Roman numerals preceding page numbers refer to the eight volumes in History of Political Ideas

Rabelais, François, IV:271
Race and State (Voegelin), II:6n14;
Race idea and racism, I:19-20; VII:171-
Radio broadcast of War of the Worlds,
    VII:191, I91n8
Raffael, VII:222n45
Rainborough, Thomas, VII:83
Raison d'état, II:153; IV:265; V:5, 22,
Raisonneur (person who reasons),
Ramist logic, V:55-56, 56n, 58
Ramus, Peter (Pierre de la Ramée),
    V:55-56, 182
Ranke, Leopold von, VIII:121
Ranters, IV:139
Rantzau, Henrik, V:153-54
Rapport sur l'Alliance (Bakunin),
Rastatt, Treaty of, V:110
Ratio (reason), I:39, 134; II:13-14,208,
    224; III:180; IV:116-19, 215; VI:112.
    See also Nous; Reason
Ratio aeterna, III:106; VI:100
Ratio divina, IV:9, 118
Ratio humana, IV:9, 118
Rationalism, III:9; IV:89; VII:195-96
Rationality of conduct, I:113-14
Rational-utilitarianism, VI:207-15
Ratisbon, Diet of, V:19
Raymond of Peñafort, II:174
Raynal, Abbé, VIII:208
Reactionaries, Bakunin on, VIII:263-
"Reaktion in Deutschland"(Bakunin),
    VIII:258, 263-64
Realism: of Bodin, I:34; VII:59-61;
    Dante's spiritual realism, I:24, 25;
    III:70-72; VII:34; and evocation,
    VII:59-60; of Hobbes, VII:23, 25,
    59-61, 59-62, 154; ineffectiveness
    of realist, VII:198; of La Boétie,
    V:7, 35; of Machiavelli, I:34; III:11,
    69-71; VII:34, 59-62; metaphysical,
    III:265-66; of Nicholas of Cusa,
    III:265-66; of Nietzsche, I:24, 34;
    III:70, 71; VII:34; and partiality
    and inversion, VII:196-98; period of
    transition and realists, VII:59-62;
    and philosophical dilettantism,
    VII:194-95; and rationalism,
    VII:195-96; of Schelling, VII:34,
    238-39; social isolation of realist,
    VII:193-94; spiritual, I:24-25, 24n,
    34, 41; III:69-72; VII:33-34; of
    Voegelin, I:24-25, 24n, 41
Realissimum, III:259; IV:116, 250-51;
    VII:180; VIII:71, 83, 86, 118
Reality: consciousness-reality, I:43-45;
    and idea, II:66-67; mysterious nature
    of, I:.47; participatory reality, I:16-17,
    41-42, 47
Realm: as analogue of Divine Trinity,
    III:205; definition of, III:154, 158,
    158n:28; Fortescue on political
    structure of realm of England,
    III:155-62; of France, III:160; in
    Golden Bull, III:205-10; origin and
    growth of, III:154, 159; terminology
    for, III:205-6; terminology for head
    of, III:206. See also Empires; Regnum
Reason: Age of Reason, VII:195-96;
    autonomous secular reason, VI:51-
    52; "civilizational schism" between
    faith and, III:8, 18-21; Condorcet on,
    VIII:149-50; Culverwel on, VI:167-
    69; and faith, I:39-40, 42; II:182-84,
    187-90, 209-10; III:25; in France,
    VI:75, 81; and God's existence,
    VI:59-61; Grotius on, VII:57-58,
    65, 154; Hegel on, VI:77; VIII:342;
    Hobbes on, VII:62, 65, 131; Hume on,
    VII:157, 158-59; Kant on, I:39; II:109;
    III:107; V:178-79; VI:58; VII:206;
    law of, V:100; Lockean, VI:167,
    171-79; VII:154; Machiavelli on,
    IV:65 ; More on, IV:116-19; Nicholas
    of Cusa on, III:263; recta ratio (right
    reason), I:137; V:221-22; VII:57;
    Spelling's aphorisms on, VII:203-4;
    severed from faith in modernity,
    III:8-9, 18; Thomas Aquinas on,
    III:20, 98, 105; vacuum of, VI:71-72;
    Vico on, VI:100, 112, 134; VII:156;
    Voltaire on, VI:58-61, 64-65, 71-72;
    Whichcote on, VI:169-71. See also
Reasonableness of Christianity
    (Locke), VI:76, 172-79
Rebus ipsis dictantibus, VI:113
Récamier, Mme., VIII:225
Recentes theologi (modern theolo-
    gians), IV:94
Recentius theologiae genus, IV:95
Rechabites, I:111
Recta ratio (right reason), I:137;
    V:221-22; VII:57
Recueil des voyages, VII:171
Recursus, VI:114-25
    Redemption, IV:162, 255n
Redlichkeit (passion of honesty),
Reed, R. R., VII:108-9
Reflectio Posterio r (Vitoria), V:116-28
Reformatio et renovatio, III:236, 237
Reformation:as "age of confusion,"
    I:40; IV:217-18; beginning of, II:68,
    69; III:15; IV:86; as beginning of
    modernity, IV:3, 4, 88-89; and
    Calvinism, IV:14, 268-91; V:5, 20,
    27, 45-50; in England, I:114; III:130,
    172; V:19-20, 27, 70; Erasmus
    on, IV:97; in France, III:130; and
    Franciscans, II:139; in Germany,
    III:172, 256; IV:151; VII:226n56;
    impact of, V:18; VI:33, 36; VII:142-
    43, 153, 169, 286; as international
    movement, II:84, 231; III:172,
    174; V:110; and interruption of
    secularism in politics, III:69; V:44-
    45; introductory comments on,
    I:33-34; IV:11-20; and Jesuits, V:62;
    and Leipzig Disputation, IV:16,
    220-23, 224, 231; and Luther, IV:12,
    217, 218, 228-48; V:4, 19-20; Marx
    on, VIII:351; Ninety-five Theses of
    Luther, III:251; IV:217, 218, 228-31;
    V:4; and publishing, IV:218-20,
    230; and radical demand for reform,
    VIII:19-20; reforming factor in,
    II:202; V:19-20; and "respectable
    eschatology," I:160,162; V:20;
    schismatic factor in, III:9, 126, 192;
    V:19-20; VI:45-46, 52-53, 84; and
    schism between Greek Church and
    Latin Church, IV:16, 220-24, 279-
    80n35; and secularization, V:22-25;
    and social change, III:119-20; and
    spiritual movements, I:213; II:78;
    IV:139; survey of issues on, V:19-28,
    44; universal factor in, V:19-20;
    Voegelin's reading of, IV:15-20; and
    York Tracts , II:107. See also Calvin,
    John; Luther, Martin; People of God
Reformation as general term, IV:134-
Reform of 1832 (England), VII:83, 157
Regalia, II:172
Regalis potestas, II:53
Reges Christianissimi, III:58
Regia virtus (royal virtue), II:218
Regimen conmixtum, II:221
Régime théologique, VIII:186
Regiomontanus, V:165, 165n76
Regiones (provinces), V:54
Regis voluntas suprema lex, II:123
Regnum (realm): Althusius on, VII:49;
    Augustine on, I:217; Calvin on, V:54;
    and civitas, II:215; and Germany,
    III:21.4-16; Hugh of Saint Victor
    on, III:47; John of Paris on, III:56-
    57; John of Salisbury on, II:121;
    Marsilius on, III:86, 87, 93; and
    populus, III:149; V:58; and royal
    power, II:86; III:54; Suá rez on, V:68;
    Thomas Aquinas on, II:13; III:75, 86;
    York Tracts on, II:96, 99. See also
Regnum caelorum, V:65
Regnum particulare (particular realm),
Regnum politice regulatum, III:157
Regnum politicum, III:160
Regnum terrarum, V:65
Regnum Teutonicum, III:206-7
Regola generale (general rule), IV:66
Regulus, reguli, II:91; III:207
Reich der Welt, IV:263
Reich Gottes, IV:263, 265
Reid, Thomas, I:42
Relative natural law of fallen man,
Relativity: and absolute motion,
    VI:196-97; aspects of problem
    of, VI:186-87; from Copernicus
    to Leibniz, VI:184-86; Einstein's
    theory of, VI:184, 205; Galileo and
    Inquisition, VI:186-89; and Leibniz,
    VI:186, 187, 199-205; and Mach,
Relectiones de Indis (Vitoria), IV:129;
    V:114, 115, 128, 131
Rélexions sur l'espace et le temps
    (Euler), VI:198
Religio andratio, IV:116-19, 125
Religion: Comte's confusions
    surrounding, VIII:248; Comte's
    Religion of Humanity, VIII :10, 163,
    166-67, 185, 193, 194-210, 216, 221-
    22, 24.8-49; Feuerbach on, VIII:345;
    freedom of, VII:77, 85-92; French
    Revolution and spontaneity of
    collective religiousness, VIII:209-10;
    Hume on, VII:160; Marx on, IV:167,
    213; VII:203, 238, 239; VIII:61,
    340-42, 342n38, 346-47, 358n68;
    Montesquieu on, VII:167; Nietzsche
    on religiousness, VII:275-76;
    Schelling on religiousness, VII:221-
    22; Turgot on, VIII:145-47. See
Catholic Church; Christianity;
    Church; Counter-Reformation;
    Protestantism; Reformation
Religion civile, VIII:208
Religious Peace of Augsburg, V:19
Religious toleration. See Toleration
Religious wars, IV:151, 288
Renaissance: as beginning of
    modernity, I:40; II:108; IV:3-5;
    Burdach's conception of, IV:202-
    5; compared with Hellenistic
    period, I:101, 132, 146; and English
    Parliament, III:140; foundation of
    politics, II:204, 229; in Germany,
    III:198; and Nicholas of Cusa, III:257;
    les progrè s de l'ésprit (progress of the
    mind) beginning with, VIII:100-101;
    and rise of nations, I:223; roots of,
    I:236-37; II:107; and royalty, II:150,
    218; symbols of, II:213; III:234;
    transition between Middle Ages and,
    II:34-35; III:37-38; and York Tracts,
Renan, Joseph-Ernest, II:50, 182n12;
    VII:156; VIII:134
Renascentia, IV:98
Renovatio, III:236, 237; IV:202;
    VII:248; VIII:299, 309-10
Renovatio evangelica, III:79; VIII:62,
    95, 254
Renovatio vitae evangelicae, III:113
Rense, declaration of, III:210
Repgow, Eike von, III:212n12
Repos (quiet, rest), VII:281-82; VIII:64
Repraesentantes populi, III:215
Representation: and articulation,
    III:151-53; and Christianity, III:152-
    53; and Cluniac organization,
    III:152; definition of, III:145-48;
    electoral college and majority
    problem, III:210-14; in England,
    III:22-24, 145-54,151-53; in France,
    III:147; Lupold of Babenberg on,
    III:215, 216; Marsilius of Padua
    on, III:88-91; Nicholas of Cusa on,
    III:258, 263; origin of, III:146-47;
    overview of, III:22-23; and the realm,
    III:154; and writs of summons in
    England, III:148-51. See also English
Representative truth, I:42-45
Republica de' Viniziani (Gianotti),
Republic (Cicero), I:17, 131-32, 134,
    135, 137
Republic (Diogenes), I:76
Republic (Plato), I:210; II:185; IV:110,
    112; VI:135; VIII:289
Republic (Zeno), I:76
Republicanism: and anakyklosis,
    IV:64, 71; Augustine on, I:216-20;
    Cicero on, I:217-18; cyclical nature
    of republics, IV:62-65, 69-70; in
    Florence, IV:32-33; Guicciardini on,
    IV:33-34, 34n; and human desires,
    IV:64-65; Machiavelli on, IV:59-71,
    73; Montesquieu on, VII:168; and
    religion, IV:67-68; republics as corpi
IV:64; Roman republic, IV:59-
    60, 62-71; Vico on, VI:139-40; and
    virtù of hero, IV:64
République (Bodin), IV:90
République une et indivisible , V:247
Res cogitans, VI:94
Resh Galutha, I:182-83
Resistance against government
    authority, V:26, 51-54, 59
"Respectable eschatology," V:20
Respiritualization, VI:53-54
Response au Paradoxe de M. de
(Bodin), V:185
Res populi, I:136-37, 217, 218
Res possessae, II:229
Res privata, I:140; IV:123
Res publica (the state), I:136-37, 140,
    214, 217, 218; II:12; IV:123; V:58;
Res publica Christiana, V:60; VII:55
Res publica Romana, II:62
Ressentiment, VII:281-83, 298-303;
    VIII:65, 201,202, 318
Restoration period in England, VII:24,
Resurrection, I:.163-66
Res vestra maxime agitur, III:150
Retractationes (Augustine), I:209
Rettore, III:223
Retz, Jean Franç ois Cardinal de,
    VII:106, 118-21, 124
Revelation, I:26, 42, 43, 53
Revelation, Book of, II:98n26, 134;
Revolt: La Boétie on, V:33-35; and
    Vindiciae contra tyrannos, V:52-54
Revolutions: apocalyptic mania
    underlying, VIII:16; Bakunin on,
    VIII:92, 251-59, 267-68, 268-69n23,
    270, 272-75, 283-94, 299, 301-
    2; Bakunin on revolution as new
    fatherland, VIII:286-87, 286-87n47;
    Bakunin's creation of revolutionary
    societies, VIII:283-90; Engels on,
    VIII:313n7; fantastic as element
    of, VIII:270, 288-90; in Germany,
    VIII:348-52; Glorious Revolution in
    England, V:91; VI:154-55; VII:107,
    137; VIII:214; impossibility of
    organizing democratically, VIII:287-
    88; Marx on, VIII:15-16, 304-10,
    312-15nn7-8, 337-38, 348-52,
    366-67; in mid-nineteenth century,
    VIII:259, 265, 266, 291; and pan-
    Slavic imperialism, VIII:272-75;
    also of outbursts of great
    revolutionary movement after
    sixteenth century, V:110; permanent
    revolution of liberals, VIII:216-19;
    political and apolitical revolutions,
    I:71-73; Russian Revolutions,
    IV:169, 172, 176; VIII:12-13, 72,
    313-16, 318-19; social revolution
    and spiritual movements, IV:145-
    51; Turgot on, VIII:124-25; and
    Tycho de Brahe on meaning of new
    star, V:163-64. See also English
    Revolution; French Revolution;
    Glorious Revolution
Rex (king), I:189; II:48, 91, 116, 218;
Rex Christianissimus, III:60-61
Rex electus, III:207
Rex erectus est, III:158
Rex et sacerdos, III:58, 58n7
Rex nihil protest nisi quod jure potest,
Rex Romanorum, II:169; III:206, 208,
    213, 216
Rex Romanorum futurus imperator,
Rex Romanorum in caesarem
Rhetoric, V:55
Rhetoric (Aristotle), IV:237
Rhode Island colony, VII:91-92, 144
Rhythms of nature, V:146-47, 149,
Ricardo, David, VIII:370
Rich, Sir Henry, VII:109
Richard I, the Lionheart, King of
    England, II:29, 145, 146, 216; III:132
Richard II, King of England, III:57, 68
Richard of Com wall, III:198
Richard of Saint Victor, IV:212n55
Richelieu, Cardinal, VII:105, 113-14,
    116, 117, 118-19,168
Ricimer, II:56
Ricorsi, ricorso (Vico), VI:88, 114, 116,
    118-25, 136
Rienzo, Cola di, III:11, 233-44, 241n;
    IV:38, 81n66,203,204, 213
Rights: bills of rights, VII:82; property
    rights, III:53, 117, 123, 160-62;
    Spinoza on, VII:130, 132-33; symbols
    of natural right, VII:48-50
Rinnovazione (reform), IV:69
Ritornare al suo Principio, IV:209-10;
Rivière, Jean, III:49n6
Robert, King of Naples, III:231
Robert II, III:58
Robert Bellarmine, Saint, II:86
Robert Grosseteste, II:80
Robert Guiscard, II:89
Robespierre, Maximilien-François-
    Marie-Isidore de, IV:175; VI:63;
    VIII:6, 96, 209, 214, 216
Robin, Ch., VIII:173
Robinson Crusoe (Defoe), IV:112
Rodrigues, Olinde, VIII:229, 230
Roger II, II:145, 156
Roher Kommunismus ("crude
    communism"), VIII:360
Roi soleil (sun king), V:158
Rôles d'Oléron, V:113
Rolle, Richard, III:176-77
Romanae restitutionis auctor (restorer
    of Rome), I:223
Roman Catholic Church. See Catholic
    Church; Church; Popes
Roman de la rose, II:181, 193, 193n25;
Roman empire: and Antony and
    Cleopatra, I:141-43; awareness
    of rise and fall of, VII:169; and
    Caesar, I:121, 133, 138-40, 142,
    145, 150,187-89; Christianity in,
    I:168, 178, 183-85, 202, 207-9; and
    clientele oath, II:61; climax of, after
    Third Crusade, II:29; compared
    with Islamic empire, II:188n; and
    concordia, I:94; and cycles, I:125-26;
    deification of emperors of, I:190-
    94; Easternization of, I:186-87,
    190-94; end of, I:222-23; II:55-56;
    III:224, 242; IV:69,971; fatality and
    authority of, I:123-24; and fortune
    as experience, I:122-23; Gibbon on,
    IV:138-39; as holy empire ( sacrum
), II:7n17, 9, 10-12, 29-
    30, 37-38; III:122, 205; and idea
    of world history, I:124-25; IV:111;
    and imperium, I:121, 123-24, 135,
    144, 150, 186, 189; V:232; legal
    construction of, during migration
    period, II:55-56; and migrations,
    II:30-33, 35n, 41-51; Monumentum
on, I:141; and myth of
    Italianità , III:77-78; oath for the
    princeps, I:188-89; and Otto the
    Great, III:195; pagan foundation of,
    II:188n; and pax romana, I:121, 141;
    persecutions of Christians in, I:184-
    85, 2I7, 208; as power apparatus,
    not political will of people, I:178-79;
    III:154; preparatory phase for holy
    empire, II:10-12, 30; protectorate
    of the princeps, I:190; seat of
    government of, I:186; III:152; slow
    movement away from old Roman
    empire, II:66-67; as substance of
    God, I:137; titles of emperors, I:187-
    90; transfer of empire and coronation
    of Charlemagne, II:52; tripolity as
    cause of success of, I:126-30, 134,
    144; and unitary whole of Christ's
    kingdom, II:7, 9; and wholeness,
    II:6-7. See also Carolingian empire;
    Emperors; Rome
Romania, III:200
Romanitas, IV:224
Roman law: amalgamation of Roman
    and Christian ideas, II:12-13,
    46,166; III:208; V:18, 52; Bodin on,
    V:246; canonization of, II:163-
    64; and Christian absolute order,
    II:165-66; and church, II:167;
    Cicero on, I:52, 52n8, 136-37, 197;
    II:163,164; and England, III:130,
    149, I49n12; equality in, I:96;
    Exceptiones Petri, II:162,167;
    Expositio ad librum papiensem,
    II:167-68; as hieroglyphic, I:52,
    52n; identification of ius gentium
    and ius naturale to time of Gaius,
    I:197-98; identification of Roman
    order and world order, I:197; and
    John of Salisbury, II:114, 121n11,
    123; Justinian's codification of, II:13,
    163-66, 168, 169; lex generalis,
    II:166-68; lex regina, II:121n11;
    V:42-43; lex Romanorum, II:166;
    and Lombard law, II:162,167-68,
    172; movement against "foreign"
    Roman law, II:46; myth of, I:36-
    37; II:162-68; and natural right,
    VII:48; in Policraticus, II:114, 123;
    revival of, II:12-13, 107, 111-12,
    160-63, 167-73; Seneca's critique of
    civilization, I:199-200; separation
    of ius gentium and ius naturale ,
    I:198-99; Stoicism compared with
    Christianity, I:96, 200; Syrian phase
    of, I:198-99; theory of, I:197-200;
    Vico on, VI:91, 134; and Western
    law, II:160-62
Romans, Epistle to, II:7, 8; III:45, 186;
Romanticism, II:46; III:199; V:162;
    VI:179; VII:51; VIII:21
Roma regia, II:166
Roma vetus, II:166
Rome: and Caesar, I:121, 133, 138-40,
    142, 145, 150, 187-89; Chatelet-
    Lorraine on, VI:34-35; Cicero
    on, I:132-38; civil war period of,
    I:188; conquered by Gauls, IV:71;
    as cosmopolis, I:135, 137; end of
    republic, I:138, 139; fall of, in 410,
    IV:43; as first corso of Italian history,
    IV:60; foundation myth for, I:143-46;
    freedom in, IV:65-66; government
    of, I:136; as head of orbis terrarum,
    II:166; history of, IV:59-60; influence
    on Western civilization, VI:37-38,
    52; internal unrest in, IV:65 -66; law
    of , I:52, 52n, 96, 136-37; and model of
    historiography, IV:41-42; monarchy
    in, IV:65, 66; Montesquieu on,
    VII:167; Paul in, I:166-67; as polis,
    I:143-44; princeps and clients in
    republican Rome, I:187-88; religion
    of, IV:67; republic of, IV:59-60, 62-
    71; retumof pope to, from Avignon,
    IV:38-39; and Rienzo, III:233-37,
    239, 243; sack of, I:209; tyranny
    in, IV:65; Vandals' siege of, in 431,
    IV:43; Vico on, VI:91-92, 117-19,
    121-25 134, 137, 140; Virgil on,
    I:144; virtù in, IV:71. See also Popes;
    Roman empire
Römisches Gespräch, VII:169
Romulus (founder of Rome), I:191;
    IV:66, 97, 76
Romulus Augustulus, I:187; II:55
Ronsard, Pierre de, V:29
Roosevelt, Franklin D., IV:176;
Rosenberg, Alfred, VI:179
Rosicrucianism, VIII:20, 225n72,
Rossaeus, V:39
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: and Blanqui,
    VIII:132; on civilization, V:39;
    VIII:130; compared with Kropotkin,
    VIII:279, 281; and construction
    of nation, VII:51; contract theory
    of, I:110; as influence on Kant,
    VI:150; on "natural right" doctrine,
    VIII:244-45; and nature, I:200;
    VIII:279; and Nietzsche, VII:257;
    and "noble savage" and natural men,
    IV:112; VI:178; on peace, VIII:219;
    and "rediscovery of man," VII:23,
    51; on religion civile, VIII:208
—Work: Contrat Social, III:93; VII:115
Royal government doctrine, V:104
Royal Society, VI:63n; VIII:20
Rucellai, Cosimo, IV:60
Rudbekii, Olaii, VII:170
Rudis homo, III:179
Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf I), III:39,
    198, 228-29
Rule of Benedict of Nursia, II:35,
    63-64, 69, 70, 164
Rule of Francis of Assisi, II:137-38,139
Rulership: "authority" of ruler, II:50;
    Bodin on, V:228; Calvin on, V:48-49;
    charisma of ruler, V:49; and control
    of opinion, VII:70; deposition of
    heretical ruler, V:65-66; Grotius on,
    VII:54; Hobbes on, VII:67-69, 71;
    "legality" of ruler, II:51; Louis XIV
    on, VII:121-25; Marsilius of Padua
    on, III:91-96; natural ruler by reason,
    III:264; obedience to ruler, VII:69;
    and poverty, VII:98-99; powerful
    ruler versus powerless subject,
    III:50-51; Salamonius on, V:42-43;
    sovereign as mortal God, VII:67,
    68, 71; theocracy, V:45-50; and
    Vindiciae contra tyrannos, V:51-54;
    Winstanley on, VII:98-99; Wycliffe
    on, III:186-87. See also Emperors;
    Kingship; Monarchy; Sovereignty;
    and specific rulers
Rupert of Deutz, II:127
Russia: army soviets of 1917, VII:80;
    and Bakunin, VIII:259-60, 266,
    270-71; Chatelet-Lorraine on, VI:35;
    compared with Rome, I:124; VI:37-
    38; and German expansion, III:199,
    200; history of generally, VI:109; and
    Holy Alliance, VIII:9, 224-28; and
    industrial society, III:143; and Ivan
    the Great, III:69; Marxist movement
    in, V:110-11; and Napoleon,
    VIII:204-6; and National Socialism,
    V:132-33; Orthodox Christianity
    in, VIII:12; revolutionaries of
    nineteenth century, VIII:267-68,
    274; revolution in, IV:169, 172,
    176; VIII:12-13; Revolution of
    1905, VIII:313, 314; Revolution of
    1917, VIII:315, 316, 318-19; rise of,
    IV:45n, 50n18, 279n35; robberdom
    in, VIII:294-95; ruling elite in, III:92;
    social order of nineteenth century,
    VIII:267-70. See also Soviet Union
Russian Revolutions, IV:169,172, 176;
    VIII:12-13, 72, 313-16, 318-19
    Rusticus, III:180
Sabellicus, VI:36n
Sabine, George H., I:5, 51-52; VI:2, 5,
    5n; VII:9
Sacerdotal celibacy, IV:241
Sacerdotium, II:86, 96, 99; III:47, 54,
    125; V:73
Sachkenntnis (expert knowledge),
Sachsenspiegel, III:212
Sacra Italia, III:235, 236, 237, 243
Sacraments, II:83-84, 84n6; IV:140,
    141, 143, 159, 274, 275, 277, 278
Sacred history, I:210-12, 214, 220;
    V:136; VI:42-43, 45; VIII:112-13,
Sacred kingship, II:53, 63, 119; III:57-
Sacrifice, VII:248, 250
Sacrificium intellectus, 39; III:52, no
Sacrilege, II:156
Sacri Romani celsitudo imperii, III:205
Sacro-sanctum imperium Romanum,
Sacrum edificium, III:205
Sacrum imperium. See Holy empire
    ( sacrum imperium )
Sacrum Imperium (Dempf), II:60n;
    III:5, 85n2, 119n15, 264n; VI:7
Saecularia, III:120
Saeculum : end of, IV:147; and Francis
    of Assisi, II:135-43; and Joachim of
    Fiore, II:126-34; IV:154; and John
    of Salisbury, II:11 3-25; Le Roy on,
    V:145; questions on, II:111-12; and
    problem of intramundane order,
    II:109-11; VI:31, 32; and Siger de
    Brabant, II:187-98; and York Tracts,
Saeculum aeternum, III:98
Saeculum renascens, II:106-9
Saeculum senescens: Augustine on,
    I:211-13; II:131; III:266; V:236;
    VI:43, 119, 121; and defeat of
    Christian empire, II:106; III:81-82;
    Schelling on, VII:231; Vico on, VI:20,
    121, 124
Sages (the wise), VII:272
St. Andrew's Priory, V:76-77
Saint Bartholomew Massacre, V:26, 28,
    55, 187
Saint Danis, Suger de, III:59
Sainte-ampoule, V:37
Saint Germain, Christopher, V:78-79,
St. John, Oliver, VII:109
Saint-Pierre, Abbe de, V:112; VIII:219
Saints, I:160-61, 183, 213; IV:146-47,
    163,166, 169-73; VI:62, 63, 118;
    VII:142, 275, 291-92
Saint-Simon, Claude-Henri de
    Rouvroy, comte de, IV:110; VI:43,
    75; on class structure, VIII:233; and
    Comte, VIII:175, 206-7, 216, 228-33;
    and Engels, VIII:335; messianism
    of, VIII:168, 223; and Napoleon,
    VIII:.232n78; and new hierarchy,
    VIII:132; on organisation sociale,
    VIII:230-33; Positivism of, VIII:134,
    139; on progress, VIII:131; on
    science, VIII:229-33; utilitarianism
    of, VIII:98
—Works: Catéchisme industriel,
    VIII:233; Introduction aux travaux
    scientifiques du XIXe siè cle,

    VIII:232; Lettres d'un habitant de
    Genè ve,
VIII:168, 231-32; Mémoire
    sur la science de l'homme, VIII:232-
    33; Nouveau Christianisme of,
    VIII:96; Systè me industriel, VIII:233
Salamonius, Marius, V:42-44, 57
Salic Law, V:249
Salisbury, John of. See John of Salisbury
Salomo, V:217
Salus et cura animae, V:58
Salutati, Coluccio, IV:39-41, 60
Salvation, IV:98, 118, 140, 142, 153,
    163, 278, 280-81; V:139,169. See
Salvation by fame, IV:47-48, 47n13
Samarkand, IV:51, 52
Samoitia, III:201
Samosata, battle of, IV:159
Samuel, Book of, I:111, 112; II:47;
    III:74, 182
Sánchez, Francisco, VI:102, 105
Sanctification, VII:219-20, 244
San Domingo, history of, VII:171
Sandoz, Ellis, VII:10,12
Santayana, George, III:111; VII:180;
Sapiens (wise man), V:94, 117-18;
Sapientes et heroes , III:261-63, 265
Sapientiores et praestantiores, III:264
Sapienza, battle of, III:220
Sapienza volgare, VI:117, 134, 135
Sapphira, I:158
Saracens, V:118, 143
Sardinia, III:240
Sarpi, Paolo, VI:83
Sassanid empire, I:185, 221; II:165
Satan and Satanism, II:136; III:182,
    183; IV:159,165; VII:294-95; VIII:85,
    185, 251, 271-73, 294, 299-302. See
    also Civitas diaboli
(city of the
    devil); Corpus diaboli; Ecclesia

Saturnus, VII:245
Saul, King, III:74; V:53
Savants (scientists), VIII:243
Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, II:172
Savior kings, I:107
Savonarola, Girolamo, III:11, 243;
    IV:32, 69, 86; V:136, 150-51, 150nn
Saxony and Saxons, II:33, 46, 67;
    III:197, 213
Say, Jean-Baptiste, VIII:216
Saye, Lord, VII:109
Scala, Bartolomeo della, IV:41
Scale of Perfection (Hilton), III:177
Scheffer-Boichorst, Paul, II:60n
Scheinheiligen Dichter (Hölderlin),
Scheler, Max, VII:30
Schelling, Friedrich: and anamnetic
    dialogue, VII:211-14, 218; and
    aphorisms on reason, VII:203-4;
    attacks on, VII:198; on awareness
    of human nature, VIII:279; and
    Bakunin, VIII:254, 256; on barbarous
    principle, VII:202,203; and Bruno,
    VII:176, 200-203, 205-8, 210-11,
    2.40; on Christianity, VII:203, 211,
    219-20, 222, 230-33, 236-39; on
    church, VII:225-27; compared
    with Plato, VII:236-37, 237n71;
    compared with Saint Thomas,
    VII:240-41; compared with Vico,
    VI:90, 100; concluding comments
    on, VII:26-42; and consciousness
    of human historicity, VII:30-31;
    on constitution making, VI:145; on
    Covenant of the Peoples, VII:223-24,
    231, 236; critique of the age by,
    VII:202-3; on Descartes and post-
    Cartesian speculation, VII:200-202,
    204, 206; dialectic of, VII:212, 213,
    213n19; on Dionysus and Christ,
    VII:230-33, 243; on "double life,"
    VII:218-19; elements of position
    of, VII:200-204; as end of epoch,
    VII:241-42; on freedom, V:III:301; on
    French Revolution, VII:224; on God,
    VII:202, 203, 204,206-9, 216, 218-
    19, 221, 223, 232-34, 238; on grace,
    VII:219-22, 244; on Greek polis,
    VII:227-29, 233; and Hegel, VII:213-
    1.4; on historical existence, VII:210-
    1.4; and "historicity of truth," VII:8;
    on human nature, VII:220-22, 223;
    and hylozoism, VII:201, 201n3,
    202,202n5; and immersion into
    substance of universe, VII:206-8;
    influence of, VII:198-200; on inner
    return, VII:219-20; VIII:139; on
    intelligible order of being, VII:222-
    23; interpretation of his age by,
    VII:26; and Kant, VII:206; lack of
    impact on institutions of national
    polity, VI:11; on melancholy,
    VII:218, 220-22; on mystery and
    eschatology, VII:229-31, 238-39;
    mysticism of, VII:214; VIII:30; on
    myths, I:228; VII:29, 211, 227-33,
    243; VIII:138; on nature, VII:209,
    221; on Naturrecht, VII:49-50;
    new level of consciousness of,
    VII:236-37, 237n71, 239-41; on
    nirvana, VII:233-36; on Nothing,
    VII:234-35; on orgiastic experience,
    VII:214-17, 218; on period from
    Descartes to Hegel, VI:103; and
    philosophical anthropology, VII:28,
    30-31; philosophy of history and
    politics, I:20-21, 24-29; VI:103-4;
    and philosophy of substance, VII:6;
    on political experience, VII:222- 33;
    posthumous publication of works of,
    VII:199; on potency, VII:208-9,209-
    10n9, 215-16, 234; on Potenzenlehre,
    VII:208-10, 209n9, 211, 217, 237;
    VIII:137; on power-state, VII:223-27,
    236n56; on Promethean existence,
    VII:217-22, 222n45, 231, 233,
    236; on protodialectic experiences,
    VII:214-17; VIII:138; realism of,
    VII:34, 238-39; significance of, I:45;
    IV:189; V:177, 184, 214; VI:77,
    148, 214; VII:28-29, 31, 236-42;
    on soul, VII:210, 211-13, 218,
    219, 236, 238, 240; speculations
    of, VII:204-9, 239; as successor of
    Bruno, V:176; on theogonic process,
    VI:44; VIII:137, 138; and theory of
    myths, VII:29, 211, 227-33, 243;
    on three Christianities, VIII:256;
    on unconscious and unconscious
    ground, VI:108, 132; VII:30, 31,
    176, 214, 215, 218, 240; VIII:137;
    Voegelin's critique of, VI:89
—Works: Ages of the World, VII:199;
    Philosophie der Mythologie, I:26,
    228; VII:156, 209-10n9, 211, 217,
    226n56; VIII:138; Philosophie der
I:26; II:130n; VII:210-
    11, 222n45, 237n71; Philosophische
    Untersuchungen uber das Wesen der
    menschlichen Freiheit,
    215-16, 222n45; Stuttgarter
    Weltalter, VI:95; VII:202-3, 209-17,
    209n9, 234-36, 249
Schicksal (Hölderlin ), VII:243
Schiller, Johann, VIII:210
Schism. See Great Schism
Schismatic nations: England as,
    VI:75-76; France as, VI:74-75;
    Germany as, VI:76-78; and irritation
    of parochialism, VI:72-73; and
    schismatic cosmion, VI:73-78, 149;
    spiritual closure of national cosmion,
    VI:73-74; time structure of closing
    process, VI:78-81; and vacuum of
    reason, VI:71-72. See also specific
Schmalkaldic War, V:19
Scholasticism: and Bellarmine, V:63;
    Christian view of, III:180; IV:7, 90;
    V:91; VI:59; corpus Aristotelicum,
    VI:173-74; Erasmus on, IV:7, 90, 93-
    96, 108; and Franciscan Spiritualism,
    III:182n14; Luther on, IV:12; during
    Reformation, IV:139; V:4, 18; revival
    of, V:41; Suá rez on, V:66-69; William
    of Ockham on, III:109
Schole, VIII:308
Scholium Generale (Newton), VI:191,
School philosophy ( philosophia
), IV:8, 115
Schopenhauer, Arthur, V:148n28;
    VII:199, 235, 241, 252, 253, 257, 260,
    262, 262n29, 271
Schütz, Alfred, 14, 15, 18, 21n, 24, 25,
    26; VII:4, 8, 11, 15, 29
Schwerkraft (melancholy), VII:221
Schwermut (melancholy), VII:221
Science: and absoluteness, III:105;
    VI:210; advancement of generally,
    I:54-55; Aristotle on, V:166-68;
    astronomy, V:136, 138,162-
    66; VI:53; VII:48, 182, 185; and
    autonomy and self-reliance, VI:210-
    13; and Averroism, III:109; Berkeley's
    criticism of Newton, VI:194-98;
    biology, V:178,179; VII:50, 176, 185-
    87, 186n6; blow to Mediterranean
    cosmology by, VII:47-48; Bodin
    on, V:158-59; Bonald on, VIII:230;
    and Communism, VIII:133-34;
    Comte on, VIII:142, 238-39, 242,
    243-45, 248, 251; Copernican
    cosmology, V:137, 155-58, 156n52,
    162, 166, 170-72, 170n81, 181; in
    Encyclopédie , VIII:89-90; Engels on,
    VIII:230, 325-26, 335; and evolution,
    VII:27, 156, 184-87, 186n6; and
    Fascism, VIII:133-34; fictional
    exploration of, VII:190-91; from
    1500 to 1700, VI:53, 54; Galileo's
    conflict with Inquisition, VI:186-89;
    and Giles of Rome, III:52;Guignebert
    on, I:152; and Hume on causality,
    VII:158; and Kepler, V:167-68, 178-
    79; and law of Three Phases,VIII:244;
    and magic, VI:208-9; Maistre on,
    VIII:222-23; Michelson-Morley
    experiment, VI:203; and More's
    metaphysics of space, VI:191-94;
    and National Socialism, VIII:133-
    34; New Science, VII:26, 31-32,
    155-57; Newtonian system, VI:71,
    72; VII:50, 178; Newton on absolute
    space, VI:189-91, 199,203, 210,
    213-15; and Newton's Principia
VI:164,165, 184, 189-
    94; and Nicholas of Gusa, III:257-60,
    259n25; ontological functions of,
    VI:183-84; Pascal on, VII:182, 184;
    pathos of, and spiritual eunuchs,
    VI:209-15; and phenomenalism,
    VII:178-92; and power, VI:205-
    9; relativity from Copernicus to
    Leibniz, VI:184-86; and rotating star
    problem, VI:203-5; Saint-Simon on,
    VIII:229-33; and scientism, VII:176,
    178-79; symbol of, VII:50; symbols
    of political ideas borrowed from,
    VII:52; and technical achievement,
    VII:19 1-92; Vico on certainty of
    human sciences, VI:98-99, 128;
    Vico's counterposition to natural
    sciences, VI:144-45; vision of, I:42,
    44; Voltaire on, VI:63, 63n; William
    of Ockham on, III:106, 110. See
Mathematics; Phenomenalism;
    Physics; Scientism; and specific
Science fiction, VII:190-91
Science, Politics, and Gnosticism
    (Voegelin), III:4n; V:1; VIII:23-24
Science prétendue (sham science),
Scientia, V:235n75
Scientism, VI:184; VII:176, 178-79;
    VIII:133, 137, 138, 229, 231, 238, 246
Scientistic-utilitarian dream, VI:214-
    15, 214n
Scienza nuova ( New Science ) (Vico),
    VI:1, 15, 17-19, 19n27, 86, 90, 92-95,
    99, 102, 106, 110-11, 114-18, 126-48;
    VII:6, 34
Sciopos, V:189
Scipio Aemilianus, I:123, 132, 133
Scipio Africanus, I:133
Scire (knowledge), VI:97
Scotch Rebellion of 1745-1746, VI:156
Scotists, IV:94; V:67
Scotland, IV:219; V:50-51; VI:156;
Scutagium, III:136
Scythians, II:44
Sebba, Gregor, I:53
Secondary democracy, I:109-11
Second Statute of Provisors, III:168
Second Treatise of Civil government
    (Locke), IV:123; V:100; VI:172
Second Vatican Council, III:112n
Second World War. See World War II
Secrecy, need for, I:22n
Sectarianism, VII:89-90
Sectarian movements. See People of
    God; Spiritual movements
Secularism, III:6, 109-12
Secularization: and authority of church
    and Christian symbols, VI:54-60, 71;
    Croce's and Gentile's interpretation
    of Vico, VI:87-90; dissociation
    of the Western
    also universalisms,
    VI:51-52; dynamics of, VI:51-57; of
    history, VI:36-37, 40-42, 44-48, 108;
    phases of dissociation, VI:52-57;
    of politics, V:23-25, 44-45, 72-75;
    respiritualization as phase of, VI:53-
    54; spiritual destruction as phase of,
Secular state. See State
Seekers, IV:139
Seele der Natur, VII:243
Seelische Verschlampung (spiritual
    slatternliness), VI:73
Segesta, I:146
Sehnsucht (yearn ing), VII:221
Seigneur, V:246
Seignobos, VIII:213
Selbstbetätigung ("self-activity"),
Selbstbezwingung (conquest of our
    self), VII:268
Selbstgefühl (spiritual pathos), VIII:348
Selbstkritik der Philosophie und
    vergleichende Philosophiogeschichte
    im Umriss
(Dempf), IV:205n46
Seiden, John, VI:16, 91, 94, 135
Sele, Lord, VII:109
Selecti vitae purioris homines (chosen
    individuals), V:189
Seleucid empire, I:121
Self, psychologization of, VI:165-67,
Self-annihilation, VIII:293-94
Self-conquest, Nietzsche on, VII:274-
Self-determination, III:6
"Self-expressive phenomena," I:52
Self-salvation, I:36-37
Seljuks, II:31, 34
Seme di felicita, IV:210-12
Semina, VI:108
Senamus, V:209
Seneca, I:199-200, 202-3; III:117; V:29;
    VII:140, 262, 263
Senes, VI:116
Senescens saeculum, III:241
Sensations transformées, VIII:48
Sensibilité physique (physical
    sensibility), VIII:47, 52, 58
Senso commune, VI:129, 132-37, 142,
    145, 147
Sensuality, IV:195-201
Sententiae (opinions), V:188
Sentiments: of Cistercian environ-
    ment, II:133-34; definition of,
    I:21; II:4, 5; ideals versus, III:70;
    spirituality versus intramundane
    thought, II:10; theory of, VII:158-59;
    transformation of, by Investiture
    Struggle, II:10, 12, 14
Separati (false brethren), I:213
"Separation generale entre les opinions
    et les désirs" (Comte), VIII:234-36
Separation of church and state, IV:117,
    119n; V:21, 47. See also Gelasian
Separation of powers, IV:233-34
Separatists, VII:88-89
Septimius Severus, I:186, 192
Serbia, III:39
Sermo (discourse), V:93
Sermon in the Plain, I:156, 159-60,161
Sermon on the Mount, I:156,161-62;
    IV:134, 140
Sermons (Whichcote), VI:169-71
Serpent and serpent god cult, I:89, 92,
Serrata, III:223
Servetus, Michael, IV:276
Servi ascripticii, III:50-51
Servi empticii, Ill:50-51
Servitude volontaire (La Boétie).See
    Discourse de la servitude volontaire
    (La Boétie)
Servitus (servitude), III:50-51
Servum, IV:285
Servus servorum Dei (servant of the
    servants of God), III:162,162n
Sestieri, III:222, 232
Severi, I:207
Severus, Alexander, I:193
Severus, Septimius, I:192-93
Sexuality and sensuality, II:193;
Seyssel, Claude de, IV:90
Sforza, Francesco, IV:38
Sforza, Ludovico, IV:32, 36
Shaftesbury, Earl of, VII:141
Shakespeare, William, I:29; VII:233,
Shamans, II:79
Shapur I, I:185
Shelley, Mary, VII:190
Shelter function of cosmions, I:225-27
Shepard, Max A., III:122-23
Shogunate, II:75
Short-circuit evocation of elites,
Sicily, II:12, 13, 144-57, 173, 216;
    III:22, 197-99, 240; IV:240
Sidney, Algernon, VI:150
Sigbert of Grembloux, II:96n
Siger de Brabant:and Aristotelianism,
    II:179-82, 189n14, 195-97n;
    compared with Thomas Aquinas,
    III:179, 261; and Dante, III:67, 67n,
    75, 81; and ethical activism, II:197-
    98; on faith and reason, II:188-90;
    on good and evil, II:194, 194n27;
    Gorce on, II:204; on immortality
    of the soul, II:189-90; on intellect,
    II:192, 192n23; and intellectualism,
    II:187-98, 210, 226, 232; III:104;
    and intramundane units of the
    species, II:191-93, 201; VI:32;
    investigation of, by Inquisition,
    II:195n; as leading figure, II:106;
    III:66-67, 103; overview on, II:13;
    III:86, 99; IV:93; V:149; publication
    of works of, II:180; on soul, II:192;
    and utilitarian ethics, II:194-95,
    196n. See also Averroës; Averroism;
    Aristotle; Thomas Aquinas
—Works: Liber de causis , II:195-96n;
    Quaestiones de Anima, III:67n
Signoria, III:224, 231, 233, 239
Silesia, III:201; IV:43
Silvio Piccolomini, Enea, III:251, 252,
    252n; IV:35, 47, 52, 52n20, 54, 195
Simon, Richard, VI:48-49
Simon of Saint-Quentin, IV:44
Simony, II:11-12, 82-84, 92, 93
Sin, II:136; III:190, 191; IV:99, 100,
    120-25, 153, 156, 253-54, 274;
    VII:293-94. See also Evil; Satan and
Sinneinheit (giving/lending meaning),
Sinngebung (interpretation), VIII:121
Sinnlich menschliche Tätigkeit
    ("sensuously human activity"),
Six livres de la République (Bodin),
    IV:90; V:55,160-61, 180, 184, 185,
    196, 196n19,204, 237-38, 247
Skeptics and Skepticism, VI:117;
    VII:157-62, 206, 255, 288
Skinner, Quentin, III:2n2, 10n7
Slavery, I:77, 171-72, 198; II:116-17,
    219; III:26l-62; VI:138; VII:163, 263,
Slavic Federation, VIII:272-73
Slavic territories and Slavs, II:34,
    72-74, 216; III:199-203, 249
Smith, Adam, VIII:370
Smith, Preserved, V:19
Smith, Sir Thomas, V:79, 79n2
Social classes. See Bourgeoisie; Class
    structure; Class struggle; Middle
    class; Poverty; Wealth
Social contract, II:120n
Social Democratic Party, VIII:312, 313,
    314n8, 371
Social evolution, VIII:74-76, 86-87, 90
Social immanentism, VIII:84-85
Socialism, I:38; III:110; IV:122,
    124, 139; VIII:360-61.See also
"Socialistic man," VIII:356-59, 370-71
Social problems, Christianity's
    indifference to, I:158,171-72
Social reforms, Condorcet on, VIII:157-
Social structure of spiritual move-
    ments, IV:148-51
Societas (people), V:43
Societas civilis (organized people), V:43
Societas perfecta (perfect society),
    III:25, 75, 225, 260-62, 266; V:68
Société Positiviste, VIII:165
Society: Aristotle on natural
    hierarchy in, V:103; Christianitas
    and preservation of, V:121-23;
    Ciceronian conception of, V:43-
    44; Comte on restratification
    of, VI:212-13; More, on England
    and Western society, IV:121-22;
    naturalist philosophy of, III:93-94;
    perfect society ( societas perfecta ),
    III:25, 75, 225, 260-62, 266; V:68;
    Thomas Aquinas on regnum as
    perfect society, III:75
Society of Friends. See Quakers
Society of Jesus. See Jesuits
Socii, V:43
Socinians, VI:66, 69n38, 135
Socinis, VI:85
Sociolatrie, VIII:202
Socrates: in Alcibiades I, V:142;
    compared with Pascal, VII:255; and
    Cynics, I:76-77; death of, I:69, 78,
    103; VII:60, 227; and Plato, VII:236;
    on political community, I:80; Saint-
    Simon on, VIII:232-33; significance
    of, I:69; II:108; V:189; and "transfer
    of authority, " VI:178
Soderini, Piero, IV:32
So haben wir es nicht gemeint, IV:97
Soirées de Saint-Pétersbourg (Maistre),
    VIII:220, 222-23
Socrates und Alkibiades (Hölderlin ),
Sola fide (justification through faith),
    I:39; II:229-31, 230n; IV:13, 234-36,
    248-60, 254n, 267, 274, 275, 277, 280
Soldatenräte, VII:80
Solem, id est, Deum ipsum (sun, that
    is, God himself), V:162
Solemn Engagement of the Army
    (England), VII:80-81
So1emn League and Covenant of 1643,
Sol invictus, 193
Solomon, I:150. See also Psalms
Solon, I:72, 135
Solznenitsyn, Alexander, VIII:4n4
"Sommaire appréciation de l'ensemble
    du passé moderne" (Comte),
Somnium Scipionis, I:134
Sons of God, IV:190, 191n33
Sophia, IV:195, 206; V:33, 34, 39
Sophia Achamoth, IV:186
Sophists, I:69, 96, 128, 196; II:108
Sorel, Georges-Eugene, VI:141; VII:124,
Soter (savior), I:107; IV:182
Soul: Aristotle on, II:154; III:87-88;
    Bruno on, V:172-73; collective soul,
    I:229; discovery of, V:3; and disorder,
    V:33; Erasmus on, IV:99; Herder
    on, VII:212; hierarchy of souls in
    Divina Commedia, III:78-79; and
    Humbert, II:92; immortality of,
    II:189-90; IV:140, 210-11; Le Roy's
    nature versus, V:149; Luther on,
    IV:253-54, 261, 274-75; Marsilius of
    Padua on, III:101; More on, IV:115-
    17; Nietzsche on, VII:275-76,
    293; Pascal on, VII:283-84; Pauline
    pneumatic, II:92; Plato on, I:149, 196;
    II:37, 121, 217; IV:250-51; V:189;
    VII:227, 236; Pomponazzi on, IV:91;
    Savonarola on, V:151; Schelling
    on, VII:210, 211-13, 218, 219, 236,
    238, 240; and science, VI:98-99;
    Siger de Brabant on, II:189-90, 192;
    Stoics on, I:98; symbols of, VI:58-
    59; Thomas Aquinas on, III:67n;
    Voltaire on God and, VI:60-61. See
Consciousness; Mind; Nous;
    Pneumopathology; Psyche; Spirit
Southwest German leagues, III:227-28
Sovereignty: Althusius on, V:58-
    59; Bodin on, V:55, 181, 246-
    47; of the people, V:44; popular
    sovereignty in England, VII:82;
    religious sovereignty, V:214-15. See
Emperors; Kingship; Monarchy;
    Power; Rulership
Soviet Union: and activism and
    nihilism, IV:176; affaire Lysenko
    in, VIII:372; "aggressors" against,
    V:28; Constitution of, III:142;
    VIII:288, 314; elitarian ruling class
    of, VIII:134; film from, on revolution,
    V:30; and formal apolitism, I:74;
    imperialism of, V:132-33; VIII:319;
    intramundane political religion of,
    VIII:121-22; Marxist movement
    in, V:110-11; Moscow trials and
    trials of churchmen in, V:77; rise of,
    VIII:105-6; union of socialism and
    communism in, VIII:314; Yugoslav
    resistance to, in 1948, VIII:317n11.
    See also Russia
Spain: academic institutions in,
    IV:219-20; Catholic Church in, V:21;
    civil war in, IV:175; Dominican
    missions in, II:211; emperors of,
    I:191-92; empire of, V:113-14, 115,
    117, 121-28, 232; exploration of
    America by, VII:56; and France,
    VI:33; government of, III:22, 69,
    147; and Inquisition, IV:220; and
    interstate law, V:113-15; Jews
    expelled from, V:239; and leyenda
V:28; military in, VI:13;
    nationalism of, II:149, 214; and
    pleonexia, IV:129; and provincia,
    II:215; revolutions of the Córtes
    against regime of the Olivarez in,
    VII:105; separation of Portugal from,
    V:64; Spanish Armada, V:91; Turgot
    on, VIII:144; unification of, IV:36,
Spanish Armada, V:91
Sparta, I:126-27, 128, 143, 178; IV:65;
Spatial order of history, V:226-31
Speaking in tongues ( glossolalia ), I:175
Specialization, VIII:356
Specie rationali (rational forms), V:173
Species consociationis (types of
    society), V:58
Species summi magistrates, V:59
Speculum Historiale (Vincent of
    Beauvais), IV:44
Speculum Judiciale (Durant), III:56n3
Spelman, Sir Henry, II:117
Spengler, Oswald: and communism,
    VI:120, 121; compared with Polybius,
    I:125-26; criticism of, VI:85, 89,
    121; labeled as "fascist," VIII:134;
    pessimism of, V:146; on Primary
    Estates, VIII:246; on structure of
    realm, II:131; theories of, IV:86;
    VI:3, 125, 148
—Work: Decline of the West, I:182;
    III:138n; VIII:146
Spider imagery, VIII:71-72
Spinoza, Baruch: attacks on, V:181;
    VII:126, 127, 198; charges of atheism
    leveled against, VII:133; compared
    with Bodin, V:181; VII:129, 132;
    compared with Hobbes, VII:130-
    31; esotericism of, VII:129-30;
    excommunication of, VII:127; on
    God, VII:128-29, 130, 133, 134,
    136; on government, VII:134-35; as
    great personality, I:234; liberalism
    of, VII:133; on love, VII:127-29; on
    minimum dogma for state religion,
    V:23,160; VII:134-35; mysticism
    of, VII:23, 126-29, 133, 159, 193;
    on Nature, VII:127-28, 133; and
    Nietzsche, VII:257, 260; on oath
    taking, VII:135-36; and Orientalism,
    VII:126-27; on power, VII:131-33;
    and resolutive-compositive method,
    VII:50; right terminology of, VII:130;
    Schelling on, VII:200-201, 202; as
    spiritual realist, I:34; III:69, 70;
    on toleration, VII:144; and Vico,
    VI:95n7, 112
—Works: De Intellectus Emendatione,
    VII:127-28,130; Ethics, VII:127,
    128-29, 131; Tractatus Politicus ,
    VII:130-31, 135; Tractatus
, VII:131-33,

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