CUMULATIVE INDEX

HISTORY OF POLITICAL IDEAS (VOLS 19-26)

Roman numerals preceding page numbers refer to the eight volumes in History of Political Ideas

Joachim of Fiore (Continued)
    and structure of Christian
    history, II:126-30;    VI:119-21;and
    symbolism, I:211; III:80, 181; IV:201;
    and Third Realm of the Spirit,II:111,
    126, 128-31, 132, 199, 213; and three
    realms of history, II:111, 126-30,
    213; and trinitarian speculation on
    history, III:14; VI:43, 44
Joachitic tradition, I:37; III:67n, 70, 73,
    79-81, 104, 113, 176, 241; IV:81n66
Job, Book of, V:204; VII:59, 65
Johannine Christianity, I:179-82
John, Epistle of, III:178; IV:251;VII:272
John, Gospel of, I:165, 179-82; II:124,
    208; IV:213, 272
John, Saint, IV:154; VIII:222
John, King of England, II:146; III:131-
    35
John II, King of France, III:223
John II, King of Portugal, III:69
John XXII, Pope, III:114, 116, 166
John de Piano Carpini, II:79
John of Gaunt, IV:151
John of Jandun, III:84, 129
John of Monte Corvino, II:79
John of Paris, III:55, 56-57, 104;
    IV:206-7
John of Parma, II:198
John of Salisbury: characterology
    of, II:114-17, 116n6; VI:32; and
    commonwealth as organism, II:121-
    22, 158, 212; compared with Francis
    of Assisi, II:136; few traces of
    feudalism found in, II:117-21;
    influences on, II:121n11; and
    intramundane individual, II:191,
    202, 231; III:157; as leading figure,
    II: 106; III:103; overview of thought
    of, II:12, 134; on provincia, II:215;
    and Roman law, II:114, 121n11; on
    tyrannicide, II:122-25, 221; III:92;
    IV:40
—Work: Policraticus, II:113-17, 121-
    25, 126; III:88; VIII:82
John of Segovia, III:252n
Johnson, Samuel, I:156
John the Baptist, II:129, 130; III:74, 182
Jonas of Orleans, II:63
Jordanes, II:43-44
Joris, David, IV:191, 192, 202
Jubilee of 1450, III:42
Jubilees, Book of, I:150
Judah, I:111
Judaism and Jews: Bodin on,V:182,187,
    208-11, 233, 239, 250; and Cabala,
    VIII:20, 27; and concentration
    camps, VII:192; condemnation
    of, II:54; dispersion of, VI:115;
    eschatological element of, II:8;
    and Eurasia, II:35n; and Germanic
    history, II:45n; history of, VI:123-
    24; Jewish-Christian community,
    I:174-75, 174n; Judaization, I:182-
    83; Marranic Jews, VII:127; in Near
    East, I:182-83; in Netherlands,
    VII:127; Nietzsche on, VII:300;
    readmission of, to England, VII:127;
    and recognition of emperor as
    universalis, II:170; Thomas Aquinas
    on, II:211, 221-22. See also Hebrews;
    Israel
Judas, VIII:264
Judicia, V:155
Judicialis et consiliativa, III:95
Julia Domna, I:192, 193
Julian house of emperors, I:186
Julian of Palermo, IV:158
Julian the Apostate, I:208; II:56
Julius Caesar. See Caesar
Julius II, Pope, III:251; IV:95n5, 229-30
Jünger, Ernst, VIII:134
Jung-Stilling, Heinrich, VIII:224, 225
Jupiter summus exsuperantissimus,
    I:192
Jura civilia, V:59
Jura ecclesiastiea, V:59
Jure divino, V:65, 80
Jurisdictionalism, III:248-52
Jurisprudence. See Law
Jus fori, III: 117-18
Jus gentium, III:118, 122, 123, 215,
    216; V:65, 68-69, 114
Jus majestatis, V:58-59
Jus naturale (natural right), VII:48-50
Jus poli, III:117-18
Jus populorum, V:52
Jus regni , V:58, 59
Justice, I:218; VI:112-13, 135; VIII:91-
    92. See also Law
Justification through faith ( sola fide ),
    I:39; II:229-31, 230n; IV:13, 234-36,
    248-60, 254n, 267, 274, 275, 277, 280
Justinian: fundamental ideology of,
    I:177; and gentes, I:198; legislation
    of, I:204, 208; II:13, 163-66, 168,
    169; and Montanism,I:182;and
    settlement of Monophysite question,
    II:54
—Works: Digest, I:96; II:166, 170, 171;
    Institutes, I:198; Novellae, I:204;
    II:53n2; Tría Kephálaia, II:54
Justinian corpus of Roman law, II:13,
    163-66, 168, 169
Justissima causa belli, IV:126
Justus autem ex fide vivit, IV:252
Just war, IV:76, 105, 125-30; V:117-21,
    125, 127, 128
Juvenal, II:114
Kaempf, Hellmut, III:55n3
Kamakura shogunate, II:75
Kampers, Fritz, III:80n8
Kannler, Konrad, IV:190
Kanon Basileon (Ptolemy), I:221
Kant, Immanuel: on absolute and
    relative motion, VI:199, 199n;
    anthropological philosophy of,
    VII:162; on aprioristic structure
    of understanding, VII:158; and
    biological evolution, VII:156;
    compared with Grotius, VII:58; on
    conscience, IV:260; VII:93; on Ding-
    an-sich
("thing-in-itself"), VII:206;
    VIII:335, 371; and equiilibrium as
    idea, VII:50; "European Republic"
    of, VIII:219; and evolution, VII:184;
    on history, II:130; on human nature,
    IV:256; influences on, VI:150; on
    man as end in himself, VIII:83; and
    metaphysics, V:157, 176; VI:77;
    on morality of motive, I:107; on
    noumena and phenomena, VIII:137;
    and physics, VI:214; political theory
    of, VI:11; VII:49; and race theory,
    VII:171; on reason, I:39; II:109;
    III:107; V:178-79; VI:58; and
    "rediscovery of man,"VII:23, 51; and
    "revolution of the spirit,"VII:5; and
    Schelling, VII:206; significance of,
    VII:239-40; skepticism of, VII:288;
    on space, VI:185; and Stoicism,
    I:97; on theology, III:18-19, 109;
    on transcendence and immanence,
    II:10, 16, 17; Vico on, VI:89, 90
—Work: Critique, VI:58
Kantorowicz, Ernst, III:56n3
Kapital (Marx), VIII:303, 307-9, 310,
    321-22, 328, 338-39, 370
Karakorum court, II:79
Karma, VII:236
Kat' exochen, IV:89
Kathekon (fitness of behavior), I:99
Kautsky, Karl, VIII:304, 311, 312,
    312n7, 313n7
Kelley, Donald R., VI:132n
Kelsen, Hans, I:52n8
Kepler, Johannes, V:156n52, 167-68,
    179; VI:165; VII:206; VIII:118, 137
Kierkegaard, Søren, V:207; VII:65, 199,
    203, 241, 274n58, 282; VIII:64
Kiffin, William, IV:145n
Kindi, Abu Yusuf al-, II:182, 186
Kingdom of Christ, I:214; IV:165-68
Kingdom of God, I:31-32, 169, 201-2;
    IV:154, 165-67, 286-87
Kingdom of Heaven, I:31, 156-62,
    166-67, 169, 201, 207; II:37
Kingdoms: evocations of national
    kingdoms, II:10; Frankish kingdom,
    II:32, 33, 37, 48-49, 52-53, 55-62, 90;
    III:194-96; IV:71; V:232; Germanic
    migration kingdoms, II:32-33,
    46-49; Gregory VII on, II:88; of
    Israelites, II:47, 49, 119; Lombard
    kingdom, II:32-33, 47, 48, 55;
    national kingdoms, II:7n17, 10. See
    also
Carolingian empire; Empires;
    Kingship; Monarchy;Roman empire;
    Rulership
Kingship: Alexander on king as
    harmostes (harmonizer of the world),
    I:94, 105; Charles of Anjou on, Ill: 59-
    61; and David's covenant with Israel,
    I:109, 111; Diotogenes on, I:105-6;
    divine kingship and Alexander, I:89,
    9 1-93; divine right of kings, VIII:244;
    Ecphantus on, I:106-7; election of
    German king-emperor, III:: 206, 208,
    210-15, 21in; in England, III:11, 57,
    69, 93, 127, 128, 135-37, 160-62,
    167; and feudalism, II:119-20, 120n;
    Fortescue on estate of the king,
    III:160-62; in France, I:156; II:48-51;
    III:17, 39-40, 54-65, 69, 93, 122,
    127, 141, 167; IV:35-36, 90; V:37; of
    Germanic tribes, I:111; in Germany,
    II:119, 157-58; III:130, 193, 198-99,
    205-16; and Golden Bull, III:198,
    203-16; healing power of kings,
    III:58-59, 59n9, 122; Hellenic
    versus Oriental origin of divine
    kingship, I:102-3, 105; Hellenistic
    kingship, I:101-7; Hobbes on, I:111;
    independence from imperial power,
    III:55-57; in Israel, I:109, 111, 112,
    114-16, 228; II:47, 49; John of Paris
    on, III:56-57; John of Salisbury on,
    II:116-17, 120-21, 123-24; magic
    function of, I:228; Marsilius of Padua
    on, III:92, 96; national existence
    and kingship in Germanic tribes,
    II:46-49;    nomos empsychos, I:104,
    105; papal approval of German
    king-emperors, III:207-10, 210n,
    216; Plato and Aristotle on, I:103-5;
    II:218; problem of royal power,
    III:54-55; property rights of the
    king, III:160-62; "representative"
    function of the king, II:49-51; roles
    of German king-emperor, III:207-8,
    215-16; and royal function of Christ,
    II:12, 98; sacred kingship, II:53, 63,
    119; savior kings, I:107; servant role
    of king, III:162, 162n; Stoics on, I:98;
    thaumaturgic kingship, I:155-56;
    III:57-59, 122, 127; Thomas Aquinas
    on, II:218-19, 221-22; III:162; Turgot
    on, VIII:123-24; tyrannical character
    of feudal relationship between
    national kings, II:91; William of
    Ockham on, III:121; Wycliffe on,
    III:185,189-90; in York Tracts, II:98-
    100. See also Kingdoms; Monarchy;
    Rulership; and specific kings
Klassenkampfe in Frankreich (Marx),
    VIII:312n7, 313n7
Klemm, Gustav, VII:171
Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb, VIII:210
Knollys, Hanserd, IV:145n, 165, 173
Knowledge. See Mind
Knox, John, V:50-51, 54
Koehler, Wolfgang, VI:135
Koinai ennoiai (common notions), I:26,
    52
Koine, I:75, 97; VI:37, 74; VIII:138
Koine epinoia (common intelligence),
    I:129-30
Koinonia (organized social life), V:57
Koinos nomos (natural or common
    law), I:97-98; II:226, 227
Kommunstische Manifest (Marx). See
    Communist Manifesto (Marx)
Koran, II:13, 183,185,186
Kraft (force), VII:259n20
Kraus, Karl, VII:191n7; VIII:315n9
Krima, IV:225
Krimm-Beumann, Jutta, II:96n
Kritik des sozial-demokratischen
    Parteiprogramms 1875 (Marx),
    VIII:314-15n8
Critique der Hegelschen Rechts-
    philosophie
(Marx), VIII:346-47
Critique der Politischen Oekonomie
    (Marx), VIII:315, 328-29, 337-38
Kronos, VII:228
Kropotkin, Prince Peter, VIII:278-80,
    281
Kruedener, Baroness von, VIII:224,
    225, 227
Kuberneseis, V:48
Kurverein of Rense, III:83
Laband, Paul, III:83-84
La Boétie, Étienne de: central problem
    of, V:33-34; on courtier types, V:30;
    humanism of, V:28, 34; influences
    on, V:29; on innate nature, V:31, 35,
    39; on nature and custom, V:31-32,
    35,36, 38-39; as political realist, V:7,
    35; religion criticized by, V:30; on
    tyranny and freedom, V:29, 30-39
—Work: Discours de la servitude
    volontaire,
I:230; V:25, 28-39, 28n4,
    40, 42; VIII:91
Labor and labor movement, I:74;
    III:142-43, 175-76
La Bruyère, Jean, II:11 4
La Cava, II:70
Lactantius, I:223; V:93
Lafayette, Marie-Joseph, VIII:213, 216,
    219
Lafitte, Pierre, VIII:216
Laici, III:260
Lambert le Bègue, IV:183
La Mettrie, Julien Offroy, VI:57
Lancasters, III:68-69
Landeskirche (territorial church), II:61
Landfriedensbunde (peace-leagues),
    III:213-14
Langenstein, Henry of. See Henry of
Langenstein
Langland, William, III:177-84
Langres, Council of, IV:154n
Langton, Stephen. See Stephen
Langton, archhishop of Canterbury
Language, magic power of, I:228-29
Laplace, Pierre-Simon de, VI:183
La Revelliere, Louis - Marie de, VIII:209
La Rochefoucauld, Francois de, I:80;
    V:38; VII:118,252
La Roches, III:60
Laski, Harold J., III:1 43
Lasswitz, Curt, VII:190
Last Supper, IV:225-26
Late Increase of Robbers (Fielding),
    VI:153
Lateran Councils, III:171i, 251; IV:91,
    224-25
Lateran Synod of 1059, II:82
Lateran Treaty of 1929, III:165
Later Middle Ages. See Middle Ages
Later Middle Ages (Voegelin), IV:222n
Latin Averroism, II:195-97n
Laud, Archbishop, VII:80, 105, 108
Lauresheim, II:58
Lauterste Gott (purest God), VII:209,
    234
Lavacrum, IV:213
La Valliere, Mlle. de, VII:124-25
Law: Aristotle on, VI:143; Augustine
    on, I:219-20; Bodin on, V:160-61;
    Bolognese revival of Roman law,
    II:12-13, 160, 162, 167-73; canon
    law, II:172-74, 212; III:124, 208;
    Christian law of the heart, VI:56;
    Christian theory of, I:200-205,
    201n5; II:153; Cicero on, I:136-37,
    219; II:163, 164; civil law, I:195;
    V:148; common law, III:130; VII:76;
    and condemnation of positive order,
    I:202-3; Constitutions of Melfi of
    Frederick II, II:12, 13, 148, 151-57,
    173; criminal law, VII:163; Decretum
    Gratianum,
II:13, 173-74; definition
    of, III:97; and deification of positive
    order, I:202; Deliberatio papae of
    Innocent III, II:174-77; divine law,
    I:195, 202; II:123, 223-24, 228-29;
    V:99, 100; eternal law, II:13-14, 223-
    26; feudal law, V:52; Frederick II and
    law de resignandis privilegiis, II:148;
    and Golden Bull, III:198, 203-16; and
    Gratian, II:172-73; Greek law, I:135,
    195-96; Grotius on international law
    and regulation of violence, VII:53-
    54; Hebrew external law, VI:56;
    Helvétius on, VIII:76-77; Hooker
    on, V:98-107; human law, II:224,
    225, 227-28; imperial authority and
    divine authority, I:204-5; influence
    of revised Roman law on political
    ideas, II:171-72; international law,
    I:199, 220; interstate law, V:113-15;
    of Israel, I:112-13, 201n5; II:98n25,
    129; Justinian's codification of,
    II:13, 163-66, 168, 169; lex de
    imperio,
I: 190; lex regia, I:190, 204-
    5; Lombard law, II:162, 167-68, 172;
    of love, I:171; Lupold of Babenberg's
    juristic theory, III:214-16; maritime
    law, V:113; Marsilius on, II:171;
    III:97; V:18, 42, 43; Montesquieu
    on, VII:163-66; Mosaic law, I:201n5;
    II:98n25, 129; municipal law, V:100;
    of nations, I:195, 197-99; V:100;
    Old Law and New Law, II:229-31,
    230n; pagan law, II:98n25; Paul
    on, I:201, 202; IV:140-41, 223,
    235, 259; VI:56; pneumatic law,
    II:98n25; positive law, I:195, 202;
    II:225, 227-28; VII:69; Puritan view
    of, V:99; rational, codified law
    in human age, VI:140; of reason,
    V:100; relation of kingdom of God
    and, I:201-2; relationship between
    imperial politics and Bologna law
    school, II:172; relative natural law of
    fallen humans, I:203; Rex pacificus
    of Gregory IX, II:173-74; sacred law
    in heroic age, VI:139; Salamonius on
    lawmaking, V:43; Salic Law, V:249;
    structure of legal theory, I:195-96;
    Thomas Aquinas's theory of, I:113;
    II:13-14, 223-31; V:100; validity
    of legislation, III:264; Western law
    and Roman law, II:160-62; William
    of Ockham's theory of natural law,
    III:117-18, 118nn, 125-26. See also
    Covenants; Natural law; Roman law;
    and headings beginning with Jus and
    Lex
Law of Freedom (Winstanley), VII:99-
    100
Laws (Cicero), I:131-32
Laws (Plato), I:210; II:184; V:213, 215;
    VI:135
Layman, II:139-40, 209
Laziness, Nietzsche on, VII:263-64,
    264n33
League of Corinth, I:88
League of Nations, III:64; V:111, 133
"Leapfrogging,"I:53-54
Lebensweise (way of life), VIII:353
Le Brun, Charles, VII:124
Lechfeld, Battle of, II:31; IV:43
Lecky, W. F. H., VI:69n38
Ledere, Jean, VI:66
"Legality" of ruler, II:51
Le Gentil, VII:171
Legibus solutus, III:122
Legislation. See Law
Legislation primitive considérée dans
    les derniers temps par les seulles
    lumières de la raison
(Bonald),
    VIII:220
Legislator: Helvétius on, VIII:71, 75,
    78-79, 80, 83, 84, 92; Marsilius of
    Padua on, III:12, 88-93, 95, 96, 157;
    V:43, 49; Salamonius on, V:43-44
Legislator humanus, III:12
Legitimate order, V:248
Legnano, battle of, III:197
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm: and
    biological phenomenalism, VII:184;
    VIII:200; Cassirer on, VI:205n; and
    Clark controversy, VI:58, 212, 213,
    213n; idealism of, VII:201, 202;
    infinitesimal calculus of, V:178; on
    morality, I:98; and physics, VI:189;
    and psychophysical prohlem, VI:166;
    and reality as mysterious, I:47; on
    relativity, VI:186, 187, 199-205;
    significance of generally, VIII:118
Leicester, earl of, III:138
Leipzig Disputation, IV:16, 220-23,
    224, 231
Lenin, V. I.: and Bakunin, VIII:273; and
    Communism, III:72; VIII:312-16;
    compared with Comte, VIII:185;
    on dialectics of history, VIII:371;
    dictatorship of, IV:175; encyclopedia
    article on Marx by, VIII:315-16,
    326-27n18, 335; on Engels, VIII:315,
    335; on final transfiguration of
    history, IV:178; VII:7; and French
    philosophers of Enlightenment,
    VIII:132; on happiness, VIII:72-73;
    and Jesuits, V:62; kairos of, VIII:271;
    lower-middle-class origin of, IV:150;
    on new elites, VIII:133; and Russian
    Revolution, IV:172; VII:155; savior
    figure of, II:132; significance of,
    VII:26, 154, 155, 231; VIII:287;
    socialist eschatology of, I:38; and
    terrestrial paradise, III:72; IV:148;
    and vagueness about future after
    revolution, IV:169
—Works: Materialism and Empirio-
    Criticism,
VIII:335; State and
    Revolution,
VIII:315n8
Le Notre, Andre, VII:124
Leo I, Pope, II:53
Leo III, Pope, II:54
Leo IX, Pope, II:82, 83, 92
Leo X, Pope, IV:91, 231
Leo Hebraeus, V:218
Leonardo da Vinci, III:259n25; VII:255
Leo the Isaurian, Emperor, II:54; IV:158
Lepidus, I:141
Le Roy, Louis, IV:53n; V:137, 143-49,
    149n30, 162, 227n70, 238-39, 241n85
Leroy, Pierre, III:253, 254-55
Lery, Jean de, VII:170
"Letter on Socianism" (Voltaire), VI:66
Letters (Dante), III:72-73, 75, 81, 238
Letters Concerning Toleration (Locke),
    VII:142
Letter to Free-Born People of England,
    VII:81-82
Letter to Jesi (Frederick II), II:151,
    158-59
Lettre à Jean Bautru (Bodin), V:187,
    188-90, I90n11, 216, 238
Lettres Anglais (Voltaire), VI:63n
Lettres d'un habitant de Genève
    (Saint-Simon), VIII:168, 231-32
Lettres philosophiques (Voltaire),
    VI:65-66
Lettres provinciales (Pascal), VII:255-
    56
Le Vau, Louis, VII:124
Levellers, VII:80, 97, 110
Leviathan, IV:123, 125, 175; V:98, 160;
VIII:44, 82
Leviathan (Hobbes), II:100; III:53, 158;
    VII:23-24, 62-72, 273n55
Lévy-Bruhl, L., VIII:174
Lewis the Bavarian, III:114, 129, 204,
    208, 210n, 236, 245
Lex (law), I:137, 197; II:163, 166. See
    also
Law; Natural law; Roman law
Lex ab hominibus inventa, II:228
Lex adinventa, II:228
Lex aeterna, II:97, 223-26
Lex Christiana, III:120
Lex de imperio, I: 190
Lex divina, II:224
Lex facit regem, V:105
Lex generalis, II:166-68
Lex humana, II:224, 225, 227-28
Lex humanitas posita, II:228
Lex naturalis (natural law), II:224;
    VII:48, 66. See also Natural law
Lex nova, I:33; II:213, 230, 230n
Lex positiva, II:227-28
Lex regia (imperial authority), I:190,
    204-5; II:120-21, 121n11, 171-72;
    III:235; V:42-43, 45
Lex Romanorum, II:166
Lex Salica, IV:90
Leyden, Jan van, IV:193-94; VII:124;
    VIII:257
Leyena negro, V:28
Libellus contra invasores et symo-
    niacos et reliquos schismaticos

    (Deusdedit), II:84n6
Liberalism: of Littré, VIII:171-72;
    and planning, VII:188; and science,
    VI:184, 208; of Spinoza, VII:133
Liber angustalis (Frederick II), II:152
Liber de causis (Siger de Brabant),
    II:195-96n
Liber de controverses inter Hildebran-
    dum et Henricu imperatorem
(Wido
    of Osnaburg), II:87n
Liber de una forma credendi et
    multiformitate vivendi
(Anselm of
    Havelberg), II:128
Liber de unitate ecclesiae conservanda
    (Walram of Naumburg), II:87n
Liber gratissimus (Peter Damian), II:83
Liber Metaphysicus (Vico), VI:16, 16n,
    19n27, 91, 98-99, 104, 104n12, 128
Liberorum multitudo, II:218
Liber qui inscribitur ad amicum
    (Bonizo of Sutri), II:84-85
Libertas divina (divine liberty), II:201
Libertine, IV:194
Liberty: Bodin on, V:248; Cynics on,
    I:77; Hobbes on, VII:66; Hume on,
    VII:158; John of Salisbury on, II:116-
    17; La Boétie on, V:30-34, 36,38;
    Milton on, VII:92-96; Montesquieu
    on, VII:163, 168-69; Williams on
    liberty of conscience, VII:91. See
    also
Equality; Freedom
Liberum arbitrium, IV:285; V:220
Libidines, VII:272
Libido, VII:272, 278
Libido (passion), I:215
Libido dominandi (lust for power),
    I:44; IV:7, 100, 128; VII:278, 279
Libre examen, VI:48-49
Libri tres adversus simoniacos
    (Humbert), II:92-94
Licet juris, III:208-9, 209n
Licinius, I:194
Liegnitz, Battle of, IV:44
Life of Castruccio Castracani
    (Machiavelli). See Vita di Castruccio
    Castracani
(Machiavelli)
Light and Darkness, IV:164-65, 179-80,
    190
Lilburne, John, VII:110, 123-24
Lilla, Mark, VI:132n
Lincoln, Abraham, VII:231
Lingua volgare, III:73; V:150
List der Vernunft (Hegel), VI:109, 114
Literalism, II:188n
Lithuania, III:201, 227
Littré, Émile, VIII:165-74, 193, 215,
    248-49, 335
Livland, III:201
Livonian Brothers, III:201
Livre de circonstance, IV:14, 72, 273
Livy (Titus Livius), IV:5, 41-42, 59
Locke, John: as bête noire of modern
    political thought, VII:22, 25; on
    Christianity, IV:96, 194; VI:76, 172-
    81; on church, VII:142; on civil state,
    VII:149-50; on commonwealth,
    VII:142; compared with Grotius,
    VII:154; compared with Hobbes,
    VII:141, 156; compared with Hume,
    VII:161-62; compared with More,
    IV:123, 125; on consent, VII:149-
    50; contract theory of, VII:137-38;
    critical analysis of innate ideas
    by, VIII:46-47n7; criticisms of,
    VII:147n6, 151-52; deism of,
    VI:57; on ésprit , VIII:47; on God
    as proprietor of humans, VII:145-47;
    Harrington's influence on, VII:103;
    historical cycle ending with, VII:26,
    154-55; and Hooker, V:105-6;
    VII:140; on human nature, V:39;
    VII:140-41, 145-48; VIII:47-48, 49;
    on inequality, VII:149-51; influence
    of, on Helvétius, VIII:44, 45-51; on
    limited monarchy, VII:138-40; on
    Lord's Supper, VII:145; on man as
    proprietor of himself, VII:147-49,
    147n5; on the mind, VIII:47-48,
    50, 51; on money, VII:149-50; on
    morality, VIII:45-46, 51-52, 92;
    on nature, VII:148n6, 149, 154;
    on pleasure and pain, VIII:45-46,
    49, 50, 68; political philosophy
    of, II:220; III:158; IV:112; V:91,
    100; and possessive individualism,
    VII:25; on primary and secondary
    qualities, VI:166; on primitivization,
    VI:174-75, 177-78, 210; on property,
    VII:145-52, 147n4, I48n6, 154,
    189; on Puritans, VII:140-41; on
    reason, VI:167, 171-79; VII:154;
    and "rediscovery of man,"VII:23,
    51; on sensation and reflection,
    VIII:47-48, 50, 107; on separation
    of church and state, IV:117, 205;
    significance of, I:26, 29; VI:21-
    22; VII:137, 141; and social order,
    V:22, 103; spiritual disturbance of,
    VII:151-52; summary on, VII:151-
    52; theory of knowledge of, VIII:107;
    on toleration, VII:141-45, 153;
    Vauvenargues on, VIII:49-51; and
    Vico, VI:95, 95n7; and Voltaire,
    VI:58, 66, 150
—Works: Essay Concerning Human
    Understanding,
I:26; VI:171-73,
    180; VII:141; VIII:44-46, 46-
    47n7, 49, 51, 63; Essay Concerning
    Toleration,
VII:141; Fundamental
    Constitutions for the Government
    of Carolina,
VII:141-42; Letters
    Concerning Toleration,
VII:142;
    Reasonableness of Christianity,
    VI:76, 172-79; Second Treatise
    of Civil Government,
IV:123;
    V:100; VI:172, 178; Treatise of
    Civil Government,
IV:112; VI:178;
    VII:138-41, 146-51, 189
Logics (Aristotle), IV:237
Logik (Hegel), V:178
Logikos (reason-endowed), IV:190
Logique de coeur, IV:85
Logos: and Adam, IV:196; and
    Christianity, I:107, 201; IV:141,
    161; VI:99-100, 170; Cicero on,
    I:137; VII:57; divine logos sparking
    humans, I:97, 98, 134, 137; and
    equality, I:134; m Gospel of John,
    I:179-80; and Hellenistic kingship,
    I:106-7; Latin translation of, I:137;
    Locke on, VI:167; and New Science,
    VI:100; Polybius on, IV:62; Vico on,
    VI:100, 124
Lollards, III:173, 174; IV:139, 150
Lombard, Peter, III:176; IV:155
Lombard law, II:162, 167-68, 172
Lombard League, II:148
Lombards and Lombardy, II:30-33,
    47, 48, 55; III:74, 195-97, 199, 202;
    V:143
London, Jack, IV:112
Lordships ( principati ), IV:73-78
Lord's Supper, IV:274, 278; VII:145
Lorrain, Claude, VII:264n35
Lothair II, Emperor, Ill: 197
Lothair Supplinburg, Emperor, II:177
Lotharingian realm, III:217
Lotze, Rudolf, VII:199
Louis I the Pious, Emperor, II:62, 64;
    IV:152
Louis IV, Emperor, III:39, 83
Louis VI, King of France, III:58
Louis VII, King of France, III:58n8
Louis VIII, King of France, III:58n8
Louis IX, King of France (Saint Louis),
    III:55, 59-60
Louis X, King of France, II:48
Louis XI, King of France, III:69, 167,
    219; IV:35-36, 38; V:143
Louis XII, King of France, III:: 251; IV:90
Louis XIII, King of France, VI:39
Louis XIV, King of France, I:89; VI:84;
    VII:115, 118, 121-25, 147, 226
Louis XVI, King of France, VII:168;
    VIII. 216
Louis XVIII, King of France, VIII:212,
    213, 216
Louisiana State University, I:5-6, 52
Louisiana State University Press, I:14
Louis-Napoleon, VIII:164-65, 170
Louis Philippe, VIII:254
Love: Augustine on, I:215; Bakunin
    on political eros, VIII:264; and
    Christianity generally, I:202;
    VIII:27-28; Comte on, VIII:186-
    87, 192; of God, I:215; II:114-15;
    IV:64, 255, 259, 274; V:157; VII:236;
    VIII:57, 58, 189-90; Luther on,
    IV:257-59, 264; Nicholas of Cusa
    on, III:260-61, 265-66; Nietzsche
    on, VII:290; Paul on, I:171; III:260-
    61; in Piers Plowman, III:178-79,
    181-83; Spinoza on, VII:127-29. See
    also
Charity; Eros; and headings
    beginning with Amor
Löwith, Karl, I:15, 49n; VII:11, 31
Lucan, II:114
Lucca, duke of. See Castracani,
    Castruccio
Lucretius, I:82; VII:179-80
Ludendorff, Mathilde, II:46
Luke, Gospel of, I:156, 158, 159, 161,
    163, 179, 181
Lumi sparsi, VI:95
Lupold of Babenberg, III:214-16
Luria, R. Isaac, VII:146-47n3
Luther, Martin: antiphilosophism
    of, IV:237-38, 247, 267-68, 286;
    on Aristotle, IV:237-38, 259, 267;
    Barclay on, V:39; on Bodin, IV:243; as
    Catholic, IV:244-45; on "Christian
    estate,"IV:232-33, 239-41, 244-45,
    258-59, 262; and church in civil
    society, VII:142; and church reform,
    I:34, 213; III:256; IV:240-45; V:19;
    Clarke on, VI:66; compared with
    Augustine, I:206; compared with
    Calvin, III:9, 42, 69; V:91; compared
    with Dante, III:70; IV:246; compared
    with Erasmus, IV:12, 14, 237, 246,
    267, 286; V:91; compared with
    Hooker, V:88-89, 91; compared
    with Machiavelli, IV:246; compared
    with More, IV:12, 246; compared
    with Wycliffe, III:169, 173, 174,
    189; on consubstantiation, IV:226,
    227; and ethics, IV:259-60; on
    good works, IV:254-55, 257-60,
    257n17; on governmental authority,
    IV:260-68; on justification through
    faith ( sola fide ), I:39; I:V:13, 234-36,
    248-60, 254n, 267, 280; and Leipzig
    Disputation, IV:220-23; lyricism
    of, IV:249; Marx on, VIII:351; as
    monk, IV:150; Ninety-five Theses
    of, III:251; IV:217, 218, 228-31;
    V:4; and order of the world, III:119;
    and Pascal, VII:270; personality of,
    IV:245-48, 268; on priesthood, V:47;
    and Protestant radicalism, VII:94;
    publication of works of, IV:218-19,
    230; and Reformation generally,
    III:119, 174; IV:4, 5; V:19-20; VI:33;
    VIII:232, 351, 352; summary of
    ideas of, III:53; IV:11-13, 267-68;
    V:240; on universities, IV:237-38;
    Voegelin's reading of, IV:15-20,
    267-68, 285; on warfare, V:118-9;
    writings of generally, 248-49
—Works: Address to the Christian
    Nobility of the German Nation,

    IV:12, 231-48, 261-62; Freedom of
    a Christian,
IV:12, 18, 251-58; On
    Good Works,
IV:258-60; Temporal
    Authority: To What Extent Should It
    Be Obeyed,
IV:12, 260-68
Lutheranism, V:19-20, 112, 208-10;
    VI:46, 77; VII:51, 93-94
Luxembourg, III:223
Luxemburg, Rosa, VIII:304
Lyceum in Athens, I:78, 81
Lycurgus, 65; I:135; V:189; VI:210
Lyons Church, I:177
Lysenko affaire, VIII:372
Maccabean wars, I:108, 122, 150
Macedon: Alexander's conquests, I:90-
    9I:, 103, 120; Alexander's imperial
    rulership, I:91-93, 122; Alexander's
    mother in, I:89-90; Athenian opinion
    divided on cooperation versus
    opposition to, I:69; and empire
    people (homonoia), I:93-94, 98;
    enigmatic nature of, I:87; ethnic
    composition of Macedonians, I:87-
    89; military in, I:88-89; monarchy
    in, I:88; Philip II of, I:72, 88-89; rise
    of, I:87-89; victory over Persia, I:123
Macedonia, IV:45; V:142
Mach, Ernst, VI:191, 204-5
Machiavelli, Niccolò:and "accident of
    existence,"V:41; anti-Machiavellian
    propaganda, IV:31-32, 75, 82-85;
    apocalypse of, IV:76, 81, 81-82n66,
    85, 87, 246; and Asiatic background,
    IV:6, 55; and beginning of modernity,
    III:9; IV:4, 5, 88; biographical
    circumstances of, IV:32-34; and
    Bodin, V:181, 219-20; VII:59-62,
    132; and Christianity, IV:68-69,
    70, 84, 86; V:34; compared with
    Erasmus, IV:7, 91-92, 102, 106-
    8; compared with Guicciardini,
    IV:33-34; compared with Hobbes,
    VII:59-62; compared with La Boétie,
    V:29, 38; compared with Luther,
    IV:246; compared with Marsilius,
    III:101-2; compared with More,
    IV:9, 124, 129; compared with
    Plato, IV:56; compared with Retz,
    VII:121; compared with Rienzo,
    III:233-34, 243-44; compared with
    Salutati, IV:40-41; compared with
    Vitoria, V:123, 130-31; concluding
    comments on, IV:82-87; on
    conspiracies, IV:64; Constant's
    reading of, VII:118; on cyclical
    revolution of political forms, II:108;
    IV:62-65, 69-70, 85-86, 119n; ethics
    of, IV:64, 67, 82-85; VI:112; on
    fame, IV:67-68; on France, VI:13;
    on Fortuna, IV:32, 57; on freedom,
    IV:64, 68-69, 79-80; and French
    invasion of Italy in 1494, IV:37-
    38, 71n53, 75, 106, 263; friends
    of, IV:60; Harrington's study of,
    VII:100; on history, IV:60-71, 61n,
    76; hope of, IV:6, 80-81, 85; on
    human imperfection, IV:79-81; and
    image of conqueror as part of image
    of prince, IV:51-52; insecurities and
    hesitations of, IV:70; introductory
    comments on, IV:5-6; and Italian
    tradition, IV:38-42; V:44; VI:83; on
    Italy, III:78; IV:37-38, 56, 68, 76,
    81; V:143; on lordships, IV:73-78;
    and the Medicis, IV:72n, 74, 76; on
    military, IV:73, 74, 75; mythical
    hero at center of work, IV:56,
    56n25; VII:61; and Myth of Nature,
    IV:6, 62, 63, 70, 84-85; on national
    militia, IV:38, 38n, 128; on order in
    history, IV:76, 83; and organization
    of Prince, IV:73-76; and Orientalism,
    VII:126; and paganism, IV:6, 84-87,
    85n; and paradigmatic importance
    of history, IV:61-63; on political
    conduct, III:13; IV:60-61; V:24; VI:4;
    politics under Florentine republic,
    IV:32-33; on the republic, IV:59-71;
    and Roman empire's rise and fall,
    VII:169; and spiritual realism, I:34;
    III:11, 69-71; VII:34, 59-62; on state,
    III:252; IV:57, 73, 74, 75; VI:13n;
    table of values in, IV:67, 70, 83,
    84; "unhistorical mind" of, IV:41;
    on virtù, II:117, 218; IV:32, 52, 56,
    56n25, 75, 76-81, 91; V:130; VII:61,
    120, 169; VIII:123; writing of Prince
    by, II:63; IV:33, 72; VI:84
—Works: Arte della Guerra ( The Art
    of War
), IV:38n, 60; Discorsi sopra
    la prima deca di Tito Livio,
IV:6,
    56, 59-71, 73, 84; V:220; Istorie
    Fiorentine,
III:233-34; IV:41, 87;
    Principe ( Prince ), II:63; IV:6, 31, 33,
    56, 56n25, 59, 72-82, 85-87, 89-92;
    VI:84; Vita di Castruccio Castracani,
    IV:6, 56-59, 81-82n66, 87
"Machiavellianism," 86
Macht (authority, power), IV:235;
    VII:259n20
Macmillan, I:5-14, 52n6
Madagascar, travels in, VII:171
Madame Bovary (Flaubert), VI:68
Madison, James, IV:125
Madness, Hobbes on, VII:64, 64n8, 70,
    71, 131, 154
Magdeburg, V:25-27, 50
Magian Nations, I:182-85
Magic, I:20-21, 43-44, 52, 227-30;
    VI:208-9
Magi's star, V:165,165n75
Magisterium, V:73; VI:56
Magister militum, II:56
Magistrates, V:59
Magna Carta, II:89n13, 120, 147-48;
    III:23, 131-38, 133n, 153
Magna latrocinia, III:53
Magnum latarocinium, I:219
Magnus annus (world year), I:134-35;
    V:147
Magog, II:44n6
Magyars, II:33, 35n, 45, 67, 72, 81;
IV:43
Maimonides, II:202; V:198, 198n23,
243, 245; VII:127
Maine, H. S., VII:50
Maistre, Joseph-Marie de:on Catholic
    Church, VIII:9, 221-22, 227; and
    Comte, VIII:216, 220-23; death of,
    VIII:220
—Works: Considérations sur la France,
    VIII:220, 221; Du Pape, VIII:220,
    222; Soirées de Saint-Pétersbourg ,
    VIII:220, 222-23
Maitland, Frederic William, II:117
Majestas genii, III:66
Majority problem, III:210-12
Malebranche, Nicolas de, VI:166
Mameluks, IV:71
Mana of Jesus, I:154-55, I55n, 164
Manasseh ben Israel, VII:127
Mandaean literature, IV:186
Mandatarius, V:59
Mandelslo, Johann Albrecht von,
    VII:170-71
Mandeville, Bernard, VIII:45
Mandeville, Lord, VII:109
Mandonnet, Pierre, II:180,190
Manegold of Lautenbach, II:89n13,
    120n
Manfred of Sicily, III:60
Mani, I:185
Manichaeism: and Augustine, I:177,
    206; and Cathars, IV:165; compared
    with Calvinism, IV:287n; dualism,
    Ill:188; and free constitution,
    VI:160; and Gnosticism, IV:186;
    immanentism, II:136; influence
    of, IV:158-60; and Johannine
    Christianity, I:182; and life of
    spirit, V:169; Oriental origin of,
    I:183; IV:151; Warburton on, VI:158
Mannheim, Karl, IV:110n35
Manning, Henry Edward, VI:161-62
Mantua, III:235-36
Manumissio, III:262
Marathon, IV:49; V:140
Marcion, I:181; VI:46
Marcionite movement, I:181
Marcomannic wars, II:30
Marcus Aurelius, I:99-100, 149, 191-
    92,200; II:30
Mariana, Juan de, V:40, 40n, 62, 63
Marianas, travels to, VII:171
Maritime law, V:113
Marius, I:145
Mark, Gospel of, I:152, 153n, 154, 155,
    163; V:125-26
Marranic Jews, VII:127
Marriage: between cousins, IV:241-42;
    of priests, II:97
Mars cult, II:44
Marsilius of Padua: and Aristotelian
    theories, III:85-90, 93-95; and
    Averroism, III:85-86, 94-99,101,
    105; V:149; on Christianity and
    the church, III:97-101, 98n, 105; at
    court of Lewis of Bavaria, III:129;
    difficulties in interpreting, III:84-
    85; esotericism of, III:99-101;
    on heretical popes, III:245; on
    hierarchy of status groups, III:90-91;
    Hooker on, V:102, 103; influence on
    Calvinism, V:45, 49; on law, II:171;
    III:97; V:18, 42, 43; on legislator,
    III:12, 88-93, 95, 96, 157; V:43, 49; on
    limited government and Italianism,
    III:91-94, 104; and naturalism,
    III:94-95; organic analogy by, III:87-
    88, 157; overview on, III:12-13;
    V:53; on pars principans, III:95-96;
    on plurality of warring states, III:96,
    100; political technicism of, III:101-
    2, 104; and problem of intramundane
    representative authority, III:88-91;
    on ruler, III:91-94; on secular state,
    III:12-13, 84-102
—Work: Defensor Pacis, III:12, 84-102,
    96-98nn, 105, 26l
Martial, II:114
Martin, Alfred von, IV:41
Martin I, Pope, II:54
Martin V, Pope, III:41, 248, 256
Martinus, Jurist, II:172
Martyrdom, VII:274, 274n58, 292
Marx, Karl: address to Bund der
    Kommunisten
by, VIII:366-68;
    anti-intellectualism of, IV:237,
    268; as bourgeois intellectual,
    IV:150; on capitalism, VIII:13,
    307-9, 365; catastrophes ensuing
    from, IV:246; on class struggle,
    VIII:305--6, 313n7; compared with
    Bakunin, VIII:12, 258-59, 271-72,
    273-75, 359; compared with Comte,
    VIII:13-14, 185, 230, 258, 359,
    368; compared with Luther, IV:19,
    256, 257n16; compared with More,
    IV:125; compared with Nietzsche,
    VII:303; compared with Voltaire,
    VI:50-51; concluding comments on,
    VIII:368-72; criticism of bourgeois
    system by, VII:150-51, 152, 188-
    89; on crude communism and
    true communism, VIII:359-61,
    371; derailment of, VIII:309-19,
    311-13n7; dialectical materialism
    of, VI:114; VII:7; VIII:14, 320-39;
    difficulties of establishing "real"
    Marx, VIII:303-4, 304n2; and
    disintegration of amicitia, I:36;
    on division of labor, VIII:354-55,
    356; docetological speculation
    of, VIII:330-37, 371; doctoral
    dissertation of, VIII:340-42, 341n37;
    and economic phenomenalism,
    VII:188-89; on emancipation and
    alienation, VIII:352-53, 357, 370,
    371; and eschatology, IV:148, 178;
    and First International, VIII:283-84,
    285, 303; on freedom, VIII:307-8,
    334, 343; genesis of revolutionary
    idea of, VIII:339-72; and gnosticism,
    VIII:23, 340-43, 368; on goal of
    communist revolution, VIII:14-15;
    on God's existence, VIII:340-42; and
    Hegel, VII:197-98; VIII:14, 82, 307,
    311, 320-25, 324n15, 330-31, 340,
    341, 347n49; heroization of, VII:231;
    historical cycle beginning with,
    VII:.157; on history, I:29, 234; IV:201;
    VII:7; VIII:353-56; on ideology,
    VII:189; VIII:215, 337-39, 354;
    idophobia of, VIII:324-27, 324n15,
    343; as "intellectual swindler,"
    I:45-47; VIII:23-24; and inversion
    of Hegelian dialectics generally,
    VIII:320-39; language symbols of,
    VIII:327-30; Lenin's encyclopedia
    article on, VIII:315-16, 326-27n18,
    335; on "masses,"VIII:258, as
    mystic, IV:169; VI:11; VIII:304-9,
    343, 368; on new elites, VIII:133;
    overview on, VIII:7-8, 13-16, 29;
    as Paraclete, VIII:343, 368; political
    order of, V:62; on proletariat, I:73,
    157-58; III:69; VIII:75, 259, 350-51,
    362, 363-67; as prophet of Israel,
    VII:239n74; and "rediscovery of
    man,"VII:23, 51; refutation of
    ideas of, IV:286; on religion, IV:167,
    213; VII:203, 238, 239; VIII:61,
    340-42, 342n38, 346-47, 358n68;
    revisionism on, VIII:310-11; on
    revolution, VIII:15-16, 304-10,
    312-15nn7-8, 337-38, 348-52,
    366-68; revolutionary socialism of,
    III:69; VI:77-78; VII:6, 7, 26, 155;
    secularism of, IV:202; significance
    of, VIII:216, 287, 306; on socialistic
    humans, VIII:356-59, 370-71; and
    superman, VI:209; VIII:159; on
    tactics of revolution, VIII:366-68;
    on technology, VIII:338-39; and
    "Theses on Feuerbach,"VIII:343-46,
    368-69; and vagueness on future
    after revolution, IV:169; Voegelin on
    "idophobia" of, VIII:15; Voegelin's
    inaugural lecture on, I:45-47; on
    Western political and German
    radical revolution, VIII:348-50; and
    withering away of the state, VIII:233;
    on workers, VIII:296, 354-56. See
    also
Marxism
—Works: Achtzehnte Brumaire
    des Louis Napoleon,
VIII:312n7;
    Ansprache der Zentralbehörde
    an den Bund,
VIII:312-13n7;
    Bürgerkrieg in Frankreich, VIII:313n7;
    Communist Manifesto, IV:245;
    VIII:216, 303, 310, 312n7,
    361-66; Deutsche Ideologie,
    VIII:358n68; Kapital, VIII:303,
    307-9, 310, 321-22, 328, 338-39,
    370; Klassenkämpfe in Frankreich,
    VIII:312n7, 313n7; Kritik des sozial-
    demokratischen Parteiprogramms

    1875, VIII:314-15n8; Critique
    der Hegelschen Rechtsphilosophie,

    VIII:346-47; Critique der Politischen
    Oekonomie,
VIII:315, 328-29, 337-
    38; Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe,
    VIII:303; Nationalökonomie und
    Philosophie,
VIII:258
Marxism:and Communism, VI:43-
    44; compared with Cistercianism,
    II:133; compared with Luther,
    IV:257n16, 268; compared with
    More, IV:118, 118n; derailment
    of, VIII:309-19, 311-13n7;
    derivative eschatology of, VI:55; and
    dialectical materialism, VIII:155;
    and Encyclopedist movement,
    VI:184; genesis of, VIII:339-72;
    influence of, in Europe, V:110-
    11; and interpretation of history,
    I:73; VI:147; and materialism,
    V:169; and mysticism, I:35; and
    National Socialism, VIII:370; and
    proletariat, I:57-58; III:261; VIII:75,
    259; and religion, V:30; satire on,
    VIII:315n9; and scientism, VI:213;
    and sectarianism, VII:90; and social
    evolution, VIII:87; theories of, I:72;
    IV:144, 173-74, 178, 285-86; VI:183;
    Vico on, VI:100, 108, 114; and
    workers' parties, VI:11-12, 78. See
    also Marx, Karl
Mary (mother of Jesus), I:183, 184;
    III:182
Mary Stuart, V:40
Mary Tudor, IV:276, 276n; V:21, 27, 92
Mascardi, Agostino, VII:120
Masonry, VIII:21
Massachusetts Bay Company, VII:86-
    87
Massachusetts Bay settlement, VII:86-
    87,89
Massachusetts colony, VII:142
Masse générale, VIII:149
Masse totale (of mankind; Turgot),
    VIII:6-7, 111-19, 125, 127, 141, 148,
    153
Mass movements, Hooker on, V:95-98
Mater, IV:I95
Matera (substance), IV:211
Materia della scienza politica, VI:138
Materialism: of Bakunin, VIII:299-302;
    of Epicurus, I:82, 83; and fallacy of
    misplaced concreteness, VI:183;
    French materialism and Schelling,
    VII:201, 202; of Helvétius, VI:8;
    Marx's dialectical materialism,
    VI:114; VII:7; VIII:14, 155, 320-39;
    and Materialists, IV:202; More's
    device for counteracting, VI:193;
    and phenomenalism, VII:179-81;
    symbols of, VI:164
Materialism and Empirio-Criticism
    (Lenin), VIII:335
Materialization of external world,
    VI:164-65
Mathematics: Bodin on, V:222; and
    Concordantia, III:257-58, 259n25;
    and Condorcet, VIII:153; Copernicus
    on, V:137, 157-58, 170-71; in
    Encyclopédie, VIII:89-90; geometry,
    V:167; VI:186, 199, 200; VII:50; and
    Hellenistic cosmos, V:137-38; and
    hierarchy, III:52, 105, 259; infinite in,
    V:176-77; Leibniz on, VI:186, 199-
    200; and Newton, VI:194; Nicholas
    of Cusa on, III:257-60; science of,
    VI:98, 103, 107,165; Turgot on
    progress in, VIII:107; Tycho de Brahe
    on, V:165-68; Vico on, VI:106, 107,
    128; William of Ockham on, III:106,
    110. See also Science
Mather, Cotton, VII:87
Mather, Increase, VII:87
Mathiez, Albert, VIII:207, 209-10,
    210n58
Matilda, countess of Anjou, II:145
Matter and Spirit, IV:164-65
Matthew, Gospel of, I:156,161, 163,
    165, 169, 179; II:124, 125, 134, 137,
    159; V:116
Matthew of Paris, IV:44
Maugham, Somerset, IV:112
Maximilian I, III:69
Maximinus, prayer of Licinius before
    battle with, I:194
Maximus the Confessor, IV:162n13
Maya, veil of, VIII:69-71
Mayflower Compact, VII:76-77
Mazarin, Jules, VII:105, 106, 115, 117,
    121
Mazdaism, I:183, 185
Mazzini, Giuseppe, II:76; V:62;
    VIII:132, 204n42, 297, 298
Mazzolini, Silvester ("Prierias"),
    IV:230
McCurdy, Henry, I:9, 10, 11, 13-14,
    50n4
McGraw-Hill Book Company, I:3-5,
    49, 49n
McIlwain, C.H., III:49n6, 55n3, 85n2,
    137, 151; VI:2
Mécanique céleste (Laplace), VI:183
Media and Median empire, IV:71;
    V:232
Medici, Cosimo de', IV:36
Medici, Lorenzo de' (il Magnifico),
    IV:36, 72n
Medici, Piero de', IV:32
Medicis, IV:32, 34n, 40, 60, 72n, 74,
    76, 81; VI:85; VIII:20
Medieval period. See Middle Ages
Meditation, I:43; VIII:176, 179-80,
    181, 343
Meditations (Descartes), VI:107-8
Melancholy, Schelling on, VII:218,
    220-22
Melanchthon, Philipp, IV:219, 239,
    253; V:17, 20, 62, 151-52
Melange des nations, VIII:125-26
Melchisedek, V:200
Melchites, I:177
Melito of Sardes, I:149, 220
Mémoires (Commynes), IV:34
Mémoires (Louis XIV), VII:121-25
Mémoires (Retz), VII:118
Mémoire sur la science de l'homme
    (Saint-Simon), VIII:232-33
Memorabilia (Fregoso), IV:54
Mémorial (Pascal), VII:256
Mendiante consensus et consilio
    hominum,
V:65-66
Mendicant orders, II:72-73, 77-81,178,
    180, 198, 200,202; III:171-72; IV:69,
    136, 149, 183-84
Men of letters. See Intellectuals
Menschliche Selbstbewußtsein
    (human self-consciousness), VIII:340
Mens humana (mind of humans),
    V:221, 223
Mens pura, V:194
Mens purgata, V:191, 193, 194
Mente eroica (heroic spirit), VI:141-44,
    147
Mercatores , III:226
Merchants, III:149, 226, 230, 231. See
    also
Middle class
Merovingians, II:48-49, 57, 86, 90, 119;
    Ill:58
Merum nihil, VI:195, 198
Mesopotamia, II:34
Messianism: of Comte, VIII:168-71,
    195-96, 241-45, 247; and Jesus as
    Messiah, I:31, 151-54, 162-63; of
    Saint-Simon, VIII:168, 223
Metanoia (conversion): Bakunin on,
    VIII:11-12, 253, 258;Humbert on,
    II:92; and Jesus Christ, I:151, 154-59;
    Marx on, VII:239; VIII:305; Paul on,
    I:216; II:92; Tolstoy on, VIII:280;
    William of Ockham on, III:108
Metaphysical realism, III:265-66
Metaphysics, VI:104-6, 113, 127, 129,
    145, 191-94, 199-201; VIII:248
Metaphysics (Aristotle), II:179, 184;
    IV:237
Metathesis (change), I:32, 168-69;
    VIII:122-23, 124
Metaxy (In-Between), I:41-42
Methodical skepticism, VII:206
Methodice digesta, V:55
Methodology, VI:1-2, 2n4
Methodus ad facilem historiarum
    cognitionem
(Bodin), IV:243; V:185,
    190-96, 219-20, 224-25, 225n67,
    231-32, 236-38, 240
Metternich, Klemens, VIII:216, 224,
    227
Mexia, Pero, IV:53n
Meyer, Eduard, IV:86
Michael II, Emperor, IV:152
Michael II of Epirus, III:60
Michael of Cesena, III:15, 114, 115,
    116, 129
Michelangelo, VII:222n45
Michelet, Jules, VI:75
Michelson-Morley experiment, VI:203
Middle Ages: Bryce on "unpolitical"
    character of, II:1, 36-37; Carolingian
    empire, II:8, 11, 35n, 52-64; character
    of high Middle Ages, III:37-42;
    "civilizational schism" between
    faith and reason in, III:8, 18-21;
    clash between church and nations,
    III:40-42; and "compromise with
    the world,"II:9, 14; dark period
    of, V:143-44; definition of, II:1;
    differential between religion
    and government in, II:3; and
    disintegration of sacrum imperium ,
    III:8, 10n8, 14,16, 25, 126, 266;
    and dissociation of the Western
    universalisms, VI:51-52; empires
    during, V:232; ending of, III:68;
    IV:263; as forerunner of modernity,
    II:10, 137; III:6, 7, 23-24; general
    structure of, II:29-30; VI:7; and
    hierarchy of power, III:45-46;
    imperial power and policy in,
    I:74, 90; III:44-45; inventions in,
    V:146n16; and isolation of the West,
    II:33-35, 35-36n2; and lex regia,
    I:205; medieval scholarship and
    "early Middle Ages,"II:1-4; VI:174;
    and migrations, II:7n17, 10, 30-33;
    natural law during, I:203; overview
    of high Middle Ages, III:16-25; papal
    and imperial authorities within
    one public order, III:6-7; Pirenne
    thesis of, II:3, 35n; preparatory
    phase for holy empire, II:10-12,
    30; and Roman law, II:13; secular
    political constructions in, Ill:17;
    and senescens saeculum, I:212; shift
    of polities to the West, III:39-40;
    source of unity as philosophical,
    III:7-8; and spiritualization of the
    world, II:36-38; III:16-17; VI:118;
    suspense between Renaissance and,
    III:37-38; Voegelin's detachment in
    discussion of Christianity during,
    I:53; and Voegelin's later work,
    II:14-17; Voegelin's outline of
    content on, II:10-14, 38; Voegelin's
    theoretical framework on, II:4-10;
    III:5-25; Voltaire on, VI:44. See also
    Feudalism; Holy empire ( sacrum
    imperium
); and specific thinkers
Middle Ages to Aquinas (Voegelin),
    III:5
Middle class:in England, III:139,
    143; VII:74, 101; and English
    utilitarianism, VIII:75; in Germany,
    III:141; in Italian towns, III:230;
    lower-middle-class movement,
    VII:52; National Socialism and
    German lower middle class, VIII:218;
    Nietzsche on, VII:288; and spiritual
    movements, IV:150-51. See also
    Bourgeoisie
Middle East, II:35-36n2
Migrations:Asiatic migrations, II:10,
    31-32, 33, 34, 35n; and Carolingian
    empire, II:67; Germanic migrations,
    II:7n17, 10, 30-33, 41-51; Great
    Migration, II:30, 31, 42; and isolation
    of the West, II:33-35, 35-36n2
Mikoyan, A. I., VII:143
Milan, III:224; IV:36, 41
Milic, Jan, III:175
Militant Church, III:188
Military: and Castruccio Castracani,
    IV:58; compared with mystic-
    warrior of Kamakura, II:75; crusades
    and Military Orders, III:171; in
    England, VII:80-81, 83; good laws
    and good arms, IV:73; leaders as
    classic type in history, IV:42; in
    Machiavelli's Prince, IV:73, 74, 75;
    national militia, IV:38, 38n, 128;
    political soldier, II:76-77; prophets
    in arms, IV:77, 287-88; Templars,
    II:73-74; Teutonic order, II:73, 74-
    75; and victorious prince, IV:77. See
    also
Crusades; Violence; Warfare;
    and specific wars
Mill, James, VIII:47n7
Mill, John Stuart, VI:73, 150, 184;
    VIII:163-64, 167,168, 170, 180, 215,
    335, 370
Millennium (Bosch), IV:197-201
Miltitz, Karl von, IV:231
Milton, John, I:111; IV:283; VII:92-96,
    113, 133, 144, 145
Milvian Bridge, battle of, I:208
Minamoto clan, II:75
Mind: Comte on harmonization
    of heart and intellect, VIII:186-
    87, 248; Comte on historicity
    of, VIII:19 1-92; Condillac on,
    VIII:48; historicity of, VI:127-
    29; Littré on "normal" state of,
    VIII:166; Locke on, VIII:47-48, 50,
    51; Nicholas of Cusa on the intellect,
    III:266, 266n; les progrès de l'ésprit
    (progress of the mind), VIII:100-
    101; sacrificium intellectus, III:52,
    110, 111; Schelling on urge for
    knowledge, VII:215-16; universal
    intellect, III:75; Vauvenargues on,
    VIII:50; Vossler on, III:75-76n. See
    also
Nous; Reason
Minimum dogma, V:23, 160; VII:134-
    35
Ministerium non dominium , II:71-72
Mintz, Maximilian, I:14, 15, 17, 22n;
    VII:11, 19-20
Mirabeau, VII:260
Miracles, Ill:58-59
Mirror of the Pope, II:71-72
Mirrors of the Christian Prince, II:63
Missi, II:119
Missionaries, VII:167
Mithras cult, I:178, 183
Mitwissenschaft (co-knowledge),
VII:210
Mitwissenschaft mit der Schöpfung
    (human soul coeval with creation),
    VII:31
Mobile universel, VIII:54
Modernity: and Bodin, V:181-84;
    definition of, II:10; III:6-9; Fortescue
    on, III:23-24; and Gnosticism, V:1,
    3-4, 3n, 6; history of, II:107-9;
    meanings of, VII:34; Middle Ages
    as forerunner of, II:10, 137; III:6, 7,
    23-24; Nicholas of Cusa on, III:257;
    philosophical dimension of, IV:3-5;
    problem of, V:134-38; VI:146-47; of
    Reformation, IV:88-89; Voegelin's
    description of, V:5-6; William of
    Ockham on, I:39-40; and York
   Tracts,
II:96-97
Modern Utopia (Wells), IV:113
Modus procendi, V:204
Moeurs, VII:164
Mohammed I, IV:45
Moi haïssable, VIII:66-67
Molina, Luis de, V:62
Mollat, Guillaume, III:165
Moment, Ein, VIII:348
Monarchia (Dante), III:71, 73, 74-78,
    100; IV:204; V:140, 140n
Monarchia temporalis, III:71-72,
    74-75
Monarchioptants, III:252; IV:35, 40-41
Monarchomachic trend: absorption of
    religious movements, V:44-46; and
    Althusius, V:55-59; and Calvin's
    theocracy, V:45-50; character of,
    V:24, 25, 40-42; and Knox, V:50-
    51; original use of term, V:39; and
    Salamonius, V:42- 44, 57; Vindiciae
    contra tyrannos,
V:51-54, 56n, 57,
    58, 109
Monarchy: absolute monarchy, III:48-
    49; V:24; VII:101;Coluccio Salutati
    on establishment of, IV:39-41;
    constitutional monarchy,V:40;
    VII:84; and cyclical revolution of
    political forms, IV:62; Dante on,
    III:71-72, 74-77, 100; VII:194;
    definition of, V:190; divine kingship
    theory of James I in, VII:74-75,
    77; in England, III:69, 167, 234;
    IV:35; VII:78, 84; Erasmus on,
    IV:106; Fifth Monarchy of Christ,
    IV:167-73; four monarchies, V:232;
    in France, II:48-51; IV:35-36, 90;
    Giles of Rome on absolute, III:48-49;
    Harrington on, VII:101; hereditary,
    IV:63; king and court as spectacle
    for the people, VII:124-25; Locke
    on limited monarchy, VII:138-40;
    Louis XIV on, VII:121-25; Milton on,
    VII:92-93, 96; and ministers of state
    in seventeenth century, VII:104-5;
    Montesquieu on, VII:168; religious
    foundation of, VII:122-23; Retz on
    French monarchy, VII:118-19; in
    Rome, IV:65, 66; in Spain, IV:36;
    Thomas Aquinas on, II:221-22;
    universal, III:96, 123; Vico on,
    VI:140-41, 143-44, 146; warfare
    between powerful monarchies,
    IV:106-7. See also Divine kingship;
    Kingship; Rulership; and specific
    monarchs
Monasteries: anchoritic reform and
    spiritual intenseness, II:69-70; and
    asceticism, IV:100; Benedictines
    and Benedictine Rule, I:227; II:35,
    63-64, 69, 70, 133, 164; IV:149; V:77;
    and Christianization of population,
    II:11, 63-64; Cistercian reform and
    Cistercian monasteries, II:70-71,
    73, 133-34; III:66,171; Cluniac
    reform and sovereign order, II:68-69,
    70, 71, 73, 81, 105; dissolution of,
    in England, V:76-77; and reform,
    II:68-72; significance of, I:19, 227;
    and Third Realm of the Spirit, II:111;
    worldly versus monastic morality,
    III:119. See also Dominicans;
    Franciscans
Mondo civile, VI:109-15, 126, 128
Mondo delle gentili naziono, VI:128
Mondo delle nazioni, VI:111
Mondo naturale, VI:111, 128
Money, Locke on, VII:149-50
Mongol empire and Mongols, II:31,
    35-36n2, 79, 81; III:76n, 80n8;
    IV:43-45; V:141, 143, I46n16; VI:38,
    207; VII:169. See also Timur
Monk of Saint Gall, II:58
Monophysitism, I:76, 176, 177, 184;
    II:53, 54
Monopsychism, II:192n23
Monotheism, I:227. See also God
Monreale, II:70
Montaigne, Michel de, V:29; VII:252,
    257
Montanism, I:181-82
Montanus, I:181; II:127
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de
    Secondât, Baron de la Brède
    de: anthropological question of,
    VII:163-64; atmosphere of, VII:162-
    63; attack on Myth of Reason by,
    VII:25, 162-63; compared with
    Buffon, VII:171-72; compared with
    Hume, VII:162-63, 162n2; fatalism
    of, VII:167-68; and geographical
    travels and discoveries, VII:169, 170;
    on Germanic past, II:46; VI:178;
    on government, VII:163, 165-66,
    168-69; Harrington's influence
    on, VII:103; historical relativity
    in, VII:169; influences on, V:180;
    VI:150; on national destiny, VII:166-
    68; on the people, VII:164-65; and
    "rediscovery of man,"VII:23, 51; on
    republican virtù, IV:38n; significance
    of, VII:163
—Work: De l'ésprit des Lois, VII:163-
    66, 172
Monti, Monsignor Filippo Maria,
    VI:95n7
Monumentum Ancyranum, I:141
Mooney, Michael, VI:132n
Moralistes, IV:37, 54; VI:150; VII:261-
    62, 286; VIII:51, 63
Morality: in conduct of politics, IV:78-
    82; d'Alembert and dilemma of
    utilitarian morals, VIII:96-98; Engels
    on, VIII:336-37; evolution of moral
    personality, I:98-99; Greek ethics,
    VIII:96-97; Helvétius on, VIII:48, 58,
    73-74; Locke on, VIII:45-46, 51-52,
    92; Machiavelli's table of values,
    IV:67, 70, 83, 84; "moralization"
    of political conduct, IV:128-29;
    Pompanazzi on, IV:91; Voltaire on,
    VIII:96. See also Ethics
Moravia and Moravians, IV:139;
    VIII:224
More, Henry, VI:191-94, 196-97
More, Thomas:autobiographical part
    of Utopia, IV:113-16; Balthasar
    on, IV:118-19n; and beginning of
    modernity, IV:4, 5; Christianity of,
    IV:48, 116-19; V:34, 78; compared
    with Erasmus, IV:9, 114-15, 126, 129;
    compared with Harrington, VII:100;
    compared with La Boétie, V:29-30;
    compared with Luther, IV:12, 246;
    compared with Machiavelli, IV:9,
    124, 129; confusions surrounding his
    Utopia, IV:109-13; death of, IV:119;
    and Dorpius, IV:94; early interest in
    becoming monk, IV:116; on England
    and Western society, IV:121-22; on
    evil, IV:121-22; historical honors
    for, IV:109; introductory comments
    on, IV:8-9; minimum dogma in,
    VII:134; on monarchism, III:252;
    and "moralization" of political
    conduct, IV:128-29; as mystic,
    IV:117; and Parable of the Cave,
    IV:114; on philosopher's political
    duty, IV:8, 113-16; on polite versus
    school philosophy, IV:8, 115-16;
    on pride ( superbia ) and property,
    IV:9, 119-25, 128; on ratio and
    religio, IV:116-19, 125; Voegelin's
    evaluation of, IV:128-30; on warfare,
    IV:125-30
—Works: Apology, V:79n2; Utopia,
    IV:6, 8-9, 91, 97, 105, 109-30,
    109-10n33, 118-19n; VII:97
More geometrico, VII:50
Morgenstern, Oskar, I:14
Morosini, Cardinal, III:221
Morstein Marx, Fritz, I:3-5, 49n
Morteria, Rabbi, VII:127
Mosaic law, I:201n5; II:98n25, 129
Mosca, Gaetano, III:102; VII:156;
    VIII:131, 134
Moses: Assumption of, I:150; Bodin on,
    V:190n11, 213, 215-16; Calvin on,
    IV:287; compared with Christ, I:167-
    68; in Comte's Calendrier, VIII:196;
    as grandissimi esempli, IV:76; as law
    giver, I:201n5; VI:210; Machiavelli
    on, IV:81, 81n66; Nietzsche on,
    VII:260; as servant of God, I:167; in
Vita Tamerlani, IV:57-58
Mosheim, Johann Lorenz von, IV:178,
    185-86, 195-96
Mother cult, I:95-97
Motus amoris, V:199
Mount Athos, II:70
Mountmorris, VII:109
Movements. See Spiritual movements
Muhammad, V:190n11, 216, 238;
    VI:66; VII:260; VIII:196
Mühlberg, Battle of, V:25
Multitudo (multitude), II:219
Multitudo perfecta, II:220
Mundes (world), II:99, 136
Mundus Novus (Vespucci), IV:111
Municipalization in Italy, VI:14, 84-85
Municipal law, V:100
Munster, Sebastian, V:227
Münster and Osnabrück, Treaties of,
    VIII:20, 219
Münster Kingdom, IV:193-94
Muraviov-Amurski, General,
    VIII:273n29
Muret, II:70
Muslims. See Islam
Mussolini, Benito, II:76, 77; III:80n8;
    IV:150; V:62; VII:26, 155, 156,
    297n126; VIII:132, 134
Mystère de Jèsus (Pascal), VII:256
Mysteries in Hellas, I:114
Mystery, VII:229-30, 229n63
Mystery religions, VIII:27
Mystical body. See Corpus mysticum
    (mystical body)
Mysticism: and activism, IV:125;
    and annihilation, IV:188-90; of
    Bakunin, VIII:257-58, 265, 293-
    94, 299; of Bodin, I:35; V:196-204,
    210; VII:129, 159, 193; VIII:30; and
    body of Christ, IV:117; chiliastic
    mysticism, IV:274; Erigena on,
    IV:166; growth of, VI:72; and Hegel,
    VII:214; in Heptaplomeres, V:239-
    40; and heresy, IV:136-37, 228; of
    Hugh of Saint Victor, III:47-48, 47-
    48nn; intellectual mysticism, II:195;
    and Islamic philosophy, II:185,
    188n3; IV:151; of Marx, I:35; IV:169;
    VI:11; VIII:304-9, 368; Neoplatonic
    mysticism, II:184; of Nicholas of
    Cusa, I:35; III:257, 265-66; IV:137;
    VII:235; VIII:30; of Nietzsche,
    VII:257-61, 264, 296; VIII:294; and
    Nothing, VII:235; and Ortliebians,
    IV:181; of Paracletes, VIII:257;
    of Schelling, VII:214; VIII:30; of
    Spinoza, VII:23, 126-29, 133, 159,
    193; three as mystical number,
    VIII:223; and war, IV:172-78. See
    also
Bodin; Dionysius Areopagitica;
    Eckhart; Neoplatonism; People of
    God; Plotinus; Spiritualism
Mystic-philosophers, I:44, 45-47;
    V:228-29
Mystic-warrior attitude, II:75-77
Myths:of Aristotle, II:184-85;
    Burgundian, II:45-46; of Caesar,
    I:139-40, 150; and Chinese yin
    and yang symbols, I:26-27; and
    Christianity, VI:55; of the defeat,
    II:45-46; definition of, I:26; VI:56;
    disintegration of, VIII:138; as form of
    consciousness reality, I:43; Frankish,
    II:42-43; Germanic, II:41-42; of
    government, I:136; Greco-Roman,
    II:41-42; in Greek theory of law,
    I:196; history of, VI:123, 134, 136,
    979; Homeric, II:41, 42; of law,
    I:136-37; and mente eroica, VI:142;
    of Nature, I:26-27; IV:6, 62, 63,
    70, 84-85, 107, 224n; as objective
    language for expression of the
    transcendental, VIII:30n; Ostrogoth,
    II:43-44; of Plato, I:50, 70, 149;
    III:262; IV:226; VII:236-37, 237n71;
    of Reason and Progress, VII:25, 26;
    Schelling on, I:228; VII:29, 211,
    227-33, 243; VIII:138; of soul, I:149,
    196; stato ferino, VI:138; as symbolic
    form, I:53; VI:98; of Troy, I:143-46;
    of Virgil, II:41-42
Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts
    (Rosenberg), VI:179

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