CUMULATIVE INDEX

HISTORY OF POLITICAL IDEAS (VOLS 19-26)

Roman numerals preceding page numbers refer to the eight volumes in History of Political Ideas

Naif (innate) nature, V:31, 35, 39
Naples, III:231;IV:36, 41, 240, 245;
   VII:105
Napoleon: as Antichrist, VIII: 224;
    compared with Caesar, I: 140;
    Comte on, VIII: 169,204-6, 216;
    Concordat of, VIII: 206; and
    corporative constitution for kingdom
    of Italy, VIII: 232n78; defeat of,
    V: 110; destruction of monument
    for, VIII: 169; imperialism and
    dictatorship of, I: 124; IV: 175 ; VI: 150;
    VIII: 213; and Laplace, VI: 183; retum
    of, from Elba, VIII: 212; wars of, V: 28;
    VIII: 219
Napoleon Ill, II: 49; VIII: 86
Nardi, Jacopo, IV: 60
Narses, II: 32
National character, III: 29, 194, 200,
    225-26; VI: 9-14, 73, 74
National concordats, III: 255-56
National consciousness, II: 148, 149
National existence, and kingship in
Germanic tribes, II: 46-49
National hatreds, IV: 105, 108
Nationalism: and church, III: 40-42,
    255-56; VI: 54, 72; and Communism,
    I: 20; Czech nationalism, III: 174; and
    England, III: 29, 127-62, 194-95, 199,
    200, 216, 239; and France, III: 194-
    95, 199, 200, 210, 216, 238-39;
    and Germany, III: 194, 210; VII: 51;
    growth of generally, I: 237; Helvétius
    on, VIII: 76-77; and Italy, III: 78, 237-
    44; IV: 204-5; VII: 170; and papacy,
    III: 110; and Socialism, I: 20; and
    Turgot's masse totale, VIII: 118-19
National kingdoms. See Kingdoms;
    Kingship; Monarchy; and specific
    countries and monarchs
National militia, IV: 38, 38n, 128
Nationalökonomie und Philosophie
    (Marx), VIII: 258
National Socialism: activism and
    nihilism of, IV: 172-73; and Albigen-
    sians, IV: 135, 151; antispiritualism
    of, VIII: 139-40; appeal of, to masses,
    VII: 144; atrocities of, IV: 130, 156;
    VII: 192; and Bismarck, VI: 12;
    and Charlemagne, III: 58n8; and
    communism, I: 160, 210; II: 198n;
    IV: 175; V: 132; VI: 32; compared with
    More's philosophy, IV: 9; compared
    with Voltaire, VI: 63; derailments
    of, VII: 259n21; development of,
    I: 38; IV: 135; V: 2,169; VI: 31-32,
    43, 183, 209; and elites, VIII: 132,
    134; and Fascism, V: 111; freedom
    for those in agreement with, VII: 92;
    and German churches, VI: 162n21;
    and German city-states, III: 218; and
    Germanic myth of the defeat, II: 46;
    and German lower middle class,
    VIII: 218; and German Revolution,
    VI: 78, 150; Gleichschaltung of,
    VIII: 157; and Gnosticism, IV: 178; as
    govem ment, Ill:142; and Hooker's
    philosophy, V: 98; ideology of, I: 20;
    and industrial system, VIII: 133-34;
    Kraus on, VII: 191n7; and Marxism,
    VIII: 370; and Mussolini, II: 76-77;
    and Nietzsche, IV: 136; VII: 32, 297,
    297n126; obedience to, II: 155; and
    planning, VII: 188; and scientism,
    VI: 184; Spengler's influence on,
    VI: 120; and Stoicism, I: 97; and
    Third Realm, VII: 241; tribalism
    of, VIII: 117; and ultimate phase
    of history, I: 115; Vico on, VI: 146;
    Vitoria on, V: 133
Nationes, V: 122
    Nations: cosmion of, VII: 170; and
    Council of Constance, III: 249, 250;
    diversity in intem al order of, VII: 51;
    Grotius on inequalities among,
    VII: 55-56, 154; Milton on, VII: 95-
    96; Montesquieu on differences
    among, VII: 164-65; Montesquieu on
    national destiny, VII: 166-68; as new
    social substance, VII: 51; and theory
    of evocation, VII: 22. See also State
Native Americans. See American
    Indians
Natura dux, V: 221
Naturale jattanza, IV: 210
Natural instinct, III: 263
Naturalism, Ill:94-95, 101, 105, 110
Naturalis quidam instinctus , III: 263
Naturaliter animal sociale, II: 219
Natural law: Althusius on, V: 55;
    Augustine on, I: 203, 219; Christian
    views of, I: 202, 219; II: 14, 88, 153,
    225-27; VI: 34, 56; and Constitutions
    of Melfi,
II: 153; Fortescue on,
    III: 156-58; and franchise in England,
    VII: 83; and Giles of Rome, III: 53;
    and Grotius, III: 263; V: 22; VI: 16,
    91, 94; VII: 54, 59; Hobbes on,
    VII: 66-67; Hooker on, V: 100, 101,
    102; and imperialism, V: 124-25; ius
    gentium and ius naturale,
I: 197-
    99; Justinian on, I: 96; and Milton,
    VII: 92; and natural right, VII: 48-
    50; and Nicholas of Cusa, III: 264;
    relative natural law, I: 203; II: 88; and
    Roman law, I: 195, 197-99, 202-5;
    in seventeenth century, VII: 48-50;
    and Stoicism, VI: 34; and Syrian law,
    I: 198-99; Thomas Aquinas on, II: 14,
    225-27; V: 100; and Three Realms,
    II: 129; Vitoria on, V: 121, 124-25;
    William of Ockham on, III: 117-21,
    118nn, 125-26; and Wycliffe, III: 187
Natural philosophy, V: 171, I71n86
Natural religion. See Ethics
Natural rhythms, V: 146-47, 149,
    153-54
Natural right doctrine, V: 102-3;
    VII: 48-50; VIII: 244-45
Natura omnes sunt liberi, III: 264
Natura rationabilis, III: 260
Natura rerum, VIII: 61
Nature: Adamitic view of, IV: 195-97;
    Averroës on, II: 185; Bakunin on,
    VIII: 301-2; Bodin on, V: 160-62, 220;
    Bruno on, V: 170-75; Christianity's
    view of, V: 169, 173; VIII: 141; Cicero
    on, I: 137; VII: 57; Descartes on,
    VII: 205-6; Eastem tradition of,
    II: 165-66; III: 262-64; Epicurean
    school on, I: 82; Erasmus on,
    IV: 99; Fludd on, V: 168; Franciscan
    experience of, II: 141-42; VII: 248,
    249; Grotius on, VII: 57-58; Hobbes
    on right and law of, VII: 66-67;
    Hölderlin on, VII: 247-49; Hume on,
    VII: 159-60; Kepler on, V: 167-68; La
    Boétie on, V: 31-32, 35, 36, 38-39;
    law of nature, IV: 126, 141; VII: 164;
    Le Roy on, V: 146-47, 149; Locke on,
    VII: 148n6, 149; Luther on, IV: 275;
    methodical skepticism of, VII: 206;
    model of, VI: 104-9; Montesquieu on,
    VII: 164; Myth of Nature, IV: 6, 62,
    63, 70, 84-85, 107, 224n; Nietzsche
    on, VII: 209, 264, 277, 279, 289;
    Romantic philosophy of, V: 162;
    Schelling on, VII: 209, 221; Spinoza
    on, VII: 128, 133; state of, V: 101,
    102; Tycho de Brahe on, V: 163-64;
    William of Ockham on, III: 106-7;
    and yin and yang symbols, I: 26-27.
    See also Cosmology
Naturloser Geist (natureless spirit),
    VII: 234
Naturrecht, VII: 49-50
Natur und Kunst oder satum und
    Jupiter
(Hölderlin), VII: 244-45
Naturwissenschaftlichen Materi-
    alismus
(abstract naturalistic
    materialism), VIII: 339
Naylor, James, IV: 192
Nazism. See National Socialism
Nebuchadnezzar, I: 122
Necessità (necessity), IV: 78
Necessitas, VI: 112-13, 125
Nechaiev, Sergei, VIII: 290-96
Negocii summa, IV: 95, 95n6
Nehemiah, I: 182
Neo-Confucianism, II: 3
Neo-Kantianism, I: 17, 43
Neoplatonism:and Augustine, I: 206;
    Bodin on, II: 202; V: 198-202, 218,
    236, 239, 244; and Christianity,
    IV: 152-53; definition of, VI: 101-9;
    Erigena on, IV: 160, 163; and Free
    Spirit, IV: 201; and Heptaplomeres,
    V: 211; and individual illumination,
    II: 226; and More, VI: 191; and
    mysticism, II: 184; of Orient, IV: 151-
    52; and Paracletes, IV: 190; and
    Spinoza, VII: 127; and Vico, VI: 126.
    See also Dionysius Areopagita;
    Platonism
Neo-Pythagoreanism, IV: 201
Nerli, Filippo dei, IV: 60
Nero, I: 191, 192
Nestle, Wilhelm, I: 78n
Nestorianism, I: 75-76, 176; II: 54, 79
Netherlands, V: 57; VII: 49, 56, 127,
    134. See also Holland
Neumann, Carl, VI: 204
New Atlantis (Bacon), IV: 112
Newcastle Proposition of 1646, VII: 79
New elite, theory of, IV: 289-91
New England, I: 110, 114; V: 49-50
New France, VII: 171
New Jersey colony, VII: 103
New Law, II: 229-31, 230n
Newman, John Henry, III: 130; VI: 161-
    63
"New Order and Last Orientation"
    (Voegelin), IV: 189n28, 239n; VIII: 1
New Science, VII: 26, 31-32, 155-57
New Science (Vico):cardinal principle
    of, VI: 126-27; concluding comments
    on, VI: 144-48; definition of, VI: 92;
    idea of, VI: 93-96; and mente eroica,
    VI: 141-44, 147; and mondo civile,
    VI: 109-15, 126, 128; and political
    structure of the corso, VI: 137-44;
    and Providential contemplation,
    VI: 129-32; and recursus and ricorso,
    VI: 115-25, 136; and senso commune,
    VI: 129, 132-37, 142, 147; and storia
    etem a ideale,
VI: 126-32, 137; Vico's
    ambivalence and pathos toward,
    VI: 93-94; Vico's first use of term,
    VI: 91-92. See also Scienza nuova
    (New Science)
(Vico)
New Science of Politics (Voegelin),
    I: 2, 8-10, 30; III: 4n; IV: 273n; V: 1,
    3; VI: 1; VII: 3, 8; VIII: 18, 20, 22-23,
    22-23n
New Testament: abolition of poverty
    ordered in, VII: 98; Book of Revelation
    in, II: 98n26, 134; IV: 147,168; and
    Church as body of Christ, II: 7-8, 98;
    Dante on, III: 46, 74, 178; IV: 213n;
    and divine law, II: 224; Erasmus
    on, IV: 92-93, 96, 105; Erigena on,
    IV: 154, 164; Francis of Assisi on,
    II: 137-38; God's working through
    Christ :in, II: 98; IV: 164; Locke on,
    VI: 172-81; and Policraticus, II: 124;
    and Protestants, IV: 159, 252, 261,
    269, 272, 275, 280; and spiritalis
    intelligentia,
II: 133-34; and Spirit
    Incam ate, III: 183; and Third Realm,
    II: 159; Thomas Aquinas on, II: 208,
    211, 213; translation of, by Erasmus,
    IV: 90; on transubstantiation, IV: 225-
    26; on tyrannicide, II: 125; and Unam
    Sanctam,
III: 45-46; on warfare,
    V: 116; Wycliffe on, III: 186. See also
    Bible; Calvin, John; Epistles; Gospels;
    Jesus Christ; Luther, Martin; and
    specific books of New Testament
Newton, Sir Isaac: on absolute space,
    VI: 189-91, 194, 199, 203, 210, 213-
    15; on Arianism, VI: 66; Berkeley's
    criticism of, VI: 194-98; on God,
    V: 148n28; VI: 59, 192-93; VII: 203;
    Halley's "Ode to Newton," VI: 210;
    and hypotheses non fingo, VI: 181,
    194, 210-11; infinitesimal calculus
    of, V: 178; mechanics of, VI: 182,
    183; and More's metaphysics of
    space, VI: 19 1-94; resistance against
    revision of Newtonian theory,
    VI: 203-5; and Saint-Simon, VIII: 229,
    231; scientism of, VI: 21-22, 71, 72;
    VII: 178; significance of, VI: 8, 21-22,
    102, 150, 166, 182, 183; VII: 50, 178;
    VIII: 118, 223; Voltaire on, VI: 58-60,
    62, 68, 150, 194
—Works : Optics, VI: 191,192; Principia
    Mathematica,
VI: 164, 165, 184, 189-
    94; Scholium Generale, VI: 191,
    194
Newton Council, VIII: 231
New Vico Studies, VI: 86n
Nibelungenlied, II: 10, 45-46; IV: 43
Nicaea, Council of, I: 174n; IV: 240
Nicetas of Constantinople, IV: 158
Nicholas, Henry (Hendrick Niclaes),
    IV: 191, 192,202
Nicholas I, Tsar, VIII: 228, 259-63, 267,
    275-76
Nicholas II, Tsar, VIII: 228
Nicholas II, Pope, II: 82, 89
Nicholas of Cusa: and Aristotle,
    III: 257, 260-62; and Augustine,
    III: 257, 266; Bruno on, V: 175n92;
    on Calvinism, III: 261; on church
    govem ment, III: 263-66; compared
    with Dante, III: 266; and Conciliar
    movement, III: 24, 251-52, 256-66;
    IV: 35; on concordantia, III: 17, 24-
    25; on constitutionalism, III: 24-25,
    265; Dempf on, III: 264n; IV: 35;
    on Dionysius Areopagita (Pseudo-
    Dionysius), III: 257, 259; on faith,
    III: 25, 258-59, 263-66; on freedom,
    III: 264; as "German type," IV: 268;
    on God, III: 258-59, 264, 266;
    IV: 202; on Hellenism, III: 261-63;
    on hierarchy, III: 259-60; on history,
    III: 266; on holy empire, III: 25; on
    intellectuals, III: 261-62; on Jesus
    Christ, III: 258, 259, 264-65; on love,
    III: 260-61, 265-66; on mathematics,
    III: 257-60; on modem ity, III: 257; as
    Monarchioptant, IV: 35; mysticism
    of, I: 35; III: 257, 265-66; IV: 137;
    VII: 235; VIII: 30; and natural law,
    III: 264; and Pascal, VII: 183; on
    reason and intellect, III: 263, 266,
    266n; and Thomas Aquinas, III: 257
—Works : Concordantia Catholica,
    III: 24, 252n, 256-66; Docta
    Ignorantia,
III: 258-59, 259n25,
    266, 266n
Nicholas of Dresden, III: 175
Nichtigkeit (absolute worthlessness),
    VIII: 253
Nicolaus severus et clemens, III: 235,
    235n
Nicolò de'Conti, IV: 51n
Nicomedia, I: 186
Nicopolis, battle of, IV: 46; V: 141
Niedertracht (rascality), VIII: 360
Nietzsche, Friedrich:aphorisms of
    generally, VII: 261-62; VIII: 81;
    on Aristocratic-Priestly, VII: 298,
    299-300, 302-3; on "blond beast,"
    VII: 259, 301-2; on Cesare Borgia,
    II: 151; on Christianity, VII: 203, 270-
    71, 288-90; on civilizational decay,
    VII: 155; compared with Bakunin,
    VIII: 301; compared with Hegel,
    VII: 266; compared with Hobbes,
    VII: 72; compared with Jaspers,
    VII: 292n109; compared with Le
    Roy, V: 149, 162; compared with
    Schelling, VII: 209; 0n conscience,
    VII: 276-77; on contemplative life
    ( vita contemplativa ), VII: 32-33,
    262-69, 274-81, 289; on cruelty,
    VII: 276-77, 294; on death of God,
    VII: 136, 203, 287-89; and derailment,
    IV: 239; VII: 259; on ego, VII: 268, 269,
    293-95; elitarian interpretation of
    political science by, VII: 156; on
    "flight from one's self," VII: 264n3;
    on force, VII: 258-59, 259n20; and
    genealogy of morals, VII: 297-303;
    and Germany's crisis, V: 242n86;
    VIII: 218; and Gnosticism, VII: 33;
    VIII: 23; on "God is dead," VIII: 202;
    on Good-Bad, VII: 297-99, 301; on
    Good-Evil, VII: 298-301; on grace,
    VII: 241, 259, 285, 287, 289-94; on
    happiness, VII: 274; on hardness,
    VII: 293-94, 296; and Helvétius,
    VIII: 44, 52n23, 60, 71; on heroism,
    VII: 294; on history's three stages,
    VII: 302-3; immanentism of, VII: 33,
    241, 257-60, 269, 280-81, 289, 291,
    294-97; as immoralist, VII: 295-
    97; on individual as substance
    of future, VII: 266; influences
    on, VI: 150; labeled as "fascist,"
    VIII: 134; on "last man," VII: 203;
    on laziness, VII: 263-64, 264n33;
    on love of humans, VII: 290; on
    "magic of the extreme," VIII: 270;
    on middle class, VII: 288; on Mill,
    VI: 73; misunderstanding of, VI: 103;
    mysticism of, VII: 257-61, 264, 297;
    VIII: 294; on nationalism, VI: 79; and
    National Socialism, IV: 136; VII: 32,
    297, 297n126; on nature, VII: 209,
    264, 277, 279, 289; and nihilism,
    I: 25, 45; III: 69; IV: 176; VII: 256; on
    orgiastic experience, VII: 241; and
    Pascal, VII: 32-33, 252-57, 260-
    63, 268-73, 280-81, 283, 285-87,
    290, 300; on passion, VII: 267-69,
    271-81, 289; Platonism of, VII: 32,
    33; and pneumatopathology of
    the "exception," VIII: 278n39; on
    pride, VII: 273-75; on Protestantism,
    VII: 270, 271n51; on psychology,
    VII: 275-76; on relation to great dead,
    VII: 257-58, 260-61; on ressentiment,
    VII: 298-303; on Road to Wisdom,
    VII: 251-52; and sacrifice, VII: 250;
    on self-conquest, VII: 274-75; and
    self- endowment, IV: 213-14; self-
    interpretation of own development as
    thinker, VII: 251-52; self-proclaimed
    ancestry of, VII: 260-61; as spiritual
    realist, I: 24, 34; III: 70, 71; VII: 34; on
    sublimation, VII: 278; and superman,
    IV: 11, 187; VI: 209; VIII: 159, 294;
    on "transvaluation of values,"
    I: 125; and Übermensch, II: 151;
    V: 170; on unio mystica, VII: 265; on
    vanity, VII: 273-74; Voegelin's lack
    of interest in, VII: 31-32; Voegelin's
    separate study of, VII: 2, 6, 31-33;
    on will, VII: 276-80, 289; on will to
    power, VII: 278, 279, 293-95
--Aphorisms:"At the Deathbed of
    Christianity," VII: 288-89; "Censor
    Vitae," VII: 264-65; "Comparison
    with Pascal," VII: 268, 271; "Desire
    for Perfect Opponents," VII: 269-71;
    "Flight from One's Self," VII: 258;
    "Humanity of the Saint," VII: 291-
    92; "Lamentation," VII: 262-63;
    "Original Sin of the Philosophers,"
    VII: 261-62; "Origin of the Vita
    Contemplativa,
" VII: 274-75;
    "Religiousness," VII: 275-76;
    "Striving for Distinction," VII: 273-
    74; "Victory over Force," VII: 258-59;
    "Voyage to Hades," VII: 257-58
—Works : Beyond Good and Evil,
    VII: 255, 275-77; Dawn of Day,
    VII: 258-61, 266-67, 290-93; Ecce
    Homo,
VII: 261; Greek State, VII: 263;
    Human, All-Too-Human, VII: 262-
    66; Mixed Sentences and Epigrams,
    VII: 257-58; "Passio Nova, or:Of
    the Passion of Honesty," VII: 267;
    "Religion of Courage," VII: 267;
    "Sentiment of Power," VII: 267;
    Tragic Age of the Greeks, VII: 252;
    Untimely Meditations, VII: 252,
    261-62; "Vita Contemplativa,"
    VII: 267; Will to Power, VII: 256, 263,
    267, 293-94; Zarathustra, VII: 287
"Nietzsche, the Crisis, and the War"
    (Voegelin), VII: 31
Nihilism, I: 25, 35, 45; III: 69; IV: 173-
    77, 189-90; VII: 256, 302, 303;
    VIII: 251
Nimrod, III: 156, 159
Nine Rocks tract, IV: 185-90
Ninety-five Theses of Luther, IV: 217,
    218, 228-31; V: 4
Ninus, I: 220
Nirvana, Schelling on, VII: 233-36, 241
Nisi per commune consilium regni
    nostri,
III: 136
Nobility. See Aristocracy
Nobiltà (Nobility), IV: 209
Nocentes (guilty), V: 116
Noesis, I: 41, 42. See also Nous; Reason
Noetic-pneumatic contemplative
    science, I: 44-47
Noetic rationality, I: 39, 44-45
Nomen Romanum, IV: 108
Nominalism, III: 106-9, 115-17, 126,
    248-52, 258, 265; VI: 51
Nomoi, III: 262
Nomos (law), I: 104, 134, 137, 196, 217;
    IV: 62; V: 31; VII: 57,247, 249
Nomos empsychos (Hellenistic king as
    animated law), I: 104, 105, 204, 208;
    II: 143
Nomos-logos, I: 137, 197; II: 163
Nomothetes, III: 89
Nonexperientiable aspect of reality,
    II: 17n26
Nonresistance doctrine, V: 26, 45, 119
Norden, Eduard, I: 142n
Norman Anonymous, II: 11, 12, 95-
    101, 95n20, 105-6. See also York
Tracts

Norman conquest, II: 111, 119, 132,
    144, 148, 216; III: 129, 195; V: 27, 70,
    103; VII: 98
Normans, II: 72, 144-47, 216
Norsemen, II: 30, 33, 67
Nosos (disorder of soul; Plato), I: 81,
    107, 128; VI: 164, 184; VII: 152
Nosse (to know), VI: 111, 116
Nothing and nothingness, VII: 234-35;
    VIII: 65-66
Noumenal realm (Ding an sich),
    V: 178-79
Nous (reason), III: 21; IV: 161; VII: 217
Nous basilikòs, VII: 217
Nouveau Christianisme, VIII: 96
Nouveau Christianisme (Saint-Simon),
    VIII: 96
Nouveau régime, VIII: 187
Nouvelle Relation du Levant, VII: 170
Nova, V: 163-64
Novalis, VII: 126; VIII: 220
Novatians, I: 208
Novellae, I: 204; II: 53n2
Novum Instrumentum (Erasmus),
    IV: 92, 95
Novum Organum (Bacon), VI: 18, 93
Numa, IV: 67; V: 189
Nunc advesperascenti mundo (evening
    descends on the world), V: 164

Oath for the princeps, I: 188-89
Oath of allegiance, II: 61, 87-90, 91, 93,
    110, 119
Oath taking, Spinoza on, VII: 135-36
Oberlin, Jean Frédéric, VIII: 224
Objective Mind, I: 37; II: 192
Occasio versus cause, VI: 114
Occident, V: 230-31
Occidental Republic, VIII: 164-65, 178,
    179, 185, 195, 202-6, 221-22, 228
Occultism, VIII: 17
Oceana (Harrington), IV: 41; VII: 100-
    103
Ocellus Lucanus, V: 158n56
Ockham, William of. See William of
    Ockham
Ockhamists, IV: 94
Octavian, I: 138, 140, 141, 143, 187-90
Oderunt Deum, II: 177
Odilo, II: 69
Odoacer, II: 52, 55, 56
Oecolampadius, John (Hüszgen, John),
    IV: 227
Officia (duties), I: 99; III: 95
Of True Religion (Milton), VII: 94
Ogodai Khan, IV: 44
Oikeiosis (consciousness of kind),
    VII: 57
Oikumene (inhabited world), II: 7
Okeanos, VII: 243
Oldcastle, Sir John, III: 174
Oldenbam eveldt, Johan van, VII: 105
Old Law, II: 229
Old Testament:abolition of poverty
    ordered in, VII: 98; Bakunin on
    story of Genesis, VIII: 300; Book
    of Daniel in, I: 121-22, 150,168,
    221; II: 58; IV: 212n55; VIII: 225n72;
    Calvin on, IV: 275, 290; Deutero-
    Isaiah, I: 116-19, 150, 153-54; III: 74;
    Deuteronomy, V: 51; and divine
    law, II: 224; IV: 164, 252; Erigena
    on, IV: 154; Fall of Man in, I: 202-3;
    II: 152-53; III: 53; IV: 160-62, 196;
    VIII: 279; Fitzralph on, III: 185;
    Hebrew berith in, I: 109-17, 205;
    V: 52-53, 54, 244; VII: 48; kingship
    in, I: 109, 111, 112, 114-16, 228;
    II: 47, 49, 98, 98n26; Nimrod on,
    III: 159; in Piers Plowman, III: 182;
    prophecies of savior in, VIII: 224-25,
    225n72; Psalms, I: 150; V: 191n13,
    201, 218; Rantzau on, V: 154; and
    spiritalis intelligentia, II: 133; Ten
    Commandments, I: 162, 171,201;
    Thomas Aquinas on, II: 211; Tree of
    Patience, III: 183; war and violence
    in, II: 158; IV: 148; V: 118. See also
    Bible; God; Hebrews; Israel; and
    specific books of Old Testament
Oligarchy, III: 212-14; IV: 62
Oliva, Joannes, IV: 46-47n12
Oliva, Treaty of, V: 110
Olivarez, Conde de, VII: 105
Olivi, Peter, III: 113
Olympias, I: 89, 92
Omnes summa virtùte ac pietate
    conjuncti
(community of godly
    messengers), V: 189
Omnia, IV: 76
Omphaloi, I: 120
Omphalos, V: 231, 241-42; VII: 170
Oncken, Hermann, IV: 109-10n33
On Good Works (Luther), IV: 258-60
Onore del mondo (honor of the world),
    IV: 68, 70, 83, 84, 86-87
On the Agreement of Religion with
    Philosophy
(Averroës), II: 186
On the Form of the American Mind
    (Voegelin), VI: 2n7
On the Law or On the Republic
    (Antisthenes), I: 76
Ontological inversion, VII: 27
Ontology:and infinite, V: 177-79; and
    mathematics, V: 166-68
Operarius et mercenarius Cesaris
    (emperor's simple tool), III: 240
Opinion générale, VIII: 149
Opinion publique, VIII: 153
    Opinio publica (common opinion),
    IV: 122
Opitz, Peter J., VII: 32
Oppenheimer, Franz, VIII: 126
Oppidum, V: 58
Optics (Newton), VI: 191, 192
Optimates, II: 220
Optimism of Le Roy, V: 144
Opus Nonaginta Dierum (William of
    Ockham), III: 115, 117-18
Opus operatum, VIII: 194
Opus spirituale, III: 242
Oratio directa, IV: 285; VII: 255, 255n9
Oratio obliqua, VII: 255, 255n9
Orbis terrarum (the civilized world),
    I: 121, 125, 133, 139-40, 144; II: 149,
    165-66; III: 154, 236, 241
Order:Bodin on, V: 159-60, 248; and
    Christianity, III: 12-13; and Grotius's
    De Jure Belli ac Pacis, VII: 52-53;
    legitimate, V: 248; Machiavelli on,
    IV: 76, 83; of powers, III: 45; ratio and
    religio, IV: 116-19; Schelling on order
    of being, VII: 222-23; and virtù of
    conquering prince, IV: 56; Voegelin
    on order of history, IV: 3; of world,
    III: 118-20, 119n16
Order and History (Voegelin), I: 2,
    11-18, 27n34, 28, 41, 47n53, 50,
    51; II: 4, 14-15, 16n25; III: 2-3; VI: 1;
    VII: 22; VIII: 1
"Order and Symbols" (Voegelin),
    VII: 2-3
Order of the Golden Fleece, III: 224
Ordinata virtù, IV: 56, 76, 80
Ordines, III: 255, 260
Ordo, VI: 115
Ordo renascendi, III: 233
Organic analogies, III: 87-88, 157-58,
    259n25; IV: 100-101
Organic theory of commonwealth,
    II: 121-22
Organon (Aristotle), II: 184
Orgiastic experience, VII: 214-17, 241
Orientalisms:ascetic prince and the
    vulgus, IV: 101; and Dionysius
    Areopagita, IV: 151-57; divine
    kingship, I: 102-3, 105; and Francis
    of Assisi, VII: 248; and Greek
    philosophers of non-Hellenic
    origin, I: 74-75; mother cult, I: 95-97;
    personality as part of collective mind,
    I: 97; realms of light and darkness,
    I: 98; and Schelling, VII: 235-36; and
    Spinoza, VII: 126-27
Orient and Oriental studies, I: 53;
    V: 230-31
Oriflamme, V: 37
Origen, I: 177, 202; IV: 95, 153, 162,
    I62n13, 185
Original Sin, I: 203; IV: 274
Orlov, Count, VIII: 259
Ormuzd, I: 181
Orosius, Paulus, I: 220-23; IV: 85;
    V: 232; VI: 35; VIII: 122, 123
Orpheus cult, I: 89
Ortega y Gasset, José, VII: 199, 240n75
Orthodota defensio imperialis
    (Gregory of Cantina), II: 87n
Orthodox Church, I: 176, 184
Orthodoxy:"doctrinal" medieval
    "orthodoxy," II: 16; ecumenic
    empires followed by orthodox
    empires, II: 15; and heresy in
    Christianity, I: 75-76; Islamic
    orthodoxy, II: 185-87
Orti Oricellarii, IV: 60
Ortlieb, IV: 181, 202
Ottliebians, IV: 180-82
Orwell, George, VIII: 157
Osiris cult, I: 114
Ostentum (sign), V: 164
Ostrogoth myth, II: 43-44
Ostrogoths, II: 31, 32, 33, 43-45, 48, 52,
    54, IV: 43
Otium (leisure), VII: 263-64
Ottakar II, III: 202
Ottmann, Henning, VII: 32, 33
Otto I the Great, Emperor, II: 33, 59, 67,
    81; III: 195
Otto IV, Emperor, II: 146, 147, 174-75
Ottoman empire, III: 166n,175; IV: 44-
    45, 55
Ottoman Turks, II: 31, 34
Ovid, II: 114
Ovington, VII: 171
Owen, Robert, IV: 110; VIII: 306
Oxford Proposition of 1643, VII: 79
Oxford University Press, I: 12-13
Oxienstiem a, Bengt, VII: 105
Ozias, II: 219
Ozio (inaction), IV: 69

Pacifism, I: 73
Pacta, V: 53, 54
Pactio inter cives, V: 43
Pactiones, V: 43, 44
Pactum subjectionis, V: 43
Padua, Marsilius of. See Marsilius of
    Padua
Paganism:Augustine on, I: 206-9, 213;
    Bodin on, V: 206, 207; Calvin on,
    IV: 289; Erasmus on, IV: 99, 103; in
    history, VI: 115; Luther on, IV: 259;
    Machiavelli on, IV: 6, 84-87, 85n;
    myth of, VI: 118; Paul on, IV: 141,
    223; and persecution, I: 184; and
    polytheism, VII: 211, 228-30, 243-
    46; in Roman empire, I: 194; II: 53,
    188n1; III: 53; and rulership, II: 63;
    in Third Realm, II: 95n25; Thomas
    Aquinas on, II: 211; Vico on, VI: 98-
    99, 101, 120, 138; and Virgil, III: 73;
    Vitoria on, V: 122. See also Antiquity
Pain, Schelling on, VII: 215-16
Paine, Thomas, VIII: 210
Palafox, VII: 170
Palatine, III: 213
Palestine, II: 34
Paley, William, VIII: 46
Palingenius, V: 175n92
Palla aurea, II: 176
Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza, VI: 83
Palmyra temple, I: 193
Panaetius, I: 133-35
Pandora fahle, IV: 111
Panegyric 3 (Isocrates), I: 93
Panem et circenses, V: 37
Panifices, II: 194n27
Panopticon (Bentham), VIII: 71n64
Pan-Slavic imperialism, VIII: 272-76
Pantheism, IV: 181
Pantheon Books, I: 11
Papa angelico, VII: 231
Papacy. See Popes
Papal-caesarism, II: 61-62
Papal states, III: 11-12, 164; IV: 38-39,
    240
Papal Syllabus of 1864, VI: 161
Papists' Disabling Act of 1678, VI: 155
Parable of the Cave, IV: 114; V: 195
Paracelsus, V: 175n92; VII: 186n6
Paraclesis (Erasmus), IV: 92, 93
Paraclete, I: 181-82
Paracletes, IV: 125, 154, 190-94, 246;
    VIII: 257, 343
"Parade of names," IV: 53, 82n
Paradigma, IV: 251
Paradigmatic importance of history,
    IV: 61-63
Paradise, IV: 162-63, 165-67, 196, 255,
    259, 268
Paradise of Lusts (Bosch), IV: 197-201
Paradiso (Dante), IV: 211, 213
Parekbasis of doxography, I: 42
Paresse (passivity or inertness), VIII: 53
Pareto, Vilfredo, III: 102; VII: 156;
    VIII: 131, 134
Paris Commune, VIII: 313-14
Parlement de Paris, VII: 115-18, 119
Parliament. See English Parliament
Parliament, of Fano, IV: 39
Parliamentary procedure, III: 263-265
Parliaments, III: 140
"Parochial Christianity," III: 15, 168-
    75, 192
Parochialism, VI: 72-73
Parochialization, VII: 197-98
Pars genethlialogica of astrology,
    V: 148n26
Parsons, Robert, V: 62
Pars principans, III: 88, 92, 95-96
Pars valentior, III: 89
Parteigericht, II: 77
Parthians, I: 142, 221; II: 44; V: 232
Partiality and inversion, VII: 196-98
Participatory reality, I: 16-17, 41-42, 47
Particularism, III: 194, 195, 198-200,
    216-17, 225
Paruta, Paolo, VI: 83
Pascal, Blaise:on anxiety of existence,
    VIII: 64; and Christianity, VII: 254,
    255-56, 270-71, 271n52, 285-87,
    289; compared with Helvétius,
    VIII: 63-64, 67-71; compared with
    Vico, VI: 144-45; "depth" of, VII: 254-
    55; on ego, VII: 284, 290; VIII: 66-67,
    72; on ennui and divertissement,
    VII: 258, 258n19, 264n33, 281-82;
    VIII: 65-66, 82; on goal of life,
    VII: 235; on God, VII: 280, 283-84,
    287; on grace, VII: 255-56, 285-87,
    289; on happiness, VII: 235, 280-81;
    VIII: 65-66, 82; on human nature,
    VII: 272; and Luther, VII: 270; and
    materialization of extem al world,
    VI: 164; on moi haïssable, VIII: 66-
    67; and Nietzsche, VII: 32-33,
    252-57, 260-63, 268-73, 280-
    81, 283, 285-87, 290, 300; on
    nothingness and humility, VIII: 65-
    66; on passions, VII: 268-69, 268n43,
    278, 283-84; VIII: 65-68, 70; and
    phenomenal speculation, VII: 182-
    84; on power, VII: 272; on pride,
    VII: 284; psychology of, I: 80; V: 38,
    206; on ressentiment, VII: 281-
    83; self-mortification by, VII: 273;
    significance of, V: 23; sister of,
    VII: 283; skepticism of, VII: 255;
    and slave morality, VII: 300; on
    soul, VII: 283-84; on spirit, VII: 278;
    on two selves, VIII: 68-69; on
    vanity, VII: 273; Vinet on, VII: 256-
    57; Voegelin's separate study of,
    VII: 2, 31, 32-33; on will, VII: 262;
    woundedness of, VII: 276
—Works : Confession du Pécheur,
    VII: 256, 286; Discours sur les
    passions de l'amour,
VII: 256, 278;
    Lettres provinciales, VII: 255-56;
    Mémorial, VII: 256; Mystère de Jésus,
    VII: 256; Pensées, VI: 95; VII: 182,
    254, 254n5, 255, 257, 262, 268n43,
    271-72, 286-87; VIII: 48, 64-68
Paschal II, Pope, II: 87n, 177
Passions:Helvétius on, VIII: 54-58,
    70-71, 82-83; Hobbes on, VIII: 67;
    Nietzsche on, VII: 267-69, 271-81,
    289; Pascal on, VII: 268-69, 268n43,
    278, 283-84; VIII: 65-68, 70
Passions fortes, VIII: 54-55, 57
Passive resistance, VIII: 282-83
Pastor angelicus, III: 243
Patarenes, IV: 148-49, 150
Pataria movement, II: 84-85, 96, 106,
    155, 194, 221
Patmos (Hölderlin), VII: 246
Patres, V: 67, 91. See also Church
Patres familias, VI: 138, 139
Patria Germania, III: 214
Patria potestas, VI: 138
Patricians, VI: 138-41, 142
Patricius Romanorum, II: 56, 57-58
Patrimonium Petri, III: 254
Paul (legal adviser to emperor), I: 193
Paul, Saint:and apocalyptic idea of
    kingdom of Heaven, I: 31, 166-67;
    on begging, II: 199; and Calvin,
    IV: 275; on charismata, I: 173; II: 63,
    66; IV: 234; on Christian community,
    I: 155, 167-69; and Christian
    philosophy of history, VII: 245; on
    church as mystical body of Christ,
    I: 55, 170-71, 216; II: 7-8, 62, 87n, 91;
    IV: 225-27; compared with Thomas
    Aquinas, II: 211; compromises of,
    I: 169-72; in Comte's Calendrier,
    VIII: 196, 201; conflict with Jewish-
    Christian community, I: 174-75,
   174n; corruption of Christianity
    by, VIII: 95; d'Alembert on, VIII: 95;
    Liante on, IV: 212n55; on differences
    of gifts, I: 170-71; difficulties of,
    I: 173-75; and divinely planned
    world history, I: 168-70, 181, 210;
    on divine revelation, VIII: 138;
    Epistle to the Hebrews, I: 167-
    69; IV: 85, 168, 272; V: 48-49; on
    epochal consciousness, I: 168-69,
    210; evolution of Christianity after,
    II: 187; on exousia, II: 63; on faith,
    I: 167-68; on govem mental authority
    ordained by God, I: 172, 202, 203; and
    Hellenistic pneumatics, I: 175; on
    hierarchy, III: 260; on history, II: 97;
    homonoia in Epistles of, I: 94; on the
    law, I: 201,202; IV: 140-41, 223, 235,
    259; VI: 56; on love, I: 171; III: 260-61;
    Luther on, IV: 252, 259, 262, 266; on
    necessity of work, I: 159; Nietzsche
    on, VII: 292; on obstacles in path of
    universal Christian order, I: 199; on
    pistis, II: 90, 230; on poverty, II: 198,
    199; on power, III: 45, 46; V: 48; on
    predestination, I: 215-16; Puritans'
    reading of Epistles of, IV: 159; on
    speaking in tongues, I: 175; on
    spiritual humans, I: 38-39; IV: 206-7;
    VI: 176, 212; universalist idea of, and
    assertion of ethnic differences, I: 173-
    7.4; and visions of Resurrected Christ,
    I: 164-65; Voegelin's detachment in
    discussion of, I: 53; and weakness of
    humans, I: 170-71; and William of
    Ockham, III: 108; on women, I: 236
Paul, Jean, IV: 189
Paulician movement, IV: 138, 148,
    158-59
Paul the Deacon, II: 47
Pax aetem a (etem al peace), I: 219
Pax et justitia, II: 152
Pax in vita aetem a (peace in the life
    etem al), I: 219
Pax romana, I: 121, 141; III: 74
Peace, I: 121, 141, 219; IV: 104-5,
    104n30, 264; VII: 63, 66
Peace-leagues ( Landfriedensbünde ),
    III: 213-14
Peace of Constance, III: 197
Peace of 1411, III: 201
Peace of Thom , III: 202
Peace of Utrecht, V: 112; VI: 33
Peasant Revolt: in England, III: 68, 176;
    IV: 150; in Germany, IV: 139, 150-51,
    238, 266; V: 90; VII: 97; VIII: 351
Peasantry, IV: 139, 150-51
Pecca fortiter, IV: 253, 275
Peisistratus, I: 72
Pelagianism, IV: 98n12, 125; VI: 135,
    145
Pelagius, II: 115n3
Pellisson, VII: 124
Penn, William, V: 112; VII: 103
Pennington, K., III: 56n3
Pennsylvania colony, VII: 103, 142
Pensées (Pascal), VI: 95; VII: 182, 254,
    254n5, 255, 257, 262, 268n43,
    271-72, 286-87; VIII: 48, 64-68
Penser (thought), VI: 61
Pentecost, I: 165-66; II: 203; III: 235-37
Penthesilea, II: 44
People: Augustine on, I: 218; Cicero
    on, I: 217-18; Hobbes on the person,
    VII: 67-68; Montesquieu on, VII: 164-
    65. See also Human nature; and
    headings beginning with Societas
People of God, I: 4, 23, 35,162; IV: 131-
    214 passim, 228. See also Spiritual
    movements
Pepin the Short, II: 57, 60, 60n
Perfecte legere (to read perfectly),
    VI: 96, 98
Perfect society ( societas perfecta ),
    III: 25, 75, 225, 260-62, 266; V: 68
Perfectus, perfecti, IV: 11,160,163,
    192, 194,208,209-13; V: 192
Perfettamente naturati, IV: 210
Perfidi, V: 125
Pericles, V: 233
Périer,Étienne, VII: 254n5
Périer, Mme., VII: 256
Periodization:of history, I: 121-22, 122;
    of spiritual movements, IV: 136-38
Pem icies humani generis et Chris-
    tianae religionis
(ruin of humankind
    and of Christianity), V: 116
Perondino, Peltro, IV: 53n
Perron, Charles, VIII: 289
Persecutions of Christians, I: 184-85,207, 208
Perseverantia, IV: 275
Persia and Persians:Alexander's
    conquest of, I: 90, 93; Arab expansion
    into Persia, II: 34, 188n1; destruction
    of, II: 35n2; and Islam, II: 186;
    Macedonian conquest of, I: 123;
    Montesquieu on, VII: 166; Parthian
    and Sassanid dynasties, I: 221; and
    philosophy, II: 182; V: 232; politics of,
    II: 215; and Rome, I: 121; travels in,
    VII: 171; and virtù, IV: 71; Voltaire
    on, VI: 39
Persius, II: 114
Persona (face or outward appearance),
    VII: 67
Persona regalis (royal person), II: 62-63,
    66, 86, 93, 94, 105
Persona sacerdotalis (priestly person),
    II: 62, 66
Persons. See Human nature; People
Per Venerabilem (Innocent III), II: 174-
    77; Ill:55
Per virum pauperem et novum, III: 242
Pessimism, V: 143-44, 146
Pestifera fallacia, V: 150
Peter, Epistle of, V: 154
Peter, Saint, I: 30, 152, 153n, 165; II: 85,
    124, 203; III: 121, 191-92; IV: 225,
    253, 277
Peter Crassus, II: 87n
Peter Damian, II: 11, 82-84, 92
Peter Martyr, IV: 111
Petition of Right of 1628 (England),
    VII: 78
Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca), IV: 81,
    203, 213n; V: 140, 145
Pétrement, Simon, VII: 6
Petrine succession, III: 191-92
Petronius, II: 114
Pfalburgerii (nonresidents), III: 214
Pharaonic cult, I: 103
Pharisaism, I: 151
"Phenomenal action," VII: 181
"Phenomenal activism," VII: 181
Phenomenal force, VI: 201
Phenomenalism: biological phenom-
    enalism, VII: 27-28, 184-87, 193,
    194; and Bruno, VII: 5, 27, 176,
    178-80, 182, 183; combination of
    types of, VII: 190-92; and Comte,
    VIII: 246; definition of, VII: 178-79,
    181-82, 194; and disintegration of
    rationalism, VII: 195-96; economic
    phenomenalism, VII: 28, 187-89;
    and formative characteristic of
    modem ity, I: 20, 24, 39; VII: 5-6, 10;
    and materialism, VII: 179-81; and
    Pascal, VII: 182-84; psychological
    phenomenalism, VII: 28, 189-90; and
    scientism, VII: 176, 178-79; VIII: 246;
    Vico's attack on, VI: 107
"Phenomenal obsessions," VII: 181
"Phenomenal projections," VII: 181
"Phenomenal reality," VII: 181
"Phenomenal speculation," VII: 181
Philip II Augustus, II: 146, 147, 148
Philip II of Macedon, I: 72, 88-89
Philip II the Bold, III: 56n3, 223
Philip IV the Fair, II: 74; III: 12, 48, 59,
    62n15, 113
Philip of Macedon, II: 44
Philip of Swabia, II: 146, 147,174, 177;
    III: 207
Philipp Augustus, III: 58n8
Philippe de Commynes, III: 252
Philipp I, III: 58
Philipp III, III: 60
Philip the Good, III: 223
Philo Hebraeus, IV: 272
Philo Judaeus (Philo of Alexandria),
    V: 93,190n11, 197, 198, 218, 244
Philology, VI: 17, 86, 92, 97-98
Philosopher-savior, I: 104
Philosophes, V: 62; VIII: 214
Philosophia Christiana, V: 34
Philosophia civilior (polite philosophy),
    IV: 8, 115-16
Philosophiae naturalis principia
    mathematica
(Newton), VI: 164, 165,
    184, 189-94
Philosophia perennis, VII: 176
Philosophia prima, VI: 198, 214
Philosophia scholastica (school
    philosophy), IV: 8, 115
Philosophical anthropology, VII: 51
Philosophical dilettantism, VII: 194-95
Philosophical sectarianism, VI: 64-67
Philosophie der Mythologie (Schelling),
    I: 26; VII: 156,209-10n9, 211, 217,
    226n56; VIII: 138
Philosophie der Offenbarung
    (Schelling), I: 26; II: 130n; VII: 210-11,
    222n45, 237n71
Philosophie politique (Comte),
    VIII: 177
Philosophische Untersuchungen
    über das Wesen der menschlichen
Freiheit
(Schelling), VII: 213n19,
    215-16, 222n45
Philosophos, II: 183
Philosophus naturalis, VI: 195
Philosophy: authority of philosopher,
    IV: 208-9; VI: 98, 135-37; Christian
    intellectualism, II: 187, 208-11; and
    Christianity, IV: 7, 92-93, 98-99;
    VI: 60; d'Alembert on, VIII: 101; faith
    and reason, II: 188-90; as form of
    consciousness reality, I: 43; Giles of
    Rome on, III: 52; Greek philosophers
    of non-Hellenic origin, I: 74-75;
    Hellenic and Hellenistic philosophy,
    II: 183-84, 187; Hooker on philosophy
    of law, V: 98-107; Hume on, VII: 160,
    161; Islamic philosophy, II: 178, 181-
    87; Italian philosophers on virtùtes,
    VI: 104-5; Le Roy's philosophy
    of history, V: 146-47; as love of
    wisdom, I: 42; meaning of, IV: 115-
    16; VI: 19-20; More on philosopher's
    political duty, IV: 8, 113-16; More
    on types of, IV: 114-15; mystic-
    philosophers, I: 44, 45-47; natural
    philosophy, V: 171, I71n86; praise of
    the philosopher, II: 190-91; school
    versus polite philosophy, IV: 8,
    115-16; VI: 214; Spanish-Muslim
    philosophers, II: 187; as symbolic
    form, I: 53; Voltaire on, VI: 65-67,
    65n35. See also specific philosophers
"Philosophy of Existence: Plato's
    Gorgias " (Voegelin), I: 51
Philosophy of Giambattista Vico
    (Croce), VI: 17
Philosophy of Law (Hegel), VIII: 348
Philosophy of Mythology (Schelling),
    I: 228
Philosophy of Right (Hegel), VI: 73
Phocians, I: 88
Phoronomy, VI: 186, 199, 200
Phrygian Montanist movement, I: 177
Physeos oikonomia, IV: 62
Physicism, VIII: 47-49
Physics: Bergson on, VI: 200-201n67;
    Berkeley on, VI: 198-99, 214; Bodin
    on, V: 202-3; Cartesian physics,
    VI: 164, 183; and Einstein, VI: 214;
    Euler on, VI: 213-14; and heliocentric
    concept of universe, VI: 53, 60;
    Leibniz on, VI: 199-205; material
    of cosmos, V: 178; Newtonian,
    VI: 166, 186, 194, 198,200, 203,
    213; VII: 50; Pascal on, VII: 184;
    phenomenalism of, VII: 190; popular
    appeal of, VII: 182; Saint-Simon on,
    VIII: 229-30; Turgot on progress in,
    VIII: 107; Vico on, VI: 98-99, 128. See
    also
Phenomenalism; Scientism
Physics (Aristotle), II: 179, 184, 225;
    IV: 237
Physique sociale, VIII: 229-30
Physis, V: 31, 226; VII: 247-48
Picards (Beghards), III: 175; IV: 195
Picardy, IV: 150
Piccolomini, Enea Silvio de', II: 114
Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, V: 136,
   150, 199
Piero della Vigna, II: 159
Piers Plowman, I: 33; III: 13, 15, 169,
    177-84
Pietism, VIII: 224
Pigafetta, Antonio, VII: 170
Pilgrimage places, IV: 242
Pilgrims, VII: 80, 86
Pirenne, Henri, II: 35n
Pirenne thesis, II: 3, 3511
Pisa, Council of, III: 41, 250
Pisa and Pisans, II: 72; III: 231
Pisa/Siena, Council of, III: 250
Pistis, I: 42; II: 90, 230; III: 108
Pius II, Pope, III: 251; IV: 52
Pius IX, Pope, III: 110,111
Pius XII, Pope, III: 112
Plague of 1665, VI: 154
"Plan des travaux scientifiques
    nécessaires pour réorganiser la
    société" (Comte), VIII: 177-78,
    241-45
Planning, VII: 188
Plantagenets, II: 145
Plato:and Augustine, I: 209-10; and
    Cicero, I: 131-32, 133; on cohesion of
    political community, I: 80; and
    commonsense understanding,
    I: 42; on community of women,
    I: 96, 236; compared with Bodin,
    V: 8; compared with Helvétius,
    VIII: 62n40; compared with
    Machiavelli, IV: 56, 82, 85-86;
    compared with Schelling, VII: 26,
    236-37, 237n71; on contemplation,
    VII: 20; and Diogenes, I: 78-79; as
    end of age, VII: 241; on eros, II: 71;
    evocation of, II: 183; on forms of
    govem ment, I: 126-27; IV: 114;
    VI: 147; on God, I: 77, 167-68; III: 21;
    IV: 190; V: 189; and Hellenic crisis,
    VIII: 218; histories built on, I: 234;
    on history, II: 97; on human types,
    III: 261; V: 228, 241; importance for
    later generations, V: 180, 236; on
    kingship, I: 103-4; and minimum
    dogma, VII: 134; and motus amoris,
    V: 199; on mystic-philosopher,
    V: 228-29; myths of, I: 50, 70; III: 262;
    IV: 226; VII: 236-37, 237n71; and
    Nicholas of Cusa, Ill:257, 259-60;
    and Nietzsche, VII: 257, 260; on
    nosos (disorder of mind), I: 81, 107,
    128; VII: 152; nous basilikòs of,
    VII: 217; organic theory of, II: 121;
    Orientalisms in, I: 105; original
    manuscript on, I: 16; Parable of the
    Cave, V: 195; philosopher-king of,
    II: 218; philosopher-savior of, I: 104;
    philosophy of generally, I: 42; IV: 92,
    110, 112; VI: 178; polis of, I: 69,
    78-79, 99, 103-4, 116; II: 37, 64, 65,
    108, 216; VI: 6; VII: 237; VIII: 289;
    on politeia, VII: 236; political theory
    of, V: 37-39, 142, 227, 228-29;
    Polybius on, I: 129; quest of, I: 47;
    relation between Jesus Christ and,
    V: 190n11, 238; and religion, II: 183;
    and Socrates, VII: 236; on the soul,
    I: 149, 196; II: 37, 121, 217; IV: 250-
    51; V: 189; VII: 227, 236; and subject
    population, I: 70; sun symbolism
    in, I: 105; VII: 125; and tolerance,
    V: 218; and unconscious, VII: 31;
    unconscious strata in dialogues of,
    I: 28; and understanding of humans,
    I: 29; Vico on, VI: 95n7, 105; on
    virtue and happiness, I: 83, 99; V: 33;
    Voegelin's revision of section on,
    I: 23, 27, 50, 51; IV: 2; VI: 178n;
    withholding of theories by, I: 233. See
    also
Neoplatonism; Platonism
—Works : Alcibiades I, V: 142; Critias,
    IV: 119n; Epinomis, V: 215; Gorgias,
    IV: 83, 289; VI: 178; VIII: 320; Laws,
    I: 210; II: 184; V: 213, 215; VI: 135;
    Politeia, III: 262; VII: 237; Politikos,
    VII: 237; Republic, I: 210; II: 185;
    IV: 110, 112; VI: 135; VIII: 289;
    Timaeus, IV: 119n; V: 147, 203;
    VI: 213n; VII: 237
Plato and Aristotle (Voegelin), I: 27n34;
    IV: 119n, 132n
Platonism: of Bodin, V: 195-96,202,
    203, 212-15, 2l8, 221-22, 227, 229,
    244; Cambridge Platonists, VI: 167,
    191; in Christianity, II: 110; IV: 227;
    compared with Calvinism, IV: 284;
    and cycle of govem mental forms,
    VI: 147; Erasmus on, IV: 97, 100,
    107; More on, IV: 119n, 124n57; of
    Nietzsche, VII: 32, 33; and nosos,
    VI: 164; and other movements,
    IV: 201, 226; and realissimum,
    IV: 250-51; and rulers, IV: 103;
    and Senamus, V: 209. See also
    Neoplatonism
"Plato's Egyptian Myth" (Voegelin),
    I: 51
Pleasure, I: 79, 83
Pleasure-pain mechanism, VIII: 45-46,
    49, 58, 68, 75, 82
Plebeians, I: 114; VI: 138-41, 142
Plebiscite, VII: 297n126
Plebs, VI: 115
Plenitudo potestatis, III: 115, 120
Pleno jure, VII: 54
Pleonexia, IV: 8, 9, 38, 107, 109, 121,
    129-30, 246, 263; V: 63, 89-91
Pliny, II: 114
Plotinism, V: 211, 239, 244
Plotinus, II: 184, 185; IV: 119n
Plus et minus, V: 168
Plutarch, I: 89, 90, 93; II: 114, 12I; V: 29;
VII: 262, 263; VIII: 340
Pneuma of Christ, VI: 41, 62
Pneumatici (church members), V: 49
Pneumatic meditative consciousness,
    I: 45
Pneumatikos (spiritual human), I: 38-
    39; IV: 182, 206-7
Pneumopathology (pneumatopathol-
    ogy), I: 35; VI: 183; VIII: 138, 278, 306,   
325, 343
Podestà III: 223; IV: 39
Poe, Edgar Allan, VII: 190
Poetics (Aristotle), IV: 237
Poggio Bracciolini, IV: 41, 46-52,
    47n13, 50-51n18; V: 137-43, 145
Poitiers, battle of, III: 68
Poland, II: 75, 146; III: 199, 200,201,
   202, 227; VIII: 268-69n23, 276
Pole, Cardinal Reginald, V: 78, 79n2
Polemos, V: 131
Policraticus (John of Salisbury), II: 113-
    17, 121-25, 126; III: 88; VIII: 82
Polis: of Aristotle, I: 103-5, 232; II: 13,
    65, 183-84, 215-19; III: 75, 86,
    95; V: 33, 58, 181, 229; VII: 19;
    Benedictine polis, II: 64; and
    Bodin, V: 181, 229; central ideas
    of, I: 109-10; III: 85, 93; V: 33; VI: 6;
    cosmopolis versus, I: 78-79, 116, 149;
    disintegration of, II: 63, 65, 66, 108;
    Harrington on, VII: 102; Hellenic
    polis, III: 145, 154; IV: 132, 133; More
    on, IV: 114, 119n; of Plato, I: 69, 78-
    79, 99, 103-4, 116; II: 37, 64, 65, 108,
    216; VI: 6; VII: 237; VIII: 289; Rome
    as, I: 143-44; Schelling on, VII: 227-
    29, 233; spiritual disintegration of,
    I: 69-84; tension between apolitical
    groups and, I: 34; theory of polis
    evocation, I: 235-36
Politeia, VII: 236
Politeia (Plato), III: 262; VII: 237
Politeion anakyklosis, IV: 62
Polite philosophy ( philosophia
    civilior
), IV: 8, 115-16
Politesse (civilization), VIII: 118
Politia, II: 222; V: 58
Political geography, VIII: 140-47
Political Geography (Turgot). See
Geographie Politique (Political
    Geography
) (Turgot)
Political history. See History
Political ideas: ancillary, VII: 18; and
    cosmion, VII: 15-16, 18-19, 22,
    23, 25, 59-60, 170; definition and
    description of, I: 17-19, 225-26, 230,
    VII: 13; evocative nature of, I: 21-23,
    25-26, 228-31, 234-35; function of,
    I: 20, 227-.28; V: 7; and linking of
    finite with .absolute, I: 19-20; links
    with empirical reality, VII: 13-14;
    "magic" of, I: 20-21; meaningful
    pattem of, I: 23-24; myth-making
    function of, VII: 29; as "myth of the
    people," I: 28; paradigm of, VII: 9-20,
    29; phenomenological analysis of,
    I: 25; problems in writing history of,
    I: 226-37; "reality-character" of, I: 21,
    21n; relationship between political
    theory and, I: 231-33; types of, I: 19;
    versus political theory, VII: 18-20;
    Voegelin's giving up on, as objects of
    history, I: 16-17, 22-25, 40-41, 50; in
    well-consolidated period, I: 70
Political legitimacy, V: 5
Political order. See Order
Political realist, V: 7. See also Realism
"Political religions," VIII: 17-18
Political Religions (Voegelin), VII: 3
Political sermons of Warburton,
    VI: 156-61
"Political spirit," VII: 2, 29-30
Political theory:definition of political
    theorist, V: 7; history and theory
    as inseparable, I: 22-23; isolation
    of political thinkers, III: 66-68; and
    philosophy of unconscious, I: 27-
    28; as practice of contemplative
    analysis, I: 21-22; relationship
    between political ideas and, I: 231-
    33; of Schelling, VII: 222-33; and
    theorist's public silence, I: 22n;
    versus political ideas, VII: 18-20;
    as work of outstanding individuals,
    rather than communal work, I: 21-22,
    233
"Political Theory and the Pattem of
    General History" (Voegelin), VI: 2
    Political versus apolitical revolutions,
I: 71-73
Politics: American, III: 239; IV: 176;
    artificiality in, VIII: 83-85; Christian
    politics and construction of epochs,
    I: 210; and Comte's law of Three
    Phases, VIII: 244-45; cyclical
    revolution of political forms, IV: 62-
    65, 69-70, 85-86; and Erasmus on
    ascetic prince, IV: 7-8, 91-92, 97-
    109, 116; and Erasmus on problem
    of power, IV: 105-9; history-of-ideas
    approach to political theory, III: 2, 3;
    and human imperfection, IV: 79-81;
    and "Machiavellianism," IV: 86;
    Machiavelli on moral principles of
    conduct in, IV: 78-81; Machiavelli's
    principles for study of, IV: 60-61;
    materialistic interpretation of, I: 230;
    morality in conduct of, IV: 78-82;
    "moralization" of political conduct,
    IV: 128-29; More on philosopher's
    political duty, IV: 8, 113-16; as
    movement of power structures on
    world scale, I: 120-21; and national
    consciousness, II: 148, 149; Roman
    republic, IV: 59-60, 62-71; separation
    of spirit from, III: 68-69, 105; sphere
    of, II: 4-5, 5n11, 107-8; spiritual,
    II: 36-38; subimperial, III: 193-203;
    Thomas Aquinas on, II: 215-23;
    "trial and error" in, IV: 103; and
    two worlds, IV: 164-65; William of
    Ockham's method of, III: 115-17. See
    also
Empires; and other headings
    beginning with Political
Politics (Aristotle), II: 184, 212, 215,
    225; III: 75, 85-90, 95,101
Politikos (Plato), VII: 237
Politique positive, VIII: 88
Politiques, V: 24
Politischen Religionen (Voegelin),
    V: 1-2
Poll taxes, VII: 84, 84n5
Polo, Marco, V: 233; VII: 170
Polybius: on Achaean war, I: 141; and
    Bodin, V: 247n102; and Cicero, I: 133;
    and common intelligence, I: 129-
    30; compared with Machiavelli,
    IV: 62, 63, 65, 84, 85; compared
    with Spengler, I: 125-26; and
    consciousness of epoch, I: 149-50;
    on cosmic cycle, IV: 62; on fatality
    and authority of empire, I: 123-24;
    VI: 147; on fortune as experience,
    I: 122-23; hieroglyphic use of ideas
    by, I: 128-30; and historiography,
    I: 124-25; and idea of world history,
    I: 124-25, 150,168; and La Boétie,
    V: 28-29; and Poggio, V: 139-40; on
    tripolity as cause of Roman success,
    I: 126-30
Polytheism, I: 227; VI: 104, 115; VII: 211,
    228-30, 243-46; VIII: 146
Pomerania, III: 201
Pompa, Leon, VI: 14n19, 132n
Pomponazzi, Pietro, IV: 91, 98
Pontifex maximus, I: 208
Poor. See Poverty
Poor Law, VII: 108
Poor of Lyons, II: 78, 138
Poor Priests, III: 174
Pope, Alexander, VII: 137, 162n2
Popes: as Antichrist, III: 192; V: 79;
    approval of German king-emperors
    by, III: 207-10, 210n, 216; on
    astrology, V: 154-55; authority over
    emperor, IV: 243-44; at Avignon,
    III: 11, 41, 61, 79, 121, 164-67, 182-
    83, 242, 253-54; and Babylonian
    Captivity, III: 163, 164; Bodin on,
    V: 246; Boniface VIII and conflict
    with France, III: 38, 43-45, 56, 59,
    62n15, 165, 210; Boniface IX and
    Statute of Carlisle, Ill:174; and
    Carolingian empire, II: 52-53, 55-62;
    and Christian world of smaller states,
    II: 90, 106, 144, 146-47; as Christus in
    terris
(Christ on earth), IV: 207-208;
    Cistercian popes, II: 71-72; Clement
    IV and the Crusades, III: 60; and
    Clericis Laicos, III: 43, 44; Cluniac
    reform of papacy, II: 82, 106; III: 196,
    197; and Concordat of Vienna,
    III: 251; conflict between Franciscans
    and, III: 113-14, 123; Cramaut on,
    III: 253; Crescentian popes, II: 82;
    decline and reform of, II: 81-82; and
    Decretum Gratianum, II: 13, 174;
    and Donation of Constantine, II: 60,
    60n, 90; III: 57; and Donation of
    Pepin, II: 57, 60; Dubois on power
    of, III: 62-63; election of, II: 82, 82n;
    III: 41, 191-92, 192n26, 245, 247;
    England's separation from authority
    of, V: 76; and episcopal authority,
    II: 203; excommunication of John
    Lackland by Innocent Ill, III: 131;
    and Frankish kingdom, II: 52-53,
    55-62, 90; and Frederick II, II: 111,
    146, 151, 158; and French revenue,
    III: 253; functions of, III: 120, 253;
    Gelasius and separation of spiritual
    and temporal powers, II: 53-54;
    German popes, III: I96; and Golden
    Bull, III: 198; and Great Schism,
    III: 41, 163, 188, 191, 192, 245-53;
    gulf between Byzantine empire and,
    II: 53-55; heretical popes, III: 124-
    25, 245; Hildebrandine assertion
    of papacy's universal political
    authority, III: 11, 165; Hussites on,
    IV: 222; and imitation of Christ,
    III: 121, 189-90, 192; imperialism
    supported by, V: 122, 126; indirect
    temporal powers of, II: 86; V: 64-
    66; and infallibility, I: 37-39, 183;
    III: 111, 124-25, 247; Innocent
    III's Per Venerabilem, II: 174-77;
    III: 55; and Investiture Struggle,
    II: 11-12, 81-82, 85-91; John XXII
    and Quia vir reprobus, III: 114;
    and Jubilee of 1450, III: 42; Leroy
    on, III: 253; and Louis IV, III: 83;
    Luther on, IV: 235-36, 235n, 240-41;
    Machiavelli on, IV: 68; and Magna
    Carta, III: 133; Maistre on, VIII: 9,
    221-22; Milton's attack on, VII: 94;
    and national concordats, III: 255-56;
    and Pataria movement, II: 84-85;
    and Petrine succession, III: 191-92;
    Pius IX and Syllabus Errorum of
    1864, III: 110; Pius XII and Divine
    Afflante Spiritus,
III: 112n; power of,
    I: 37-39, 183; II: 86,201; III: 11, 51-52,
    62-63, 120-21, 162, 165, 188-92,
    248, 253; V: 64-66; retum of pope
    to Rome from Avignon, IV: 38-39;
    and Rienzo, III: 235, 237, 243; rival
    popes, III: 245-47, 250, 252; role
    in church, III: 11-12, 51-52, 162;
    and sale of indulgences, IV: 229-
    31, 245; and spiritual hierarchy,
    II: 200-203; spiritual powers of, V: 65;
    struggle between Hohenstaufen and,
    IV: 102n22; as temporal principality,
    II: 60; territorial bases of, III: 11-12;
    IV: 42; Tuscan, II: 82; and Unam
    Sanctam, III: 43-46, 47; William of
    Ockham on, III: 120-21, 245; Roger
    Williams on, VII: 88; withdrawal of
    obedience to, III: 253, 255; Wycliffe
    on, III: 188-92. See also Catholic
    Church; Church; Papal states; and
    specific popes
Popolani, III: 230, 231, 233; IV: 34n
Popolo grasso, II: 220; III: 230
Popolo minuto, II: 220; III: 230
Populi extranei, II: 170
Populist activism, V: 51
Populus (people), III: 89, 149; V: 54, 58,
    223
Populus christianus, II: 119, 140, 156,
    219
Populus honorabilis, II: 220
Populus Romanus, II: 170; III: 78
Populus universus, V: 54
Populus vilis, II: 220
Porceau (pigs), V: 201, 202, 206, 207
Portugal, III: 69; V: 64, 128, 232; VII: 56,
    105
Positive law, I: 195, 202; II: 225, 227-28;
    VII: 69
Positivism: antihumanism of, VIII: 93;
    compared with More, IV: 118;
    and Comte, IV: 125; VIII: 88,
    108, 165, 186, 195-96, 297, 307;
    Condorcet's Esquisse, VIII: 8, 8n,
    148-61, 149n60; and d'Alembert's
    Discours préliminaire, VIII: 88-106;
    and France and French Revolution,
    VI: 75; VIII: 195-96; and Gnosticism,
    IV: 11, 178-79; Huxley on, VIII: I93;
    origins of, V: 236; and scientism,
    VI: 184, 213; and secularization,
    VI: 121 ; transition from sectarian
    Christianity to, IV: 201-2; and
    Turgot's historicism, VIII: 106-48;
    unconditional versus "intellectual"
    Positivists, VIII: 165,167, 174
Posse (to be able; power), VI: 116
Postilla in Apocalypsim (Peter Olivi),
    III: 113
Potency, VII: 208-9, 209-10n9, 215-17,
    234
Potentia (power), VII: 131-33
Potenzia coactiva, III: 97; V: 42
Potentia intellectiva (universal
    intellect), III: 75
Potent (potency), VII: 208-9,209-10n9,
    215-17, 234
Potenzenlehre (Schelling), VII: 208-10,
    209n9, 211, 217, 237; VIII: 137
Potestas (power), II: 8, 62; VI: 104
Potestas absoluta, III: 106, 107, 108,
    119n16, 126
Potestas artificialis, III: 50; V: 235n75
Potestas civilis, VII: 58
Potestas coactiva, III: 98
Potestas communis (community
    power), V: 67
Potestas naturalis, V: 235n75
Potestas ordinata, III: 106, 119n16
Potestas principatum, III: 50; V: 235n75
Potestas scientifica, III: 50; V: 235n75
Potestas spiritualis, IV: 207
Potestas translata, II: 120n
Potestates, V: 67-68, 235n75
Poussin, Nicolas, VII: 263n35
Pouvoir spirituel, VI: 75; VIII: 6, 94-96,
    104, 131, 139, 164, 170
Poverelli, II: 77
Poverty: abolition of, VII: 98; and
    abolition of Council of the North in
    England, VII: 108-9; and Christianity,
    II: 137-38, 139,178, 180,198-204;
    IV: 144-4 5; English Poor Law,
    VII: 108; and Franciscans, II: 138,
    198-203; III: 113-14; Francis of
    Assisi on, II: 137-38, 139, 231; and
    Free Spirit, IV: 180; in Gospels, I: 156-
    57; ideal of, II: 178, 180, 198-204;
    and Israelic law, I: 113, 115; Langland
    on, III: 180; Locke on, VII: 150-51,
    189; Marx on, I: 157, 158; and pope,
    III: 192; in society, I: 156-61; III: 142;
    Thomas Aquinas on, II: 200; William
    of Ockham on, III: 118-20, 119n16;
    Winstanley on, VII: 98-99; and
    world order, III: 118-20; Wycliffe on,
    III: 185. See also Mendicant orders
    Power:absolutist theory of Giles of
    Rome, III: 46-53, 49n6, 84, 105;
    Bentham on, VIII: 72; Bodin on,
    V: 247-48; VII: 54; civil power,
    III: 53; and common good, IV: 66-
    67; definition of, from Giles of
    Rome, III: 50, 50n; demonism of, in
    disintegrating Christian civilization,
    IV: 9, 107, 129-30; ecclesiastical
    totalitarianism, III: 52-53; Erasmus
    on goodness as necessary with,
    IV: 103-4; Erasmus on problem of,
    IV: 105-9; as evil, IV: 83; French
    independence from imperial power,
    III: 55; Gelasian balance of powers,
    III: 46, 51n, 74, 83; IV: 233-34;
    Harrington on, VII: 101; Helvétius
    on, VIII: 56-62; hierarchy of powers,
    III: 45-46; Hobbes on, VII: 63-64, 71,
    119-20, 131, 154, 273n55; imperial
    power, III: 6-7, 55; libido dominandi
    (lust for power), IV: 7, 100, 128;
    medieval theory of doctrine of
    powers in plural, III: 50; "might
    makes right," IV: 83; and Myth of
    Nature, IV: 6, 62, 63, 70, 84-85,
    107; obedience to govem mental
    power, IV: 144; "order" of powers,
    III: 45; pagan naturalism of, IV: 107;
    Pascal on, VII: 272; Paul on, III: 45;
    Poggio Bracciolini on, IV: 46-52;
    and political order, IV: 88; of popes,
    I: 37-39, 183; II: 86, 201; III: 11,
    51-52, 62-63, 120-21,162,165,
    188-92, 248, 253; V: 64-66; problem
    of royal power, III: 54-55; Retz on,
    VII: 119-20; of ruler versus powerless
    subjects, III: 50-51; and science,
    VI: 205-9; secular power versus papal
    power, III: 51-52, 51n; as source of
    evil, IV: 107; Spinoza on, VII: 131-33;
    stronger force versus weaker force,
    IV: 55-56; sword as symbol of, III: 51,
    51n; Timur as symbol of, IV: 44-55;
    Turgot on, VIII: 144-45; types of,
    from Giles of Rome, III: 50; will to
    power of intellectual, III: 48-49. See
    also
Authority; Empires; Kingship;
    Monarchy; Prince; Rulership
Praemunire, Statute of, III: 167-68
Praepositi (magistrates), I: 215
Praepositus vel institor societatis, V: 43
Praescriptum naturae (law of nature),
    IV: 126
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, III: 256
Praise of the Emperor (Piero della
    Vigna), II: 159
Praise of Virtues, II: 135-37
Praises of the Creatures (Francis of
    Assisi), II: 141-42, 159
Praktische Vem unft (practical reason),
    VII: 206
Prato, Juan Daniel de, VII: 127
Preciosa mors, V: 190-92, 191n13, 194,
    196
Predestination, I: 215-16; III: 189;
    IV: 14, 268-91
Predestination (Erigena), IV: 152-53
"Préface personnelle" (Comte),
    VIII: 175, 180, 181
Prepositivists, VIII: 251
Pre-Reformation, Ill:172-75
Presbyterianism, IV: 169; V: 48; VII: 86-
    87, 89, 110
Presbyters, II: 99
Press, IV: 218-20, 230
Previte-Orton, C. W., III: 90
Priam, I: 146
Priamus, II: 44
Pride:Hobbes on, VII: 62-64, 70,
    273n55; More on, IV: 120-25, 128;
    Nietzsche on, VII: 273-75; Pascal on,
    VII: 284. See also Superbia
Prières (Comte), VIII: 188-90
Priestly, Joseph, VIII: 210
Priests, IV: 42, 154, 234; VII: 298,
    299-300, 302-3
Priest's Charter, III: 229
Prima causa, IV: 284; V: 174
Primal Man ( Protos Anthropos ),
    IV: 186, 187, 191, 199, 210; V: 222
Prima materia, VI: 105
Primary democracy, III: 110-11
Primas, III: 264
Primitive force ( vis primitiva ), VI: 201
Primitivization, VI: 174-75, 177-78,
    210
"Primordial community of being," I: 18
Primum verum, God as, VI: 97
Primus Factor, God as, VI: 97
Prince: as analogue of God, IV: 100-
    101, 103; conqueror as part of image
    of, IV: 51-52; as divine analogue,
    II: 217-18; Erasmus on ascetic prince,
    IV: 7-8, 91-92, 97-109, 116; Erasmus
    on philosophical prince, IV: 97-98;
    as fox and lion, IV: 78; Machiavelli
    on, IV: 6, 73-81, 91-92, 102, 106;
    and morality in conduct of politics,
    IV: 78-82; oligarchy of, III: 212-14;
    pleonexia of, IV: 9, 38, 107, 121;
    power struggle between princes,
    IV: 107; virtù of, IV: 32, 52, 56, 76-
    81, 91; virtù ordinata of, IV: 56;
    Xenophon on, IV: 82n
Princeps, I: 187-91; VI: 115, 144
Princeps in regno suo, III: 56n3
Principati (lordships), IV: 73-78
Principato nuovo, IV: 75
Principe (Prince) (Machiavelli), II: 63;
    IV: 6, 31, 33, 56, 56n25, 59, 72-82,
    85-87, 89-92; VI: 84
Principe positif, VIII: 186
Principia (Descartes), VI: 200,202n74
Principia Mathematica (Newton),
    VI: 164, 165, 184, 189-94
Principii, III: 233
Principles of Human Knowledge
    (Berkeley), VI: 196-98
Principles of Revolution (Bakunin),
    VIII: 291-93
Printing and printing press, IV: 218-20,
    230; V: 146n16; VIII: 151-52, 152n65
Priscillian sect, IV: 158
Private property. See Property
Privilegium in favorem principum
    ecclesiasticorum,
II: 148
Proclus, IV: 152
Produktionsverhältnisse (production
    relations), VIII: 328
Profane history, I: 220-23
Professio Fidei Tridetina, III: 111
Profeti armati (prophets in arms), IV: 77
Progrès de l'ésprit (progress of the
    mind), VIII: 100-101
Progress: Comte on, VIII: 131, 136-
    37; Condorcet on, VIII: 153-55,
    194; conflict between progress
    and political existence after
    Turgot, VIII: 130-33; d'Alembert
    on, VIII: 98-106,100-101n10; and
    "differentiated" symbols of the
    whole, II: 16; Engels on, VIII: 335-36;
    full stature of idea of, VII: 156; and
    technology, VIII: 103-4; "thread
    of progress," VIII: 130-31, 135-36;
    Turgot on, VIII: 109, 124-31, 135-
    37, 158; Vico's counterposition to,
    VI: 145-46; VII: 156
Progressivism, IV: 118,178; VI: 120,
    121, 146, 184,208
Proistamenos (govem ments), V: 48
"Proletarian" civilization, IV: 145
Proletariat:Engels on, VIII: 315-
    16n10; Marx on, I: 73-74, 157-58;
    III: 69; VIII: 75, 259, 350-51, 356-59,
    362, 363-67; Russian "industrial
    proletariat," VII: 297n126; Toynbee
    on intem al and extem al proletariats,
    VIII: 116, 126
Prometheanism, VII: 217-22, 222n45,
    231, 233, 236; VIII: 31
Prometheus, VII: 217-18, 229; VIII: 340
Prometheus (Aeschylus), VII: 228-29
Prometheus (Balthasar), VII: 6
Promissione ducale, III: 232
Proooemium to Constitutions of Melfi,
    II: 151-57
"Proper history of the spirit," VII: 29
Property: and Christianity, I: 158,
171-72; and God as proprietor,
    VII: 145-47, 146-47n3, 147n5; and
    human as proprietor of self, VII: 147-
    48; Locke on, VII: 145-52, I47n4,
    I48n6, 154, 189; More on, IV: 9,
    122-24; ownership of, II: 229, 231;
    rights to, III: 53, 117, 123, 160-62
Prophanis legibus (profane law), IV: 95
Prophecy of Paracelsus, VIII: 225n72
Prophetic saint, V: 201,202
Prophets in arms (profeti armati),
    IV: 77, 287-88
Prophets of Israel, I: 111, 112, 115-19,
    150; IV: 110
Propositions (Cramaut), III: 253
Propositions condamnées, II: 179-80,
    193, 210
Proppositiones Utiles (Gerson),
    III: 251n
Proselytizing character of Christianity,
    I: 178
Proskynesis (prostration before the
    king), I: 92
Prosopon (face or outward appearance),
    VII: 67
    Protestant Intem ational, III: 173
    Protestantism: Bakunin on, VIII: 254-
    55; Bossuet on, VI: 46-50; conflicts
    of, VI: 69, 74-78, 81; in England,
    IV: 137; V: 19-20, 70; VI: 10, 51n,
    75-76; evolution of, IV: 4, 19-21,
    137-38, 239; VI: 178; in France,
    VI: 10, 51n, 74-75; in Germany, V: 19,
    20; VI: 10, 11, 76; VII: 93-94, 270;
    VIII: 350-52; and Knox, V: 50-51;
    liberal Protestantism, VIII: 279;
    Milton on toleration for, VII: 93;
    Nietzsche on, VII: 270, 271n51;
    radical, VII: 93-94; scripturalism of,
    II: 100-101, 134; Vico on, VI: 95, 104.
    See also Reformation; and specific
    Protestant churches and movements
Protodialectic experience, VII: 214-17
Protos Anthropos (Primal Man), IV: 186,
    187, 191, 199, 210; V: 222
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, VIII: 98, 306
Providence, VI: 129-33, 135, 138, 145.
    See also God
Provincia, provinciae, II: 13, 215, 218;
    III: 154
Provincia Romana, III: 235
Provisors, Statutes of, III: 167,168
Prudentia, V: 228, 235n75
Prudenza, IV: 57
Prussia, I: 124; II: 75; III: 201-2; VI: 76;
    VIII: 9, 144, 224-28
Przywara, Erich, I: 6
Psalms, I: 150; V: 191n13, 201, 218;
    VII: 146n3
Pseudo-Dionysius. See Dionysius
    Areopagita (Pseudo-Dionysius)
Psyche (soul), V: 226; VII: 31
Psychici, V: 49
Psychikos (natural man), IV: 182, 206,
    207
Psychoanalysis, I: 82; V: 152n39
Psychological management, VII: 190
Psychological phenomenalism, VII: 28,
    189-90
Psychologie de deux messies (Dumas),
    VIII: 168-69
Psychologization: of history, VI: 129; of
    the self, VI: 165-67, 175-76
    Psychology:astrological, V: 152n39;
    behavioristic, VII: 189; depth,
    VII: 189-90; of Freud, VII: 241, 278;
    and Hellenism, I: 79-80; and Hobbes,
    I: 80, 228; V: 38; and La Boétie,
    I: 230; and mathematized science,
    VII: 176; Nietzsche on, VII: 275-76;
    of Pascal, I: 80; V: 38, 206; and period
    of Greek disintegration, III: 115-16;
    and political theory, VII: 50; and
    psychological management, VII: 190;
    and psychological phenomenalism,
    VII: 28, 189-90. See also Human
    nature
Ptolemaic cult, I: 103
Ptolemy, I: 221; III: 40; V: 148n26, 157,
    166, 227, 227n70, 241, 241n85
Ptolemy Caesar, I: 142
Ptolemy II of Egypt, I: 103
Ptolemy Philadelphos, I: 142
Publica particularis, V: 58
Publica universalis (polis), V: 58
Public-opinion polls, V: 155
Publishing, IV: 218-20, 230
Pueri, VI: 116
Pufendorf, Samuel von, VI: 16, 91, 94
Puissance (power), Turgot on, VIII: 144-
    45
Punto summo, IV: 210n
Può essere di tanta vita, IV: 63
Purcell, John B., VI: 162n20
Purgatorio (Dante), III: 78-82, 178, 181
Purgatory, IV: 160
Puritans and Puritanism: an-
    tiphilosophism of, V: 91-92; and
    covenant with God, VII: 69; critics
    of, VII: 110; and Cromwell, VII: 113;
    destruction of Hooker's writings by,
    V: 80n4; in England, VI: 75, 153-54;
    formation of, III: 175; IV: 158-59,
    167; and franchise, VII: 84; and
    govem ment, IV: 170, 176; Hooker's
    portrait of, V: 92-99, 106-7; Locke
    on, VII: 140-41; monarchomachs,
    V: 40; origin of term, V: 79; origins of,
    I: 33; V: 60; and rationality of conduct,
    I: 113-14; as reformist group, IV: 10,
    139, 151, 174, 192; V: 21, 80, 83, 85,
    86; in Voegelin's New Science of
    Politics,
VIII: 20
Pushkin, Aleksandr, VIII: 274
Putney debates of 1647, VII: 83, 110-12
Pydna, battle of, I: 123, 125
Pym, John, VII: 109, 124
Pyrard, VII: 170
Pyrenees, Treaty of, V: 110
Pyrrhus, war against, I: 145
Pythagoras, I: 105; IV: 92, 190; V: 154,
    189, 238; VIII: 223

Quadruple Alliance, VIII: 224
Quaestiones, IV: 95, 95n5, 259
Quaestiones de Anima (Siger de
    Brabant), III: 67n
Quakers, I: 82; IV: 192, 194, 195;
    VII: 91-92, 114
Quantité négligeable, IV: 114; VIII: 371
Quasi perfètta, IV: 211
Querela Pacis (Erasmus), IV: 104n30
Queries to Lord Fairfax, IV: 167-73, 174
Questions sur l'encyclopédie (Voltaire),
    VI: 58
Quetelet, Lambert, VIII: 229-30
Quia vis reprobus, III: 114
Quidditas, IV: 94
Quislingism, V: 110
Quod nihit acitur (Sánchez),

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