy, III: 165 ; on roots of Westem
    civilization, VII: 15; and technique
    of prediction, II: 131; on universal
    church, VIII: 146
--Work: Study of History, I: 9; III: 143n;
    VI: 1, 7, 121; VIII: 121, 134n44, 139
Tractatus de investitura episcoporum,
    II: 87n, 96, 96n
Tractates de Potestate Regis et Papali
    (John of Paris), III: 56-57
Tractates Eboracenses ( York Tracts ),
    II: 92, 95-101, 95n20, 105-6, 109,
    132, 134, 141, 203. See also Norman
    Anonymous
Tractatus IV (Gelasius I), II: 53
Tractates Politicus (Spinoza), VII: 130-
    31, 135
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
    (Spinoza), VII: 131-33, 134
Tract Ninety (Cardinal Newman),
    III: 130
Trade routes, III: 217, 220-21, 227
Tragic Age of the Greeks (Nietzsche),
    VII: 252
Traité des sensations (Condillac),
    VIII: 48
Trajan, I: 186
Transcendence, II: 10, 16-17, 16n25,
    17; V: 2, 3
Transcendental idealism, VII: 201, 202
Translatio, IV: 243
Translatio ecclesiae, IV: 286
Translatio imperii, I: 32, 168-69; II: 52,
    58, 87n, 96, 112, 176; III: 57, 215;
    IV: 42
Transubstantiation, IV: 223-28, 242-43
Trappist order, VII: 270
Travel literature, VII: 170-71
Travers, Walter, V: 40, 80, 92
Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück,
    VIII: 20, 219
Treaties of Westphalia, V: 24, 110
    Treatise of Civil Govem ment (Locke),
IV: 112; VI: 178; VII: 138-41, 146-51,
    189
Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical
    Causes
(Milton), VII: 93
Treatise of Human Nature (Hume),
    VII: 157, 159-60
Treatise on the Climacteric Years
    (Rantzau), V: 153-54
Treaty of Oliva, V: 110
Treaty of Rastatt, V: 110
Treaty of Stralsund, III: 227
Treaty of the Pyrenees, V: 110
Treaty of Utrecht, V: 110
Treaty of Verdun, III: :217
Tree of Life, IV: 161; V: 217
Trent, Council of, III: 111; V: 19;
    VII: 256, 285
Treverus, III: 264n
Tria Kephálaia (Justinian), II: 54
Trials for Treason Act of 1696, VI: 156
Tribalism, VIII: 116-17
Tribunas Augustus, III: 236-37
Tributarii, III: 50-51
Tridentines, IV: 18
Triennial Act of 1641 (England), VII: 79
Trinitarianism, VI: 182
Trinity, II: 126-27,165,209; III: 14, 24,
    205, 258, 259, 265-66. See also God;
    Holy Spirit; Jesus Christ
Tripolity, I: 126-30, 134, 144
Tristesse, VIII: 64
Trito-Isaiah, I: 115
Troeltsch, Em st, IV: 148
Trogus, Pompeius, I: 221, 222
Trojan myth, I: 143-46
Trojans, I: 143-46; II: 10, 42, 43, 44;
    III: 159, 159n, 215
Trotsky, Leon, VII: 154
Troy. See Trojans
True Levellers, VII: 96-100
Trust, III: 263
Truth: authority of, I: 46; paradox and
    penultimate truth, I: 47; quest for,
    I: 47, 47n53; representative truth
    versus absolute Truth, I: 42-45;
    and Thomas Aquinas, II: 207-9;
    Voegelin's devotion to, I: 45-47
Tucker, Abraham, VIII: 46
Tudors, III: 69, 167, 234; IV: 35, 276,
    276n; V: 21, 27, 92. See also specific
    monarchs
Tully, James, III: 2n2
Turenne, Marshal, VI: 49n16
Turenne, Vicomte de, VII: 106
Turgenev, Ivan Sergeyevich, IV: 176
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques:and
    appeal to utilitarian immaturity,
    VIII: 115-19; on bouleversements,
    VIII: 124-25; categories of history
    of, VIII: 122-29; common people
    and masse totale, VIII: 115-16; and
    Comte, VIII: 11, 104, 107-9, 119, 120;
    concluding comments on, VIII: 147-
    48; on continuum of history,
    VIII: 109-11; and cross-pattem of
    ideas, VIII: 133-40; dilemma of,
    VIII: 129-30; and emphasis on
    political existence, VIII: 133-35;
    on global intercourse, VIII: 140-41;
    historicism of, VIII: 106-48; on
    inequality of humans, VIII: 127-29;
    on intem al rhythm of political form,
    VIII: 123-24; on law of three phases,
    VI: 104n12; VIII: 107-9; leaders and
    masse totale, VIII: 118-19; and loss
    of Christian idea of humankind,
    VIII: 114-15; and loss of Christian
    idea of humans, VIII: 113-14; and
    loss of Christian meaning of history,
    VIII: 112-13; on masse totale, VIII: 6-
    7, 111-19, 125, 127, I41, 148, 153;
    on mélange des nations, VIII: 125-
    26; on metathesis, VIII: 122-23,
    124; overview on, VIII: 6-7; on
    the past, VIII: 145; on political
    geography, VIII: 140-47; on the
    present, VIII: 143-45; and profane
    versus sacred history, VIII: 112-13,
    119-22; on progress, VIII: 109, 124-
    30, 135-37, 158; on religion and
    political geography, VIII: 145-47; on
    stagnation of the East, VIII: 126-
    27; on tribalism of humankind,
    VIII: 116-17
--Works: Discourses en Sorbonne,
    VIII: 106, 108, 114, 118; Discourses
    on Universal History,
VIII: 106,
    110, 119n33; Geographie Politique
    ( Political Geography ), VIII: 106,
    140-47
Turkey and Turks: and ante portas,
    IV: 55; Belon's travels in, VII: 170;
    decline of empire, III: 166n; and
    dedication of Cyprus, II: 216; empire
    of, II: 35-36n2; III: 39, 40, 222; IV: 44-
    45; V: 141, 143, 232; VI: 38; in "Great
    Design," IV: 71; V: 112; Luther on,
    V: 118; philosophy of, II: 182; and
    Roman empire, II: 31; IV: 71; Russian
    plans for conquest of, VIII: 205; and
    Timur, V: 137, 141; Westem contacts
    with, VII: 169
Turpis (dishonesty), VI: 112
Tuscan popes, II: 82
Tuscany, III: 197, 224
Tutela, II: 90
Two New Sciences (Galileo), VI: 18
Tyche, IV: 62
Tycho de Brahe, V: 138, 163-66, 165n75
Tyconianism, II: 93; III: 188
Tyconius, I: 211, 213, 214
Type humain, VIII: 206
Typos (model of the faith), II: 54
Tyrannicide, V: 40n
Tyrannus, II: 116
Tyranny: Erasmus on, IV: 97-98, 103;
    factors inducing submission to,
    II: 116-17; V: 35-38; John of Salisbury
    on II: 116, 122-25; IV: 40; La Boétie
    on, V: 29, 30-39; Machiavelli on,
    IV: 40-41, 62; in Rome, IV: 65; V: 37;
    Salutati on, IV: 40-41; Thomas
    Aquinas on, II: 221; Vindiciae contra
    tyrannos,
V: 51-54
Überrmensch, II: 151; V: 170
Ugolino of Ostia, Cardinal, II: 139
Ulixes Laertiades, II: 42
Ullman, Walter, II: 2n2; III: 6
Ulpian, I: 96, 193, 198
Ultor peccatorum, IV: 52, 59, 82n
Ultras, VIII: 212-13
Unam Sanctam (Boniface VIII), I: 37;
    III: 43-47, 67, 165; IV: 155, 206-9
Unamuno, Miguel de, I: 206
Unconscious, I: 27-28; VI: 108, 132;
    VII: 30-31, 176, 214, 215, 218, 240,
    24.1; VIII: 137, 138
Ungrund, VII: 133
Unio concordantissima, III: 258, 266
Unio mystica, VII: 257, 258, 265, 296
Union of Kalmar, III: 227
Unitarianism, IV: 139, 194; VI: 182
United Nations, V: 111
United States:bill of rights in, VII: 82;
    and Bodin's human types, V: 230;
    Civil War in, VII: 90; colonies in
    America, VII: 80, 86-89, 91-92, 103,
    109, 141-42, 144; constitutional
    movement in, VII: 78; Constitution
    of 1789, V: 24; VII: 82; constitutions
    of colonies, VII: 103, 141-42;
    Declaration of Independence in,
    VII: 84-85; discovery of America,
    III: 40; IV: 111-13; V: 113; VI: 38;
    emigration to America from
    England, VII: 77, 85-92; federalism
    of, IV: 169-70; VIII: 298; franchise
    in, VII: 84, 84n5; Great Awakening
    and Second Great Awakening in,
    VIII: 9n; isolationism in, VII: 90; legal
    categories injected into conflicts of
    ideas and historical forces, V: 27;
    medieval "hangover" in, VII: 74;
    national character of, VII: 24; politics
    in, III: 239; IV: 176; progressivism
    in, VIII: 122; rise of, VIII: 105-6;
    sectarianism of, VII: 25, 89-90;
    theory of govem ment in, VII: 107;
    Turgot on American independence,
    VIII: 144
Unité humaine, VIII: 186
Unité mentale, VIII: 249
Unité théologique, VIII: 186
Universae Naturae Theatrum (Bodin),
    V: 137-38, 159-62, 185, 196, 238, 250
Universale dominium omnium rerum
    temporalium,
III: 114
Universal federation of reformed
    churches, V: 5, 19, 20, 108-10
Universal history, IV: 50n18; V: 223-26;
    VI: 35-36, 38-40, 43, 71
Universal Inquisition, III: 112
Universal intellect, III: 75; V: 172-73
Universalis dominus, II: 170
Universalisms, dissociation of, VI: 51-
    52
Universa vis naturae, V: 235n75
Universi, V: 54
Universitas, II: 120; III: 92, 93, 96, 215;
    V: 54
Universitas civium, III: 89-90
Universitas electorum, III: 188
Universitas hominum, III: 75, 77
Universities, IV: 155, 219-20, 237-38;
    V: 191. See also specific universities
University of Alabama, I: 3
University of Bologna, II: 13,160,162,
    167, 168-72,173,174
University of Munich, I: 45-47, 47n52
University of Paris, II: 174, 178, 179,
195n, I97n; III: 246, 254
University of Southem Califom ia, I: 8
Unmensch ("nonman"), VIII: 347
Unmut (discontent), VII: 216
Untere Obrigkeit (inferior authority),
    V: 26
Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche),
    VII: 252, 261-62
Unwesentlichkeit (nonessentiality),
    VIII: 359
Uomo buono (virtuous human), IV: 60
Urban II, Pope, II: 72
Urban V, Pope, IV: 39
Urban VI, Pope, III: 191, 245, 247n5
Urbes (towns), V: 54
Urbesque domusque recedunt, V: 159
Urvolk, II: 46
Usufructu, VII: 54
Usus, VI: 112-13, 125
Usus et acceptatio, III: 264
Utilitarianism, II: 193-95, 196n; V: 30,
    44; VI: 72, 114, 184, 207-15; VIII: 6,
    75, 96-98, 192-93
UItilitas populi, V: 43
Utilité public (public usefulness),
    VIII: 73
Utility, VI: 112
Utopia (More), IV: 6, 8-9, 91, 97, 105,
    109-30, 109-10n33, 118-19n; VII: 97
Utopianism, I: 231; IV: 8, 110-13,
    110n35, 118-19n; V: 34; VIII: 306
Utraquistic question, IV: 242
Utrecht, Treaty of, V: 110, 112
Utrecht Peace of 1713, VI: 33
Uxbridge Proposition of 1644, VII: 79
Valence, Council of, IV: 154n
Valentinus, IV: 182, 186; VI: 46
Valentior pars, III: 89-90
Valerius Maximus, II: 114; IV: 54
Valéry, Paul, VII: 180, 181; VIII: 301
Valombrosa, II: 70
Valthek (Beckford), VII: 162
Values. See Ethics
Vandals, II: 32, 33, 45, 56; IV: 43; V: 143
Van Hooft, Peter, VI: 69
Vanité, VIII: 102-3
Vanity, VII: 273-74
VarahranI, I: 185
Varietas religionum, II: 128
Varro, VI: 110
Vatican Council, Second, III: 112n
Vatican Council of 1869-1870, III: 111
Vatican Council of 1871, VI: 161
Vaughan, Frederick, VI: 15n, 132n
Vauvenargues, Luc de Clapiers de,
    VIII: 49-51
Vedanta philosophy, VIII: 69-70
Velle (to will), VI: 111, 116
Veltro, III: 80, 80-81n8; VII: 231
Venice and Venetians, III: 220-23, 228,
    232-33, 240; IV: 36, 66; V: 211
Venturini, Domenico, III: :80n7
Vera cognitio, III: 97
Verbum (Wisdom of God), VI: 97
Verbum genitum, VI: 101, 120, 137
Verdun, Treaty of, III: 217
Verene, Donald Philip, VI: 132n
Verfell (decadence), VIII: 350
Vergesellschaftete Mensch ("socialized
    man"), VIII: 307
Verhimmelten Formen (celestified
    forms), VIII: 338
Veri, III: 67
Veritas (truth), II: 208
Verkehrte (perverted), VIII: 347
Verklären (transfigure), VII: 204
Vem e, Jules, VII: 190
Vem et, Mme., VIII: 149n60
Vem unft (reason), VI: 109; VII: 204
Vertu (virtue), V: 143
Verum creatum, VI: 97, 99, 100, 101
Verum dominium, V: 121-22
V erum est factum, VI: 96-101
Verum increatum, VI: 97, 99
Verus imperator, III: 208, 209
Verwelschung, II: 150
Vespucci, Amerigo, IV: 111, 113
Vestiarian controversy, V: 79
Vettori, Francesco, IV: 72
Via negativa, VII: 261
Vices. See Evil; Sin
Vico, Giambattista: as "anachronism,"
    VI: 95-96, 102; anthropology of,
    VI: 111-13; and attack on cogito,
    I: 28; VI: 107-8; and attack on
    phenomenalism, VI: 107; and
    Augustine, VI: 118-25 ; and autonomy
    of the spirit, VI: 113-14; and
    awareness of rise and fall of Roman
    empire, VII: 169; and Catholic
    Church, VI: 94-95, 95n7; on certainty
    of human sciences, VI: 98-99, 128;
    and Christianity, VI: 88-89, 99-
   101, 106, 109-11, 115, 118, 131;
    on civilizational decay, VII: 26;
    compared with Comte, VIII: 247;
    compared with Hume, VII: 162;
    compared with Voegelin, VI: 15-16;
    concluding comments on, VI: 144-
    48; and continuum of Westem ideas,
    VI: 102-4; destiny and decadence in,
    VII: 167; development of thought
    of, VI: 16-17; on divine age, VI: 137,
    138; first use of term New Science,
    VI: 91-92; on God, VI: 97, 98, 105,
    106, 109-14, 118, 119, 126, 129-
    32; on heroic age, VI: 137, 139; on
    historicity of the mind, VI: 127-29;
    and "historicity of truth," VII: 8;
    on human age, VI: 137, 139-40; on
    humans, VI: 97-98; and idea of New
    Science, VI: 93-96; influence of, I: 23;
    V: 214; VI: 85-86; and Inquisition,
    VI: 15, 15n, 87; Italian political
    situation during time of, VI: 82-85;
    on meaning of history, VI: 131-32;
    meditative character of work of,
    VI: 90-91; on mente eroica, VI: 141-
    44, 147; on metaphysical point and
    the conatus, VI: 104-6; and model of
    mature, VI: 104-9; "modem ity" of,
    VI: 146; on mondo civile, VI: 109-15,
    126, 128; and myth, I: 27; III: 78, 159;
    V: 23; and Neoplatonism, VI: 101-9,
    126; and New Science, VII: 155,
    157; phases of thought of, II: 132;
    VI: 91-92; and philological origin,
    VI: 97-98; on political structure of
    the corso, VI: 137-44; prose style of,
    VI: 14, I4n19, 86-87; on Providential
    contemplation, VI: 129-32; on
    reason, VI: 100, 112, 134; on recursus
    and ricorso, VI: 114-25, 136; and
    reversal of apostatic movement,
    VI: 94-96; and science of history,
    VI: 109-11, 126-27; secondary
    literature on, VI: 17-18, I7n22,
    18n24, 86n, 92n, 132n; secularist
    interpretation of, VI: 87-90; on senso
    commune (common sense), VI: 129,
    132-37, 142, 147; significance of,
    VI: 6, 13, 14-20, 14n18, 83, 85-86,
    90; on stato ferino, VI: 137, 138;
    steps of meditation of, VI: 96-102;
    on storia etem a ideale, VI: 126-32,
    137; VIII: 247; systematic function of
    model of nature, VI: 106-7; transfer
    of model of nature to history,
    VI: 108-9; on unfolding of mind in
    history, VI: 87; on verum est factum,
    VI: 96-97
--Works: Autobiography, VI: 15, 18,
    92n, 93, 94, 105; De Constantia
    Jurisprudentis,
VI: 17, 91-92, 110; De
    Constantia Philologiae,
VI: 91-92;
    De Constantia Philosophiae, VI: 91;
    De universi juris uno principio et fine
    uno,
VI: 91, 110; Diritto universale,
    VI: 16,16n, 91, 110,111, 114-18;
    Liber Metaphysicus, VI: 16, 16n,
    19n27, 91, 98-99, 104, 104n12, 128;
    Scienza nuova ( New Science ), VI: 1,
    15, 17-19, I9n27, 86, 90, 92-95, 99,
    102, 106, 110-11, 114-18, 126-48;
    VII: 6, 34
Victor, Saint, IV: 155
Vicus, V: 58
Vie de Pascal (Périer), VII: 256
Vienna, IV: 44; V: 141
Vienna, Concordat of, III: 251, 256
Vienne, Council of, IV: 185
Vie sentimentale, VIII: 193
Vigilius, Pope, II: 54
Vile matière, VIII: 300
Vilis homo (common man), II: 192-93,
    209
Villamon, VII: 170
Villchardouins, III: 60
Vincent of Beauvais, IV: 44
Vinculum juris (bond of right order),
    I: 137
Vindiciae, VII: 49
Vindiciae contra tyrannos, V: 27,
    51-54, 56n, 57, 58, 109; VII: 49
Vinet, Alexandre, VII: 256-57
Violence: Christians and power of
    the sword, IV: 263-64; and common
    good, IV: 66-67; condemnation
    of, in Gospels, IV: 105; Erasmus
    on, IV: 104-5; eschatological
    violence, IV: 174-75; and prophets in
    arms, IV: 77, 287-88; in spiritual
    movements, IV: 148. See also
    Crusades; Warfare; and specific
    wars
Vir divinus in Deo manens, II: 201
Virgil, I: 141-45, 142n, 150; II: 41-42,
    114, 150; III: 73, 74; V: 159
Viri, VI: 116
Vir sanctus, III: 241
Virtù: Apollonian virtù, IV: 212;
    and Castruccio Castracani, IV: 57;
    compared with Erasmus's virtue,
    IV: 102; and crime, IV: 77, 83; and
    cyclical rise and fall of republics,
    IV: 69-70; Dante on, IV: 102n22,
   209-12; disappearance of, with death
    of prince, IV: 67; of founders and
    restorers, IV: 57, 69-70; Fregoso's
    Memorabilia as stories of, IV: 54; as
    grace melded with power, IV: 107; of
    hero, IV: 59, 60, 64, 82n; and lordship
    types, IV: 77-78; Machiavelli on,
    II: 117, 218; IV: 32, 52, 56, 56n25,
    75, 76-81, 91; V: 130; VII: 61, 120,
   169; VIII: 123; and Machiavelli's
    paganism, IV: 86; movement of,
    among peoples, IV: 71; ordinata
    virtù,
IV: 56, 76, 80; Petrarch on,
    IV: 81; republican virtù, IV: 38n; and
    Retz, VII: 120; and Stoicism, IV: 84;
    tension between fortuna and, IV: 48,
    80-81
Virtù dello animo, IV: 76, 77
Virtues: arete (virtue or excellence;
    Aristotle), I: 99; II: 218; III: 12, 86, 87;
    Epicurean school on, I: 83; Erasmus
    IV: 101-5; and Francis of Assisi,
    II: 135-37; Helvétius on, VIII: 68-70;
    on, VIII: 45-46, 51; Platonic
    virtues, I: 83, 99; V: 33; regia virtus
   
(royal virtue), II: 218; Schelling on,
    VII: 221-22, 238-39; Stoics on, I: 98-
    99; uomo buono (virtuous human),
    IV: 60
Virtù intellecttuale possibile (nobility),
    IV: 211
Virtù propria, IV: 209, 211
Virtus, VI: 108; VII: 238
Virtus extensionis, VI: 105
Virtus intellectiva, III: 75, 76
Virtutes, VI: 104-6, 108
Vis (force), VI: 104, 108, 112
Vis derivativa (derivative force),
    VI: 201-2
Visible church, V: 84-85, 87
Visigoths, I: 223; II: 30-33, 44n6, 45, 56;
    IV: 43, 158; VI: 125
Visio de Petro Plowman, III: 178-81,
    184
Vision, I: 31, 31n
Vis primitiva (primitive force), VI: 201
Vis veri, VI: 112
Vita aetem a in pace (etem al life in
    peace), I: 219
Vita commoda, II: 77; VI: 141
Vita contemplativa (contemplative
    life), III: 176; IV: 71, 268; VI: 32-33,
    262-69, 274-81, 289. See also Bios
    theoretikos
Vita de Dowel, Dobet, and Dobest
    (Piers Plowman), III: 178, 179-84
Vita di Castruccio Castracani
    (Machiavelli), IV: 6, 56-59, 81-82n66,
    87
Vita eroica, II: 77
Vita evangelii, II: 137-38
Vita nuova, III: 113
Vita philosophi, II: 191, 192
Vita politicorum, II: 115
Vita Tamerlani, IV: 52-54, 56, 57, 59,
    81-82n66
Viterbo, Rienzo's letter to, III: 235
Viterbo, treaty of, III: 60
Vitoria, Francisco de: on civilizational
    superiority, V: 127-28; compared
    Bodin, V: 130-31; compared
    with Machiavelli, V: 130-31;
    distinction between interstate and
    intercivilizational relations, V: 115-
    17, 132; on imperialism, II: 214;
    V: 121-28; VII: 56; on interstate law,
    V114-15; on just war, V: 117-21,
    125, 127, 128; later development
    of ideas of, V: 131-33; on natural
    law of human intercourse, V: 124-
    25; personality of, V: 128-31; on
    propagation of Christianity, V: 125-
    27
--Works: Reflectio Posterior, V: 1 1 6-28;
    Relectiones de Indis, IV: 129; V: 114,
    115, 128, 131
Vivere civile (living community), IV: 66
Vivere pericolosamente, VII: 197
Vivere sine litteris, II: 191
Voegelin, Eric: arrival in U.S., I: 14;
    "black reflections" of, I: 29-30, 30n;
    "breakthrough" and "vision" of,
    I: 25-26, 29-30, 43; caustic candor of,
    45-47; contract with Macmillan
    " for History of Political Ideas," I: 3-5;
    11; contract with McGraw-Hill for
    "History of Political Ideas," I: 3-5;
    early writings of, I: 44; escape from
    Nazis, VIII: 3; friends of, 1:14-15;
    inaugural lecture at University of
    Munich, 1:45-46; "leapfrogging"
    in works of, 1:53-4; as mystic-
    philosopher, 1:44-47; notoriety for,
    with Time magazine story, VIII: 18n;
    on purpose of his work, 1:28-29;
    as spiritual realist, 1:24-25, 24n,
    teaching career of, in U.S., I: 3,
    5-6, 8, 52; transition from history
    of political ideas to history of
    consciousness, 1:11-12, 16-30. See
    also
specific titles of works
Volksgeist, 1:229; 11:192; VII: 51
Volnay, VIII: 219
Volonté générale, 1:229; VII: 116
Volonté publique, VII: 116
Voltaire: and "apostatic revolt,"
    10, 21, 57-71, 95, 113; attack
    life of spirit by, VIII: 114; on
    Bossuet, IV: 42, 50-51n18; V: 233;
    Bossuet's debate with, VI: 7-9, 34-40,
    compared with d'Alembert,
    VIII: 94; compared with Erasmus,
    IV: 89, 94; compared with Turgot,
    VIII: 110; compared with Vico, VI: 18;
    compassion, VI: 62-64, 68-70;
    difficulties with ideas of, VII: 196;
    ecclesiastical abuses, VIII: 61; and
    Enlightenment, IV: 202, 213, 268;
    VI: 50; VII: 154; on ésprit humain
    as object of history, VI: 40-42, 44,
    97; on ethics, VI: 61-64, 71; on God,
    VI: 59-61; VII: 203; influences on,
    VI: 150; on intellectuals, IV: 237;
    on intramundane sacred history,
    VI: 42-43; irresponsibilities and
    irreverences of, VIII: 46n7; and
    Marquise du Châtelet-Lorraine,
    VI: 34, 35, 38, 39n; on Middle
    Ages, VI: 44; on morality, VIII: 96;
    philosophical sectarianism of, IV: 4;
    VI: 64-67; in realm between the
    spirits, VI: 67-68; on reason, VI: 58-
    61, 64-65, 71-72; on revolt and order,
    VIII: 92; and secular history, IV: 42;
    VI: 40-42, 44, 45, 108; "spiritual
    obscurantism" of, VI: 8, 61-62, 95,
    113; strengths and weaknesses of,
    VI: 67-68; and universal history,
    IV: 50n18; VI: 38-40, 71
—Works: Dictionnaire philosophique,
    VI: 57, 58, 60-61; Éléments de la
    philosophie de Newton,
VI: 58-60;
    Essai sur les moeurs, VI: 34, 38-
    42, 39n; "Letter on Socianism,"
    VI: 66; Lettres Anglais, VI: 63n;
    Lettres philosophiques, VI: 65-66;
    Questions sur l'encyclopédie, VI: 58
Voltaireanism, VI: 75
Voluntary Servitude (La Boétie), I: 230;
    V: 25, 28-39, 28n4, 40, 42; VIII: 91
Voluntas, V: 220, 221
Voluntates, II: 115n3
Von der Freiheit eines Christenmen-
    schen
(Luther). See Freedom of a
    Christian
(Luther)
Von Gierke, Otto, V: 56, 57
Von Premerstein, Anton, I: 187
Von weltlicher Oberkeit (Luther). See
    Temporal Authority: To What Extent
    Should It Be Obeyed
(Luther)
Vorschule der Ästhetik (Paul), IV: 189
Vorstellkräfte (representational
    powers), VII: 201
Vorstellung (representation), VII: 201
Vossler, Karl, III: 75-76n
Vox populi, vox Dei, IV: 134
Voyages historiques de l'Europe,
    VII: 170
Vulgate Bible, IV: 90
Vulgus, III: 13; IV: 99-101
Wagner, Richard, II: 46; VII: 252, 253,
    260, 27l, 271n51
Waldenses, IV: 139, 180
Waldensianism, III: 175
Waldes, Petrus, IV: 150
Walgreen Lectures, IV: 3; VII: 7
Wallenstein, Albrecht, VII: 105, 106
Waller, VII: 109
Wallia, II: 56
Walpole, Sir Robert, VI: 156; VII: 157
Walram of Naumburg, II: 87n
Walter of Brienne, III: 231
Warburton, William, VI: 156-161, 172,
    178, 179
Warfare:aggrandizement as cause of,
    V: 119-20; Augustine on, IV: 105;
    causes of, IV: 105; deaths in civil
    war, VII: 65-66; VIII: 82; Erasmus
    on, IV: 104-5, 104n30; and Grotius's
    De Jure Belli ac Pacis, VII: 52-53,
    153; just war, IV: 76, 105, 125-308;
    V: 117-21, 125, 127, 128; Machiavelli
    on, IV: 38n, 76; Marsilius on, III: 96,
    100; and Marxism, V: 110-11; More
    on, IV: 125-30; Old Testament
    on, V: 118; papacy's expenditures
    on, III: 166; between powerful
    monarchies, IV: 106-7; and prophet
    in arms, IV: 77, 287-88; rational
    conduct of, IV: 127; regulation of,
    through intem ational law, VII: 53-
    54; religious wars, IV: 151, 288;
    Vitoria on war guilt, V: 116-17; "war
    to end war," IV: 173, 176; "world
    wars," IV: 172, 176. See also Civil
    wars; Crusades; Military; Violence;
    and specific wars
War of Chioggia, III: 220
War of the Austrian Succession, VI: 159
Warrior-monk, II: 75 -77
Wars of the Coalition, V: 110
Wars of the Fronde, VII: 105, 106
Wars of the Roses, III: 68-69; IV: 35;
    VII: 74, 101
Warwick, Earl of, VII: 109
Washington, George, VIII: 210, 219
Wealth, I: 156-61; VII: 99, 101, 150-51,
    189, 299
Weavers' movement, IV: 144, 150
Weber, Max, I: 54, 55, 114, 229-30;
    III: 90; IV: 189n27; VII: 26, 155
Wege des Glaubens (Stöhr), I: 18
Weimar Republic, III: 145
Welfare state, IV: 103-4
Welfs, III: 197. See also Guelfs and
    Ghibellines
Welles, Orson, VII: 191, 191n8
Wells, H. G., IV: 113; VII: 190
Weltalter (Schelling), VI: 95; VII: 202-3,
    209-17, 209n9, 234-36, 249
Weltanschauung, V: 182
Weltgeschichten, VI: 39
Weltgrund, VII: 279
Weltverbesserer (world-reformer),
    VIII: 364
Wenceslas, Saint, III: 204
Wenceslas I, III: 202, 247n5
Wends, III: 201
Wenrich of Trier, II: 86n
Wergeld, IV: 229
Wertauswahl ("value"), VIII: 121
Wesen (human essence, national
    identity), II: 48; VIII: 347
Wesenhaftigkeit (essentiality), VIII: 359
Wesley, Charles, VI: 156
Wesley, John, VI: 156
Westem world:decline of generally,
    IV: 135-36, 135n; isolation of, II: 33-
    35, 35-36n2. See also Europe; and
    specific countries
Westminster Confession, IV: 283
Westphalia Treaties, V: 24, 110
Whichcote, Benjamin, VI: 169-71
Whitehouse, David, II: 3, 35n
White man's burden, V: 127-28
Wholeness: of church as mystical
    body of Christ, II: 7-8, 62-63;
    eschatological wholeness inserted
    into political process, II: 8-9, 9n; of
    national kingdom, II: 7n17, 10; and
    Roman empire, II: 6-7; scientific
    research on, II: 17; Voegelin's theory
    of, II: 4-6, 6n13, 16-17, 108
Wido of Osnaburg, II: 87n
Wiedererkennung (anamnesis), VII: 31
Wieruszowski, Helene, III: 76n
Will: free will, I: 82, 215-16; III: 181,
    181-82n14; general will theory,
    VII: 51; Nietzsche on, VII: 276-80,
    289, 293-95; Pascal on, VII: 262,
    272; Schelling on, VII: 217-19, 236;
    Schopenhauer on, VII: 241, 262
William II, King of England, III: 59n9,
    133
William II, King of Netherlands,
    VII: 134
William II, King of Sicily, II: 145
William of Holland, III: 198
William of Moerbeke, II: 179
William of Ockham:background of,
    III: 103-5; Christianity of, III: 108-9;
    "civilizational schism" in writings
    of, III: 8, 18, 20, 25; compared with
    Thomas Aquinas, III: 8, 116-17;
    compared with Wycliffe, III: 169;
    and council's power, III: 124-26; at
    court of Lewis of Bavaria, III: 129;
    on empire, III: 122-23; Erasmus on,
    IV: 93, 94, 95n4; on faith, III: 7-8,
    17, 25, 107-11, 108n, 126, 265;
    and Franciscan spiritualism, II: 81;
    III: 104, 105,112-14, 125; IV: 184;
    V: 63; on heretical popes, III: 124-
    25; imprisonment of, III: 15, 114;
    and infallibility of pope, III: 124-
    25; as influence on Piers Plowman,
    III: 182n14; on law, II: 171; III: 117-18,
    118nn, 125-26; method in politics of,
    III: 115-17; nominalism of, III: 106-9,
    115-17, 126, 250; on order of world
    and order of poverty, III: 118-20,
    119n16; overview on, I: 39-40; III: 7-
    8, 125-26; IV: 222, 223, 226; V: 18;
    on pope and church, III: 120-21,
    245; and reduction of substance
    to relations, III: 123-24; secular
    civilization and the withdrawal of
    the church, III: 109-12; skepticism
    of, III: 108
--Works: De Imperatorum et
    Pontificum Potestate,
III: 120, 126;
    De juribus romani imperii, III: 122;
    Dialogus, III: 118n14, 120, 121,
    122, 124; Opus Nonaginta Dierum,
    III: 115, 117-18
William of Orange, VII: 53
William of Rubruck, II: 79; IV: 44
William of Saint Amour, II: 199-200
Williams, Roger, IV: 195; VII: 88-92, 93,
    144, 145
William the Conqueror, II: 89, 90, 145;
    VII: 98
Will to power, III: 48-49; VII: 278, 279,
    293-95
Will to Power (Nietzsche), VII: 256,
    267, 293-94
Wilson, Woodrow, IV: 176
Winstanley, Gerard, VII: 96-100
Wintem itz, Eduard von, I: 14
Winthrop, John, VII: 87, 91
Wisby, law of, V: 113
Wisdom and wise men, I: 97-99,
    101, 106, 134; III: 261-63. See also
    Intellectuals; Mind
Wissen und Gewissen (knowledge and
    conscience), VII: 276, 295
Witchcraft, V: 206,207
Witzenmann, Walter, VI: 92n
Wodan cult, II: 42-43
Wolf, Abraham, V: 170n81
Wolff, Helen, I: 11-12
Wolff, Kurt, I: 11-12
Wolfram von den Steinen, II: 157
Women:communalization of, VIII: 360;
    community of, I: 96, 236; Comte's
    divinization of woman, VIII: 189-91
Woodhouse, A. S. P., VII: 80-82, 83, 98,
    110-12
Workers: and abolition of Council of the
    North in England, VII: 108-9; Marx
    on, VIII: 296, 354-56; Winstanley on
    exploitation of, VII: 98-99. See also
    Proletariat
Workers' movement, VII: 52
Work ethics, II: 199-200
Workman, Herbert B., III: 170
World. See Mundus; Saeculum
World history. See History
World- imperium and state- imperium,
    III: 205-10, 216
"World of Homer" (Voegelin), I: 51
World of the Polis (Voegelin), I: 28
World organization, III: 63-64, 63-64n,
    72, 76-77, 121-23, 239; IV: 170
World War I, I: 73; III: 142-43; IV: 176;
    V: 28, 110-11
World War II, I: 45; IV: 176; V: 111
Worms, Concordat of, III: 206
Writs of summons, III: 148-51
Wycliffe, John, I: 33; III: 13, 168-70,
    172-75, 184-92; IV: 150, 151, 222;
    V: 122
Xenophanes, VII: 227
Xenophon, IV: 82n; V: 29, 38
Xerxes, II: 44; IV: 50, 55; V: 142, 142n7
Yahweh (Jehovah). See God
Yin and yang symbols, I: 26-27
York Anonymous, III: 129,190. See also
    Norman Anonymous; York Tracts
York Tracts, I: 33; II: 92, 94-101, 95n20,
    105-6, 109, 132, 134, 141, 203;
    III: 105, 109, 129, 169, 189, 190;
    IV: 222
Yugoslavia, VIII: 317n11
Zachariah, II: 129, 130
Zachary, Pope, II: 57, 86
Zagreus, VII: 228
Zama, battle of, I: 120, 125
Zarathustra, VII: 260
Zarathustra (Nietzsche), VII: 287
Zdanov, VII: 143
Zen Buddhism, II: 75
Zeno, Emperor, II: 53
Zeno (the Cynic), I: 75, 76, 78, 95, 98,
    99, 200; IV: 92
Zeus, IV: 57; VII: 217, 228, 229, 244-45
Zinskauf, IV: 244
Ziska, John, III: 175
Zoon politikon, I: 129; II: 219-20
Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, II: 8;
    VIII: 27, 196
Zurich, I: 110; V: 50
Zwingli, Huldrych, IV: 227; V: 20, 50,
    76; VI: 66
Zwinglianism, VI: 46

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