INDEX


VOL 14— ISRAEL AND REVELATION
ORDER AND HISTORY  VOLUME I
M to Z


Maat and maat, 118-21, 132n62, 140,
    150, 252, 415
Maccabaean nationalism, 186, 406
Macedonians, 561
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 349
Macroanthropos of society, 43, 44-45
Magic: of Moses and Aaron, 436-37,
    441; and prophets, 10-11, 503-5,
    506n6
Magna Mater, 74, 75
Maimonides, 291n13
Malachi texts, 386-91, 391n18, 395-96
Malakh (messenger), 386-87, 391, 394,
    405-6, 410
Malakh of the berith, 386-87, 394, 405
Mamlakah (royal domain), 154, 364,
    392, 474
Mamleketh kohanim, 475, 511, 512
Man: adam meaning, 210, 213-15;
creation of, 55-56, 213-15; creation of God and dominion of, 55-61; divine foreknowledge and decision of, 515-16; expulsion of, from Eden, 282; history and ontological reality of, 170-71; as human and mortal and leaps of being, 281-82; and knowledge about order of being, 40-41; order of mankind with its center in royal domain, 474-75, 511-13; and order of society, 51-52; participation of, in being, 39-40; personal responsibility and retribution based on merit of, 283; relationship between Yahweh and, ending with death, 282-83; revelation and human response, 466-67, 471, 482; rivalry between God and, 55-58, 60; supracivilizational drama of mankind, 102. See also Being; Soul
Manasseh, 406, 410, 418, 425, 427, 535
Marcionism, 508
Marduk, 63-64, 65, 66, 70, 73, 74, 77,
    78, 81-84, 88, 557
Mari Texts, 321-23
Marriage of kings, 262, 369-70
Marx, Karl, 340
Marxism, 22, 418
Mashah (to draw out), 445-47, 460
Mashiach (Anointed One), 526, 559
Matteh (tribes), 246
Mazzoth, 438
McCarthy, D. J., 12
Medes, 68
Meek, Theophile J., 64n6, 376n12
Megiddo, battle of, 247-48, 426, 540
Meissner, Bruno, 53n1, 57n1, 65n9,
72n16 Melchizedek, 234-37, 234n1, 245, 325,
    327, 329
Memphite Theology: basic strands
in argument of, 128-30; and breakthrough to transcendent Being, 4; compared with Christian Logos, 134-35; compared with Deuteronomy, 413, 414; corrosive tendencies in, 121; date of composition of, 127; as "forerunner" of monotheism, 46; literary form of, 127-28; and Ptah, 128-34; and theological speculation, 130-35
Mendenhall, G., 12, 242n11
Menes, 112, 129, 142
Mercer, A. B., 107n20, 116n40,
    354n82
Mercy, 498, 499
Merikare, 142-43
Merneptah, 152, 246
Mesha of Moab, 503
Mesha Stone, 266
Meshullam, 326
Mesopotamia: Adapa myth in, 57-61,
83; city-states in, 61-62, 61-62n4, 77, 103; Code of Hammurabi in, 63-64, 65; compared with Egypt, 103; cosmological order in, 4, 55-84; divine lordship and earthly kingship in, 63-66; empire in, 62-66, 77-78, 103; and Enuma elish, 81-84, 103, 127; ethnic units in, 157; Gilgamesh epic, 59-60n2, 70, 103; New Year ceremonies in, 73-74, 75, 77-78, 84, 335, 349; and omphalos, 67-69, 84; and rationalization, 74-78; rivalry of God and man in Genesis, 55-58, 60; Sumerian Lamentations over Destruction of Ur, 151, 252; sun symbol and cycle of renewal, 72-74, 75, 357; symbolization of cosmic order in, 78-84; symbolization of political order in, 61-78; and zodiac, 69-71, 72, 75
Messengers: Moses as, 439; prophets as,
    386-88, 396-97, 405-6, 410
Messiah and Messianism, 286, 347,
    358-60, 364, 449, 521, 525-26,
    535n12
Messianic problem, 525-26, 528-42
Metastasis and metastatic prophecies,
    10-11, 23-24, 506-10, 506n6, 528,
    529-35, 535n133, 537, 542-43, 545
Methexis, 527
Methodus (Bodin), 71-72
Meyer, Eduard, 53n1, 61n3, 6305, 85n1,
    94, 145n75, 155n3, 242n8, 243n13,
    244n14, 365,468n31
Micah, 410, 411, 486, 488, 499, 542
Micaiah, 276
Micajah, 385
Michal, 275-76, 301, 313, 318, 319, 320
Microcosmos: in Mesopotamia, 65-66;
    of society, 43-44
Midian and Midianites, 245, 441, 451,
    454
Midianite wars, 254, 259-61
Milhamoth Yahweh (wars of Yahweh),
    252
Military. See War
Millerite movement, 535n13
Ming, 79, 101
Minoan civilization, 159
Miriam, 250, 443
Mishneh Torah, 291n13
Mishpachah (clans), 246
Mishpat (justice), 498, 499, 566
Mishpatim (ordinances or decisions),
    379-80, 382-84, 419, 420, 434-35
Misrah (lordship), 532
Mitanni, 234
Mithras, 88
Moab, 265-66, 300, 304-5, 503
Moabite war, 266-67
Mohammad, 411
Mohammed Ali, Khedive, 105
Mohr, J.C.B., 332n39
Molech, 410
Monarchomachists, 292
Monarchy. See Israel (kingship);
Kingship; and specific kings
Mongol empire, 75
Monistic religions, 89-90
Monotheism: and Decalogue, 479;
Egyptian evolution toward, 125,
    126, 477n27; Memphite Theology as
    "forerunner" of, 46; Mesopotamia
    and monotheistic speculation, 74. See
    also God
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de
    Secondat, Baron de la Brede de, 72
Moortgat, Anton, 53n1
Morse, D., 14
Mortality and immortality, 42-43,
    281-83, 377, 419
Mortgage of Canaan, 6
Moses: and authorship of Pentateuch,
193, 195, 196, 200, 379, 414-18, 423; and ceremony of berith, 471, 472, 475-76, 499; child of, 456; compared with Abram, 441; compared with Elijah, 396-97, 401-2; compared with pharaoh, 415; date for, 158, 160-61, 164, 466; death of, 202, 412, 415-16, 453; and Decalogue, 366, 379-83, 417, 471-73, 476-80, 477n37; in desert, 441, 454, 456; Deuteronomic speeches of, 163, 219, 395, 410-15, 434-35; encounters between pharaoh and, 436-37, 441-43, 452, 456-57, 469-70; and Exodus of Israel from Egypt, 152,172, 216, 245, 257, 265, 401, 435, 440-43, 468-71, 545; first ascent of Mount Sinai for Yahweh's instructions, 471, 473-75; and form of Paschal legend, 438-39; and form of prophetic legend, 435-38; and form of Torah, 433-35; and golden calf episode, 472; as historian, 440; historical Moses, 431n1, 433, 434, 435, 481; infancy and youth of, 444- 45, 455-56; instructions of Yahweh and Torah of, 412-18; and Israel as Chosen People, 6, 378-79, 448, 470; Israelites' resistance to, 443, 470; and Israel's response to crisis of mundane existence, 378-79; Jesus linked with, 449; and leap in being, 396, 439, 453-66; as legislator, 440; as liberator, 440; magical activities of, before pharaoh, 436-37, 441; as messenger, 439; and Mount Tabor vision, 389, 390, 396; name of, 445-46; permitted questions and answers on, 432-33; and plagues in Egypt, 437-38, 439, 441, 442, 452; in prologue of Exodus 2, 453, 455-56; as prophet, 422, 432, 435, 439-40, 481; prophets compared with, 521-22; prophets on, 481-82; resistance of, to divine command, 450-53, 468-69, 521; as savior-king, 438-39; as servant of Yahweh, 521-22; and Sinai Covenant, 4-5, 207, 221, 342-44, 396-97, 471-80; smashing of stone tablets by, 472; sources on, 431-39, 43lrji; speaking difficulties of, 450-53; as spiritual founder, 440; and Ten Commandments, 380; and theocracy, 467n29; and thornbush dialogue, 452, 454, 456-66, 470, 515, 521; Toynbee on, 161, 162; transmission of Yahwism to time of, 245-47; type classifications of, 439-40, 450; "uncircumcised lips" of, 451-53; wife of, 456; Yahweh of, 453- 55, 458, 466, 466n27; and Yahweh's appearance on Mount Sinai, 454, 457, 458, 466-80; Yahweh's attempt to kill Moses in night episode, 451-53, 453n12, 470
Mosheh, 445-48, 449, 460
Moshel (leader), 527
Moshlim (leaders), 203
Mount Carmel miracle, 399-400
Mount Horeb, 401, 405, 454, 457
Mount Sinai, 454, 457, 458, 471-80
Mount Tabor vision, 389-91, 396
Mowinckel, Sigmund, 180n3, 321n7,
323n14, 328n33, 332nn38-39, 333- 36, 333-34nn40-42, 338n53, 340n55, 342n57, 343, 343n60, 352, 477n37, 547-48n15
Mummu, 82
Mycenaean civilization, 79-80
Myth: Adapa myth, 57-61, 83;
compactness of, 123-24; Egyptian myth, 122-27; Enuma elish, 81-84, 103, 127; Gilgamesh epic, 59-60n2, 70, 103; historic myth, 343n61; in Old Testament, 218-20; resistance of mythologization of Old Testament, 341-47; truth of, 50
Mythical history, 343n61
Mythisierung (mythologization), 342
Mythologische Wesensgestalt, 345

Nabi (prophet), 260, 274, 275, 277, 349,
    422, 432, 435, 439-40, 502. See also
    Prophets
Nahoth, 398, 399
Nadab, 367
Nahum, 411
Narrative of Bible. See Biblical narrative
Nathan, 218, 307-8, 313, 314, 319-20,
    344-46, 354, 360, 394, 436, 528
Nationalism, 22, 406, 429
Near East. See Achaemenian Empire;
    Egypt; Israel; Mesopotamia
Nebi'im (prophets), 252n20, 272, 273,
    423. See also Prophets
Nebijah (prophetess), 252, 252n20
Nehemiah, 216, 407
Neo-Kantism, 22
Nephesh (life), 217, 217n22
New Testament, 418
New Year festivals, 73-74, 75, 77-78,
    84, 334n42, 335-37, 335-36n46, 348,
    349, 356, 438, 538
New Year legend, 181
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 518
Nile Valley, 104-6, 107
Nineveh, 407, 411, 429
Ninkarrak, 59
Nippur, 81
Noah, 56, 183, 210, 212, 216-17, 218
North, Christopher R., 192, 192n2,
    412n1, 547n15, 562n17
Northern Kingdom. See Israel (Northern
    Kingdom)
Nosos, 24
Noth, Martin, 155n3, 180n2, 195,
    196n6, 205n19, 247n17, 297n16,
    316n4, 322, 344n62
Nous, 287
Nowack, W., 15603, 477n37
Numbers: four, 65, 72, 217, 218; twelve,
    69-71, 72, 75
Nunc dimittis prayer, 569-70
Nyberg, H. S., 234n2, 249n18, 323,
    324nn20-21, 325n22, 325n26,
    326n27, 326n29, 327, 327n31,
    474n33, 547n115, 562n17

Obligation, 43
Odium generis humani, 187
Oesterley, W. O. E., 155-56n3, 173n7,
    281n10, 460-61, 477n37
Old Testament: authorship of
Pentateuch, 193, 195, 196, 200, 414-18, 423; canon of, 185-86, 417; dates of Biblical narrative, 158, 162- 65; difficulties in interpretation of, 188-92; emergence and recession in, 182-85; Engnell's approach to, 192, 192n2, 200-205, 200n11; genealogies in, 209-12, 217-18; historical-critical method of study of, 13; historical subject matter of, 189, 218-20, 223; Imperial Psalms, 191, 330-52; multiple meanings of, 324n17; myths in, 218-20; nineteenth-century Protestant scholarship on, 332; paradigmatic narrative of, 5-6, 162-65,184, 414; Pedersen's approach to, 202, 203-4; problems with Voegelin's interpretation of, 7-11; recent scholars on and methodology in Bible criticism, 11-13; resistance to mythologization of, 341-47; and sacred line of godly carriers of meaning, 183-84, 212; sources of narrative of, 190-206, 199n9; as symbolic form sui generis, 220, 223, 229; Voegelin's work disregarded in study of, 13; Wellhausen school of Bible criticism, 192-200, 202-5; as world history, 177-78, 181-84, 212, 216-17, 219-20, 223. See also Abraham; Biblical narrative; Israel; Moses; Prophets; and specific prophets
Omphalos, 67-69, 72, 84, 511, 520, 525,
    545, 555, 567
Omri, 269, 367, 373, 374
Omride dynasty, 225, 262, 347, 362,
    365, 366, 367, 372-73, 375, 375n11,
    385, 395, 397, 406, 435, 528
Ontological reality of mankind, 170-71
Ontology and history, 517-19
Ophrah sanctuary for Yahweh, 260-61,
    267-68
Oppenheim, A. Leo, 64n8
Oratio directa, 548
Order: all-embracing order of being,
3-4; analogical symbolization of, 43-50; conflicts of analogues and early tolerance, 45-47; conversion toward true source of, 48-49; and Decalogue, 478-80; definition of, 1-2; of history, 19-22; imperial pressure, repristination, and preservation of, 429-30; institutional model of divine order, 427-28; institutional vacuum of covenant order, 349-50; and intolerance through love of being, 48-50; and Isaiah, 536-37, 544, 545, 555; literary criticism versus analysis of, in Old Testament, 346-47; of mankind and order of society, 51-52; of mankind with its center in royal domain, 474-75, 511-13; and meaning of history, 13-14, 470-71; and New Year festivals, 348, 349; principles governing compactness and differentiation of experiences of, 99-100, 224-25; prophets and order of Israel, 405-9, 542-45; prophets' concern with order of history, 517-19; prophets' movement beyond order of concrete society, 544-45, 555; ritual renewal of, 348-49; symbolization of, 3-4, 39-50; and tolerance through Love of existence, 50; truth of, 24; types and symbolic forms of, 20-22; worldwide order, 23-24. See also Cosmological order; Order of being; Order of Israel; Political order
Order and History (Voegelin), 1, 2,
    20-24
Order of being, 3-4, 40-41, 455, 517-19,
    555
Order of Israel, 349-50, 405-9, 536-37,
    542-45
Osiris and Osiris religiousness, 44,
    93-94, 96, 97-98, 129, 130, 130n61,
    149
Othniel, 259

Paideia (learning), 186
Palestine, 259, 270, 295, 300, 305, 368,
    372, 561
Paradigmatic versus pragmatic history,
    5-6, 162-65, 184, 229-31, 414
Parousia, 396, 535n13
Parrot, A., 61n3, 192
Paschal Legend, 203-6, 438-39
Passah, 181, 202, 438
Patriarchs, 284
Patternism, 336-38, 340-41
Paul, Saint, 76, 77, 173, 183, 227, 278
P-circle, 201-2, 203
P-collection of Tetrateuch, 204
Peace, 532-34
Pedersen, Johannes, 155n3, 181n4, 202,
    203-5, 205n19, 341, 438
Pentateuch, 185, 192-97, 200, 234, 379,
    414-18
Pentecost, 535n13
Perdue, G., 13
Periagogé, 48
Perizzites, 305-6
Persia and Persians, 4, 68, 75, 86, 88,
    157, 160, 283, 286, 561
Peter, 396
Petrie, Flinders, 95
Pfeiffer, Robert H., 155n3, 331n35
Pharaohs. See Egypt
Philip, 570
Philistines: city-states of, 270-71,
271n4; control of Judah by, 271, 296-97, 300-301; and David, 299, 302, 303; empire of, 270-72; and ethnic mix of Israel, 161; gods of, 267, 268; and Saul, 273, 279, 289, 293, 298, 303; Toynbee on, 159; wars with Israel, 221, 222, 224, 251, 256, 258, 268, 271-72n4, 273, 279, 289, 293, 295-96, 298, 299, 302, 303, 364
Philo, 370
Philo Judaeus, 183
Philosopher-king, 101
Philosophy: compared with Book of
the Covenant, 419; definition of, 24; Plato on, 287; revelation compared with Hellenic philosophy, 492-93, 550; and status of soul, 286-87, 377; versus historical realism, 283-85
Phoenicia, 368, 372, 374n10, 375,
    375n11
Pietism, 332
Plato: on afterlife, 172; on Agathon,
498, 550; on divine bonum, 460; on evil, 378; influence of, on Bodin, 71; on metaphors of life as disease and prison, 140; mythopoeia of, 46; on nosos, 24; and paradigm, 527; on periagoge, 48; on philosopher-king, 101; on philosophy, 287; on polis, 427; and Socrates' trial, 489; on soul, 282, 287, 378; on sun symbol, 73; on theology, 47, 101-2, 378; on truth of myth, 50
—works: Epinomis, 50; Laws, 49-50,
    71, 73; Republic, 73, 378, 549
Plerosai, 390n17
P narrative. See Priestly (P) narrative
Polis, 44, 49, 71, 84, 427
Political order: in China, 78-79, 80;
    symbolization of, in Mesopotamia,
    61-78. See also Order
"Poor Man's Lamb," 308, 309, 314-15
Positivism, 22, 339, 365
Praeparatio evangelica, 169
Pragmatic versus paradigmatic history,
    5-6, 162-65, 184, 229-31, 414
Prayer formula of Deuteronomy, 178-80
Priesthood: and Book of the Covenant,
376; corruption of, 272; and David, 327; Jerusalem priest-kings, 234-35, 327; Levitical priests as custodians of the Torah, 421; and Melchizedek, 234-37, 234n1, 245, 325, 327, 329; postexilic priestly organization of Jewish community, 294-95; and Priestly Code, 193; regulation of, in Deuteronomic Torah, 421; symbols on robe of high priest, 370. See also Priestly (P) narrative
Priestly Code, 193, 416
Priestly (P) narrative, 193, 194, 199n10,
    201-3, 223, 234, 415, 455
Prince of Peace Prophecy, 532-33, 534
Principatus, 532
Pritchard, James B., 61n3
Procksch, Otto, 234n1
Progressivism, 22, 366
"Prophecies of Neferrohu," 144-45
Prophetic legend: form of, 435-38
Prophetic revolt, 294, 362, 366, 385,
    418-19, 420, 435, 528
Prophetism: and apocalyptic literature,
507-8; definition of, 500n1; existential phase of, 528, 536- 42, 555; institutional phase of, 528-29, 534, 537, 538; metastatic phase of, 528, 529-35, 537, 542-43, 545; and warfare, 501-4. See also Prophets
"Prophet of doom," 516-17
Prophets: achievement of, 6-7; attacks
on cult of foreign gods by, 225-26; authority of, versus public authority, 488-89; bands of, 274-78, 437, 522; as carriers of meaning, 184-85; collective versus solitary prophets, 274-78; complaints about Israel's misconduct, 496-98, 513-14; and continuum of historical form, 482; and covenant, 491-511; and covenant written in the heart, 6-7, 419, 493, 510-11; and crisis of mundane existence, 378-79; and Decalogue, 484-93, 512, 513; and derailment into the Torah, 482-83; Deutero-Isaiah and new type of prophecy, 553-55; as disciple ( limmud ) of God, 465-67; divine foreknowledge and human decision, 515-16; and dual symbolism of punishment and salvation, 515-17, 524-25; and ecstaticism, 275-78; Elijah's establishment of prophetic succession, 401-2; enactment of Israel's fate by, 519-20; ethical and social concerns of, 10; existential issue and metastatic experience, 509-10, 555; and existential phase, 528, 536-42; faith of, 10-11, 504-7, 506n6, 514-15, 518-19; false prophets, 516, 539, 553; and institutional phase of prophetism, 528-29, 534, 537, 538; juxtaposition of rejection and demand by, 498-500; as limmudim, 565-66; literary form of, 524-25; as lord of history, 522-23; magic of, 10-11, 503- 4, 506n6; as messengers of Yahweh, 386-88, 396-97, 405-6, 410; and Messianic problem, 525-26, 528-42; metastatic prophecies, 10-11, 506-10, 528, 529-35, 537, 545; mission and role of, 6-7, 10, 386-88, 394, 405-7, 481-82, 500, 500n1; and monarchy of Israel, 121, 344-46; and Moses, 481- 82, 521-22; and movement beyond order of concrete society, 544-45, 555; and ontology and history, 517-19; and order of being, 517-19; and order of Israel, 405-9, 542-45; and participation in God's suffering, 542, 545, 555; persecution and martyrdom of, 488-89, 516; personalities of, 269; prophetic revolt in ninth century, 294, 362, 366, 385, 418-19, 420, 435, 528; "prophet of doom," 516-17; as prophet to the nations, 523-25, 543- 44, 566-67; and recall of the past and call in the present, 482; regulation of, in Deuteronomic Torah, 421-22; and Saul, 273, 274-75; as servants of God, 522, 561-64; social status of, 272, 275; as Son of God, 520-22; and spiritual universalism versus patriotic parochialism, 407; Talmudic interpretation of, 500n1; tension between kings and, 436, 488-89, 528; trials of, 488-89; and universalism and personalism, 483; on virtues, 498-500; on warfare, 501-4; and warnings on judgment of Yahweh, 387-89, 395; Wensinck on, 348; Yahwism of, 185, 186, 224-27, 230. See also specific prophets
Proselytizing movement, 186, 187
Protestantism. See Christianity
Psalms: as completion through
Davidic empire, 350-51, 358-59; cosmological symbolism of, 348, 350-52; difficulties of new position on, 339-41; divine kingship in, 336- 38, 342-47; Egyptian and Babylonian influences in, 353-58, 354n82, 370; Enthronement Songs, 333, 334, 342. 345, 345n69, 350-52; Gunkel's form-critical approach to, 332-36, 333n40; literary criticism of, 334, 350; Mowinckel's cult-functional approach to, 333-36, 333-34n41-42, 343. 35i, 352; nature of, 330-32; and New Year festivals, 335-38, 356; poetic and religious individualism as causes of misunderstanding of, 331-32; pressure of historical form on meaning of, 351-52; resistance to mythologization of, 341-47; Royal Psalms, 333, 342, 350; scholarship on, 191. See also Imperial Psalms
Psalms of Solomon, 359
Pseudepigrapha, 185
Psyche, 21/n22, 281, 282, 377, 419, 492,
    506, 550
Psychologism, 23
Ptah, 122, 126, 127, 128-34
Ptolemy, 71
Purification, 490-91
Pyramids, 98
Pyramid Texts, 109-11, 114-19, 131-32,
    354, 354n82
Pythagoras, 282

Quinah (funeral elegy), 288-89

Rachel, 283
Rad, Gerhard von. See Von Rad, Gerhard
Ramses II, 125n58, 152
Ras Shamra tablets, 7, 336, 371n8
Rationalization: and Achaemenian
    empire, 86, 89-90; and Christianity,
    76-77; and Israel, 75-76; and
    Mesopotamia, 74-78; and
    Zoroastrianism, 86
Re, 112, 118, 122, 126, 127, 132, 142,
    149, 371
Rebekah, 284
Rechabites, 225, 366, 395
Rechtsstaat (rule of law), 428
Redemption: cycle of renewal, 74; and
Deutero-Isaiah, 551-64, 567; God as Redeemer, 285-86, 548, 554, 556, 557-60; by Messiah, 359; prophets' dual symbolism of punishment and, 515-17, 524-25; servant and work of, 561-62; and suffering, 7; and Suffering Servant, 7, 567-70
Red Sea miracle, 443, 446, 447, 452, 470
Reformation, 416, 508
Rehoboam, 318, 368, 372
Rekhmire, 118, 120-21
Religion and religious phenomena: def-
    inition of religion in Deuteronomic
    Torah, 427; as problematic terms,
    337n47
Religious wars. See War
Renaissance, 280
Rephaim (giants), 235n4
Repristination, 429-30
    Republic (Plato), 73, 378, 549
Reuel, 245
Revelation: compared with Hellenic
philosophy, 492-93, 550; and covenant, 514; of Decalogue from Mount Sinai, 366, 379-83, 417, 471- 73, 476-80, 476-77n37; and Deutero- Isaiah, 552-55; Deuteronomic Torah and regulation of, 418-23; and historical constitution of the people, 463-64; and human response, 466-67, 471, 482; to Isaiah, 490-91; and pragmatic history, 6; and purification, 490-91; as symbol, 2; of thornbush dialogue between Yahweh and Moses, 452, 454, 456-66, 470, 515, 521. See also Covenant; Moses; Prophets; Yahweh; and headings beginning with Israel
Rib-Addi, 243
Ricoeur, P., 13
Riesenfeld, Harald, 331n36
Riessler, Paul, 359n84
Ritornar ai principij, 349
Robinson, Theodore H., 155-56n3,
    173n7, 281n10, 2g6n15, 367n3,
445n8, 460-61, 477n37
Roeh (seer), 252n20, 273, 274
Roman empire, 47, 68, 73, 75, 93, 99,
    157, 186-87, 561
Romanticism, 332
Rosenzweig, Franz, 156n3
Rost, Leonard, 347n71
Rostovtzeff, M., 53n1
Rowley, H. H., 155n3, 158n1, 192n3,
    196n6, 547n15
Royal Psalms, 333, 342, 350. See also
    Imperial Psalms
Ruach (spirit [of Yahweh]), 260, 268,
    273, 275, 285, 287, 439, 502, 503, 527,
    533, 534, 543
Rulers. See Israel (kingship); Kingship;
    and specific rulers
Russell, D. S., 12

Sabbath, 216
Sage, 101, 141
Salvation. See Redemption
Samaria, 373, 374, 375nu, 416, 423,
    437
Samson, 271
Samuel, 179, 252n20, 273-75, 279-80,
    284, 289-93, 295, 313, 394, 436, 528
Sarah, 283
Sargon II, 373
Sargon of Akkad, 445, 446
Sassons, J., 12
Satan, 312n3, 452
Saul: and Ammonite War, 293;
anointing of, by Samuel, 179, 273-74; antiroyalist version of kingship of, 289-95; banishment of ghost-masters and wizards by, 280, 281n10; clan's support of, 299; David's escape from, 299, 300; and David's music, 279; David's relationship with, 279, 299, 300. 303; death of, 194, 279, 315; funeral elegy for, by David, 288-89; historical writing on, 222; installation of, as king, 179; Jonathan as son of, 279; kingship of, 179, 270-95, 272n5, 296, 299-300, 320, 364, 367n2; Michal as daughter of, 275, 301, 318; military troops under, 298-99; and Philistine wars, 221, 273, 279, 289, 293, 298, 303; and prophets, 273, 274-75; rise of, 270-78; royalist version of kingship of, 273-74; and Samuel, 179, 273-74, 289-93, 295, 313, 436, 528; and spiritual disorder of, 279-89, 295; and theocracy, 289-95, 364; and war against Amalek, 291-92; and war of the Generals, 301-2; and witch of Endor, 279-80, 292, 295; andYahweh, 273-74, 279-80, 289-92; youth of, 274, 292
Sawyer, J., 12
Schoeps, Hans Joachim, 431n1 Schrade, Hubert, 371n8
Schrader, O., 88n6
Scientistic ideologies, 22-23
Segullah (treasured possession), 474,
    475, 511, 512
Sellin, E., 156n3
Seneh (bush), 457-58, 469
Sennacherib, 410
Sepher (book), 208, 212-13, 214, 423
Sepher toldoth (book of the generations
    [of Adam]), 218
Septuagint, 202, 218, 329, 370-71,
    421n2, 524, 526
Seren, 271, 271n3
Sermon on the Mount, 227, 390
Servant: David as, 522; as disciple of
God, 564-67; ebed Yahweh (servant of Yahweh), 439, 521-22; Isaiah as, 522; Israel as, 563-64; as light to the nations, 563-64; Moses as, 521-22; ordination of, in heaven, 562-63; prophets as, 522, 561-64; role of, in work of redemption, 561-62; Solomon as, 522; Suffering Servant, 7, 348, 407, 547-48n15, 549-50, 567-70; as type, 561-62
Servant Songs, 546, 552, 562-70. See
    also Suffering Servant
Set, 111
Seth, 129, 183
Sethe, K., 107n20, 128n59, 354n82
Shabaka, 127
Shalem, 325-26
Shaliah (messenger), 439
Shalim, 325
Shalmanassar V, 326
Shalmanezer III, 372-73
Shalom (peace), 325-26
Shalom war, 325
Shamash, 66, 70, 357
Shar puhi, 439
Sheba, 317-19
Shebet (tribes), 246
Shechem, 180, 244, 262, 263, 267, 283
Shechem, Diet of, 179-80
Shem, 183, 210, 212; sons of, 183-84,
    210
Shem (name), 210
Sheol: Canaan as, 401; of civilizations,
167, 184, 370, 401, 415; of cosmological civilization, '294; of Egypt, 153, 154, 177, 401; of history and philology, 155; Isaiah on, 510; Israel's descent into, 366, 401, 510; past as, 169; Pharaoh as prisoner in, 439; as symbol, 164, 173
Shophet (judge), 252
Shu, 149
Shulamit, 326
Shuwardata, 242
Sidersky, D., 61n3
Simeon, tribe of, 244
Simeon b. Yohai, Rabbi, 500n1
Simpson, C. A., 196n6, 455n13
Sin (Babylonian god), 88
Sinai covenant, 4-6, 153, 179-80, 182,
    207, 211, 215-16, 221, 342-44, 347,
    349, 350, 379-80, 396-97, 471-80,
    511-12
Sinai Festival, 180, 180n3
Sinai traditions, 181, 181n4
Sisera, 247-51, 254-55, 259, 260, 272
Sitz im Leben (setting in life) of Psalms,
    333, 334, 340
Skepticism, 99, 143-44
Slaves, 305-6, 382, 420
Smith, J. M. Powis, 156n3, 375-76n12
Smith, Sidney, 61n3, 547n15
Snaith, N. H., 192n2, 345n69
Socialist ideology, 22
Society: as macroanthropos, 43, 44-45;
    as microcosmos, 43-44
Socrates, 489, 549
Sodom, 233-34, 235, 236, 237, 324
Solomon: death of, 264, 306, 318, 368,
371-72; Egyptian aspects of reign of, 368-72; and Egyptian princess, 369-70; and Egyptian traditions, 353; empire under, 303-4, 305; financial administration of, 300, 303-4, 306; historical work on, 222; Israel as cosmological society under, 9; and Jeroboam, 368; kingship of, 303-4, 305, 328n33, 363; parents of, 307; personality of, 305; as servant of Yahweh, 522; and slave-labor force, 305-6; sons of, 371-72; succession of, 317, 327, 371-72; temple of, 194, 229, 261, 362, 370-71, 371n8, 372, 375; and war chariots, 311-12; wives and concubines of, 262, 369-70, 375
Solomon Psalms, 359
Song of Lamech, 226
"Song of the Harper," 96-99, 100, 121
Son of God: bene elohim (sons of
God), 325; Israel as, 346, 440-44, 448, 452, 470, 474-75, 513; Jeremiah as, 520-21; Jesus as, 389-91, 449, 521; king as, 345-46, 355-56, 41°, 447-49, 527; pharaoh as, 441, 443, 470; prophets as, 520-22
Sophia, 75, 186
Soul: and Greeks, 281, 282, 286-87, 377,
492-93; and Israelites, 279-89; and philosophy, 286-87; Plato on, 282, 287, 378; Saul's spiritual disorder of, 279-81, 295
Source-critical method of Bible
    criticism, 192-200, 202-5
Southern Kingdom. See Judah
Speiser, E. A., 62n4, 64n8
Spengler, O., 166-68, 174-75
Spiegel, Joachim, 91n1, 95n10, 99n12,
    136n66
Spirit of Yahweh. See Ruach (spirit of
    Yahweh)
Stage of development approach to
    history, 460-61
Study of History (Toynbee), 91, 92,
    468n31
Subjectivity of history, 172
Suffering: of God, 541-42, 545, 555;
    of Jeremiah, 539-42, 545, 555; and
    mystery of iniquity, 540-42. See also
    Suffering Servant
Suffering Servant, 7, 348, 407, 547-
    48n15, 549-50, 567-70. See also
    Deutero-Isaiah
Suicide: consideration of, 136n66,
    138-41
"Sumerian King List," 64n8
Sumerian Lamentations over
    Destruction of Ur, 151, 252
Summa Theologiae (Thomas Aquinas),
    462
Summodeism, 267-68
Summus deus, 77, 321, 358
Sunday, 73
Sun symbol and sun-god: in Egypt,
106-11, 122, 130, 136, 146-47, 346, 355, 358; in Mesopotamia, 72-74, 75, 357; in Old Testament, 357-58, 371, 410; and Solomon's Temple, 370
Supracivilizational drama of mankind,
    102
Swete, H.B., 156n3
Symbolism: of Canaan for Israelites,
154, 164; cosmological symbolism of Psalms, 348, 350-52; definition of, 3; of desert for Israelites, 153, 164; of Deutero-Isaiah, 547-49, 551; of Elijah, 385-402; eschatological symbols, 394-96; of Exodus narrative, 440-48; imperial symbolism, 6, 9, 320-30, 339, 350-51, 353-60, 474-75, 511-13, 562; of Isaiah, 529-34; Israel and symbols of historiography, 206-18, 364-65; of king as mediator between cosmic and social order, 341; of Messiah, 359, 364; of Moses' name, 445-48; Mosheh symbol, 445-48, 449; of number four, 65, 72, 217, 218; of number twelve, 69-71, 72, 75; recurrence of, and cosmological order, 340; of servant, 561-62,; of sun, 72-74, 75, 106-11, 122, 130, 136, 146-47, 34«, 355, 358, 370, 371; of temple, 9; theocratic symbolism, 292-95; of Truth and Lie, 87, 89; of yin-yang, 90; of zodiac, 69-71, 72, 75. See also Symbolization
Symbolization: and Achaemenian
empire, 85-90; analogical Symbolization of order, 43-50; and attempts at rationalization, 46-47; of berith (covenant), 215-16, 239-40; of cosmic order in Mesopotamia, 78-84; and experience of lasting and passing, 41-43; and experience of participation, 41; features in process of, 41-50; and intolerance through Love of being, 48-50; and omphalos, 67-69, 72, 84, 511, 520, 525, 545, 555, 567; oneness of being and plurality of symbols, 46-47; of order, 3-4, 39-50; of political order in Mesopotamia, 61-78; and radiation of meaning in history, 172; and radical inadequacy of symbols, 47-48; revelation as symbol, 2; and sepher (book), 208, 212-13, 214; and society as microcosmos and macioanthropos, 43-45; and toldoth (generations), 208-18; and tolerance through love of existence, 50; of types of order, 20-22. See also Symbolism
Syria, 270, 368, 372, 501, 561
Syriac alliance, 372-73
Syriac civilization, 86, 157, 159-62,
    166-67
Syro-Ephraimite war, 10-11

Talmudic Judaism, 186-87, 500n1
Taoism, 100
Tao (order), 101, 141
Teh (force), 79, 80, 101, 141
Tehom ([the] deep), 439
Telos, 200
Temple: of Gideon at Ophrah, 260-
61, 267-68; and Jeroboam's cult reforms, 372; Near Eastern influences on Solomon's Temple, 370-71; Solomonic temple, 194, 229, 261, 362, 370-71, 371n8, 372, 375; symbol of, 9
Temple Address of Jeremiah, 484-85
Ten Commandments (Decalogue),
    366, 379-83, 417, 471-73, 476-80,
    476-77n37, 484-93, 511-13
Terminus ad quem, 544-45
Tetrabiblos (Ptolemy), 71
Tetragrammaton YHWH, 460, 460n18,
    463
Tetrateuch, 163, 201-6
Theocracy, 289-95, 290n12, 364, 467,
    467n29
Theologia negativa, 126, 127
Theologia supranaturalis, 49
Theologia civilis, 49
Theologism, 23
Theology: of Deuteronomic Torah,
    409; of history, 558-60; Plato on,
    47, 101-2, 378. See also Memphite
    Theology
Theopolity, 290, 290n12, 293-95, 4n7,
    467n29, 471, 472, 476, 482, 495,
    506-7, 527, 543, 545, 555
Thomas Aquinas, Saint, 178, 462-63
Thompson, R. C., 53n1, 86n2
Thompson, W., 14
Thornbush dialogue between Yahweh
    and Moses, 452, 454, 456-66, 470,
    515,521
Thoth, 112
Thucydides, 306
Thureau-Dangin, François, 61n3, 63n5
Thutmose III, 118, 120, 144-45, 170,
    173, 244n14
Thutmose IV, 146
Tiamat, 74, 81, 82, 83
Tibni, 367
Tiefgehend umgepraegt, 345
T'ien, 79
Tiglath-Pileser I, 372
Tiglath-Pileser III, 65-66, 373
Toldoth (generations), 208-18, 558
Tolerance: conflicts of analogues and
    early tolerance, 45-47; through love
    of existence, 50
Torah. See Deuteronomic Torah
Torah (Law), 208, 216, 423
Torah of Moses, 412-18. See also
    Deuteronomic Torah
Toroth (instructions), 208, 209, 417,
    419, 420, 435, 488, 511, 519, 566
    Tower of Babel, 56, 212, 218
Toynbee, A. J,: on civilizational cycles,
166-68, 174-75; Frankfort-Toynbee debate on Egypt, 91, 92-96, 95n10; on Judaism and Christianity, 161; on "line of spiritual enlightenment," 161-62; on "progressive" type of civilization, 99; Spengler-Toynbee theory of history, 166-68, 174-75; on Syriac civilization, 86, 157, 159-62, 166-67; on Times of Troubles, 44, 161; on Yahweh, 161
—work: Study of History, 53n1, 91, 92,
    468n31
Tradition-historical method of Bible
    criticism, 200-205
Transcendence, 124, 126, 240, 281-82,
    352, 425
Transience and durability, 41-43
Transjordanian Wars, 179
Translatio imperii, 318, 319
"Trees in Search of a King," 263-64,
    272, 293, 315
Trinitarianism, 126-27, 521
Trito-Isaiah, 285, 286, 535
Truth: and Behistun Inscription, 86-88;
    and Egyptian pharaohs, 119; of myth,
    50; of order, 24; and paradigmatic
    history, 165; symbolism of Truth and
    Lie, 87, 89, 119-20
Tukulti-Urta I, 66
Tutankhamen, 119, 150
Tutankhaton, 150
Twelve as number, 69-71, 72, 75
Types: of cosmological order, 51-53;
    Moses as, 439-40, 450; of order,
    20-22; servant as, 561-62
Tyre, 374, 375, 375n11, 383

Ugaritic sources, 235n4, 336, 338,
    338n52, 350, 353
Umgebildet, 345
    Unknowable versus knowable, 41, 43
Uppsala school, 12, 202, 205n19
Urartu, 373
Uriah, 307, 309-11, 314, 488
Urkunde, 213
Utnapishtim, 70
Uzziah, 490

Van der Meer, P., 61n3
Van der Ploeg, J. S., 547n15
Vico, Giambattista, 414
Victory Hymn, 246-47
Virtues, 498-100, 500n1
Vita Moysis (Philo), 370
Voegelin, Eric. See specific works
Volz, Paul, 195-96, 196n6, 335n45,
    431n1, 547n15
Von Rad, Gerhard, 12, 178, 180, 181n4,
196, 197, 199, 205, 205n19, 206, 206n20, 25in19, 254n21, 312n2, 314, 339, 342-43, 347n71, 352, 412n1, 424-27, 502-4, 506n6

War: Ammonite War, 179, 270, 293;
ark's role in, 251; clan's importance in rise of war leader, 299-300; and Deborah Song, 247-57, 3H; defeat in, and god's anger, 266-67; and Deuteronomic Torah, 425-27; disintegration of holy war ritual, 309-12; financial aspects of, 301, 305; for glory of king, 270; holy war as defensive, 252-54, 291-92, 307, 309-10, 427, 502; and Judah, 10, 266, 368, 373, 425-27; and kingdom of Israel, 256-57, 270; and 100sening of older clan organization, 297-98; Maimonides on holy wars, 291n13; Midianite wars, 254, 259-61; Moabite war, 266-67; between Northern Kingdom and Judah, 368, 373; Philistine wars, 221, 222, 224, 251, 256, 258, 268, 271-/2n4, 273, 279, 289, 293, 295-96, 298, 299, 302, 303, 364; and professional soldiers, 262-63, 298-99, 311-12, 320; prophets on, 501-4; religious wars in Deuteronomic Torah, 425-27, 429; ritual of the holy war, 252-54, 291-92, 307, 309-10; Saul's war against Amalek, 291-92; sex taboo and holy war, 307, 309-10; shalom war, 325; and war chariots, 311-12; and Yahweh, 248-57, 257n22, 265, 291-92, 502
Weber, Max, 155n3
Weidner, E. F., 61n3
Weiser, Artur, 205n19
Welch, A. C., 412n1
Wellhausen, Julius, 156n3
Wellhausen school of Bible criticism,
    192-200, 202-5
Wensinck, A. J., 348, 352, 439n4
Westminster Abbey, 67
Widengren, Geo, 327-28n32-33,
    327-28n33, 329, 338, 340n55
Wilson, John A., 53n1, 91n1, 92, 92n2,
94-95, 95n7, 96, 97n11, 105n15, 106, 106n17, 106nn18-19, 118n47, 119n50, 121n56, 123n57, 125n58, 128n59, 133nn63-64, 134n65, 136n67, 138n68, 145n75, 147n77, 246n16, 465n25
Winkler, Hugo, 64n6
Wisdom literature, 8-9
Witch of Endor, 279-80, 292, 295
Word of God: dabar (word), 320, 344,
349, 383, 407; debharim (words [of Yahweh]), 379-84, 415, 419, 420, 421n2, 434-35, 440; and Deutero- Isaianic drama, 550; and Jeremiah, 522-23; and Moses' difficulties in speaking, 450-53; Torah as, 8, 416-18, 425; and word of prophets, 422, 435, 520, 536-37

Xenophanes, 47
Xerxes, 88

Yahuda, A. S., 445n8
Yahweh: adaptability of, to social and
political situations, 265-70; and attempted murder of Moses in night episode, 451-53, 453n12, 470; and Baal Melqart, 374-75, 374-75n1i; characteristics of, 287; conflict between Canaanite cults and, 194; covenant between Abraham and, 183, 186, 216, 217, 233-41, 246, 323-24, 441; and creation of world and man, 213-15;and David, 276, 307, 313, 314, 316, 318-20; Day of Yahweh, 387-92, 391n18, 394, 507; and Decalogue, 366, 379-83, 417, 471-73, 476-80, 476- 77n37; as deus absconditus, 454; and Deuteronomic "theology," 409-10; disobedience to, 279-80; and Elijah, 399-401, 405; expulsion of man from garden of Eden, 282; faith in, 10-11, 257, 257n22, 504-7, 506n6, 514-15, 518-19; and Feast of Tabernacles, 337-38; and Gideon, 260; as "god of the fathers," 246, 250, 454, 458, 466; as hidden and revealed God, 463-66, 479; as "I-AM-WHO-I-AM," 459-65, 459n17, 479, 515; ignorance of law of, 376-78; instructions of Yahweh and Torah of Moses, 412-18; and Isaiah, 490-91; Israel's defections from, to foreign gods, 225-26, 258, 472, 479, 493-95; and Jeremiah, 521-22; justice of, 356-57; kabhod (glory) of, 529-31, 533-34, 548, 555, 556, 560, 565; and Kenites, 246n15; as king, 351-52, 356n183, 357, 529-30; and kingship, 273-74, 289-91, 319, 327- 30; and Manasseh's reign, 410-11; manifestation of, in natural forces, 251-52; man's relationship with, ending in death, 282-83; Messenger of, 385, 386-88; Messiah of, 286, 347, 358-60; and Moses, 245-46, 450-66, 466n27, 468-80; and Mount Carmel miracle, 399-400; on Mount Sinai, 454, 457, 458, 466-80;,New Year festivals for enthronement of, 335-38, 356; obedience to, 179; personality formation through spirit of, 268-70; political particularization of, 261-62; praise for feats of, 176-77; punishment and judgment by, 258, 377, 387-95, 507, 515-17; as Redeemer, 285-86, 548, 554, 556, 557-60; righteousness of, 252; ruach (spirit [of Yahweh]), 260, 268, 273, 275, 285, 287, 439, 502, 503, 527, 533, 534, 543; sanctuary of, at Ophrah, 260-61, 267-68; and Saul, 273-74, 279-80, 289-91; and Sinai covenant, 4-6, 153, 179-80, 182, 207, 211, 215-16, 221, 342-44, 347, 349, 350, 379-80, 396-97, 471-80, 511-12; and spiritual universalism versus patriotic parochialism, 407, 409; suffering of, 541-42, 545, 555; syncretism between Amon and, 371; syncretism between El Elyon and, 321, 325-26; Tetragrammaton YHWH, 460, 460n18, 463; and thornbush dialogue with Moses, 452, 454, 456-66, 470, 515, 521; and Tower of Babel, 56, 212; Toynbee on, 161; as universal God of mankind, 407, 409, 483, 525, 560-61; and war, 248-57, 257n22, 265, 291-92, 502; as world ruler, 356-58, 370, 394. See also God; Yahwism
Yahweh malak (The Lord reigns),
    351-52
Yahwism: amplitude of, 265-70; and
Deborah Song, 248-57, 257n22, 259; of Elijah, 400; and Israelite-Canaanite syncretism, 258-59, 261-62, 363, 394; of Judah, 193, 297, 316, 319; in Manasseh's reign, 410-11; of Northern Kingdom, 372; and political particularization of Yahweh, 261- 62; populist Yahwism, 275-78; of prophets, 185, 186, 224-27, 230; and summodeism, 267-68; transmission of, to time of Moses, 245-47. See also Yahweh
Yahwist narrative. See Jahwist (J)
    narrative
Yin-yang symbolism, 90
Yu-lan, Fung, 101n13

Zadok, 327
Zadokite fragment, 569
Zedakah (righteousness), 326, 498, 499,
    558
Zedek, 325-26
Zephaniah, 411, 524, 525
Zerubbabel, 326
Zeus, 80
Zidekoth Yahweh (righteousness of
    Yahweh), 252
Zimmern, Heinrich, 335n45
Zimri, 367, 373
Zion, 9-10, 11
Zipporah, 51, 452
Zodiac, 69-71, 72, 75
Zoroastrianism, 86-89
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