INDEX


VOL 14— ISRAEL AND REVELATION
ORDER AND HISTORY  VOLUME I
A to L



Aaron, 245, 436-37, 441, 442, 450-51,
    457
'Abdu-Heba, 242-43
Abel and Cain, 212, 226
Abiathar, 327
Abimelech, 262-63, 298
Abner, 299, 300, 301-2, 316
Abraham: burial place of, 283;
compared with Moses, 441; and Davidic propaganda, 324-25, 324n17; exodus of, to Canaan, 182, 216, 238, 545; genealogies including, 210, 212, 218; and Hagar, 226n23; and leap in being, 239-40; Lot's rescue by, 233, 236, 324; and Melchizedek, 234-37, 234n1, 325, 327; and sacred line of godly carriers of meaning, 183; Toynbee on, 161, 162; Yahweh's berith with, 183, 186, 216, 217, 233-41, 246, 323-24, 441
Abraham ibn Ezra, Rabbi, 416
Absalom, 297, 317, 318
Achaemenian empire, 4, 85-90
Acts of Solomon, 194, 362
Acts of the Kings of Israel, 194, 362, 397
Acts of the Kings of Judah, 397
Adam (man), 210, 213-15
Adam, 55-56, 57, 59, 60, 183, 209-18,
    282
Adamah (soil), 213-14
Adapa myth, 57-61, 83
"Admonitions of Ipu-wer," 136n66,
    143-44
Adonijah, 317
Adonizedek, 244
Adoram, 306
Aeschylus, 24, 549, 550
Africa, 114
Afterlife, 114-15, 172, 377
Agathon, 498, 550
Agnosticism, 23
Ahab, 276, 373, 374, 397, 398, 436, 528
Ahaz, King, 10-11, 530, 534, 537, 544
Ahazia, 374
Ahaziah, 267
Ahriman, 86-87
Ahuramazda, 86-88
Airs, Waters, and Places (Hippocrates),
    72
Akhenaton: compared with Moses,
466n27; hymns of, 147-50, 170, 269, 358; name change by, 146; personality of, 269; reform of, 4, 99n12, 141-42, 145-50, 371n8; Shuwardata's letter to, 242
Akkad, 63
Albright, W. F., 53n1, 61n3, 155n3,
    158n1, 159n2, 174n8, 235n3, 237n6
    242n11, 244n14, 266n1, 271-72n4
    370n4
Alexander, 51, 73
Alt, Albrecht, 155n3, 180n2,
    242n9, 323-24n16, 344n62, 345n66,
    353, 367n2, 376n12
Am (people), 432
Amalek, war against, 291-92
Amanah (agreement), 216
Amarna Letters, 242-45, 244n14, 353,
    369
Amarna Revolution, 7, 119, 141,
    146-50, 152, 371n8
Ambrose, Saint, 292
Amenemhet I, 144
Amenemhet III, 117-18
Amenhotep III, 146
Amenhotep IV. See Akhenaton
Am-ha-aretz (people of the land), 211,
    277
Am haretz , 426
Ammi (my people), 458
Ammon, King, 179
Ammon and Ammonites, 300, 304-5,
    324
Ammonite War, 179, 270, 293
Amnon, 317
Amon, 89, 122, 125n58, 142, 145-49,
    371, 411
Amon Hymns, 125-27, 152, 178, 371,
    464-66
Amon-Re, 108-9, 142, 144-47
Amorites, 235-36, 238, 239, 243, 244,
    305
Amos: and berith written in the heart,
419; date of, 362; and Day of Yahweh, 391-92, 395, 507; and Decalogue, 486; and institutional phase of prophetism, 528, 534, 537, 538; juxtaposition of rejection and demand by, 498-99; literary form of, 525; location of public activity of, 362; prophecies of punishment and salvation by, 517, 542; as prophet to nations, 523, 525, 543; on virtues, 498-99
Am Yahweh (people of Yahweh), 251,
    253, 256, 311, 433
Anahita, 88
Analogia entis , 127
Analogical syrnbolization of order,
    43-50
Ancestor worship, 282, 283-85, 286
Ancient Near East. See Achaemenian
    empire; Egypt; Israel; Mesopotamia
Animals: gods' manifestation in, 112-13
Anima naturalis , 427
Anointed of Yahweh, 526, 530, 559
Anshar, 82
Anthes, Rudolf, 91n1, 104n14
Antichrist, 396
Antinomian heresies, 508
Anu, 58-60, 63-64, 74, 82, 83, 411
Anubis, 112
Anxiety and ignorance, 40-41, 43, 48
'Apiru, 242-45, 242n10, 244n14
Apocalyptic movements and literature,
    186, 187, 507-8, 509, 569
Apocrypha, 185
Apokatastasis, 389-90
Apostles, 71
Apsu, 74, 82, 83
Arameans, 184, 300, 305, 324, 372, 373,
   375n11
Archaeology, 174, 283, 335
Archaism, 429-30
Aretai (virtues), 492, 500, 500n1
Aristotle, 71, 427, 492
Ark, 251, 271, 276, 313, 320, 370
Artaxerxes I, 88
Artaxerxes II, 88
Asa, 374
Ashtart, 225, 258, 261, 374
Ashur, 65-66, 77, 81, 326
Ashurbanipal, 66, 70, 410, 429, 520
Assyria: and Enuma elish, 81; fall of, 430, 560; and fall of Northern Kingdom of Israel, 304, 361, 365, 367, 373, 542; and Judah, 10, 406, 410-11, 425, 429; kingship in, 62, 65-66, 72, 326; in Mesopotamian civilization, 157; and New Year's festival, 77-78; rising power of, 159-60, 372-74, 406, 410; and sons of Shem, 184; and sun- god, 72, 410; and warfare, 372, 501
Assyrian Code, 376n12
Astrology, 280
Astronomy, 69-70
Athalia, 374
Aton, 145-50
Attunement to being, 3, 42-43, 48-49,
    102, 153, 157, 163
Atum, 109-11, 115, 117, 118, 122,
    130-33, 132n62
Auerbach, Elias, 431n1, 453n12,
   455n13, 457nn15-16, 459n17,
   460n18, 478n37
Augustine, Saint, 171, 227, 343n60
Aurelian, 73
Australian primitives, 477n37

Baal, 225, 237-39, 258, 261, 265,
    267, 275, 276-77, 374-75, 383, 386,
    398-400, 410, 485
Baal berith, 236-37, 239, 244, 262, 267,
    374, 441
Baal-Melek, 410
Baal Melqart, 374-75, 374-75n11
Baal of Tyre, 374, 383, 398-400
Baal-Zebub, 267, 400
Baasha, 367, 367n2
Babel, Tower of, 56, 212, 218
Babylonia: Adapa myth, 57-61, 83;
and astronomy, 69-70; breakdown of society in, 44; Code of Hammurabi, 63-64, 65; conquest of Syriac area by, 157; and destruction of Jerusalem, 361; empire of, 78; Enuma elish, 81-84, 103, 127; fall of, 560-61; Gilgamesh epic, 59-60n2, 70, 103; influences of, on Psalms, 357-58, 370; Israelites' exile in, 217, 348, 558; kingship in, 527; New Year ceremonies in, 73-74, 75, 77, 84, 335, 349; and omphalos, 68, 84. See also Mesopotamia
Baentsch, Bruno, 381n13
Baitylion, 67
Barak, 252, 253, 260
Baruch, 489, 519, 542
Bathsheba, 299, 307-15
Begrich, Josef, 335-36n46, 547n15
Behistun Inscription, 86-89
Being: and attunement, 3, 42-43, 48-49,
102, 153, 157, 163; community of being, 39, 41, 48, 124; and existence, 39-41, 48-49; hierarchy of, 47; love of being, 48-50; man's knowledge about order of being, 40-41; man's participation in, 39-40; order of being, 3-4, 40-41, 455, 517-19, 555. See also Leaps in being
Bene elohim (sons of God), 325
Bene hannebi'im (sons of the prophets),
    276
Benjamin, tribe of, 271, 273, 299, 301-2,
    317, 318
Bentzen, Aage, 156n3, 328n33, 338,
    342n56, 547n15, 548n15, 562n17
Bergson, Henri, 551
Berith: of Abraham, 183, 186, 216, 217,
233-41, 246, 323-24; Baal berith, 236-37, 239, 244, 262, 267, 374, 441; berith written in the heart, 6-7, 419, 493, 510-11; Davidic covenant, 9, 301, 317, 318-20, 364; with Death, 510; and Decalogue, 471, 472-73, 476-80, 476-78n37, 511-13; of Hezekiah, 216; and historiography, 215-17; of Josiah, 216, 349, 411-12; malakh of the berith , 386-87, 394, 405; Noah covenant, 216-17; at Shechem, 180, 180n2; Sinai covenant, 4-6, 153, 179-80, 182, 207, 211, 215-16, 221, 342-44, 347, 349, 350, 379-80, 396-97, 471-80, 511-12; as symbol, 215-16, 324. See also Covenant
Berkhof, Hendrik, 290n12
Beth-ab (household), 246
Bible criticism: on authorship of
Deuteronomy, 416, 423; comparative history of religion methods, 200-201; complications and difficulties in generally, 155, 190-92; Engnell's approach to, 192, 192n2, 200-205, 200n11; form-literary method of Gunkel for, 200, 332-36, 333n40; historical-critical method of, 13; on Imperial Psalms, 191, 330-52; Pedersen's approach to, 202, 203-4; Protestant scholars on Old Testament in nineteenth century, 332; recent scholars and methodology in, 11-13; and resistance to mythologization of Bible and Christianity, 341-47; Voegelin's work disregarded in, 13; Wellhausen school of, 192-200, 202-5. See also Old Testament
Biblical narrative: canon of, 185-86,
417; dates of, 158, 162-65; difficulties in interpretation of, 188-92; and historical subject matter, 189, 218-20, 223; and oral traditions, 188; Pedersen's approach to, 202, 203-4; sources of, 190-206, 199n9; and struggle for spiritual freedom, 227-28; as symbolic form sui generis, 220, 223, 229; Wellhausen school of Bible criticism, 192-200, 202-5. See also New Testament; Old Testament
Biblos geneseos , 218
Biologism, 22
Blood, 217, 217n22, 475-76
Bodin, Jean, 71-72
Boehl, Franz M. T., 61n3, 326n30
Boman, Thorleif, 197-98n8
Book of the Acts of Solomon, 194, 362
Book of the Acts of the Kings of Israel,
    194, 362
Book of the Covenant, 362, 366, 375-85,
    375-76n12, 386, 413-14, 418-19, 420,
    426, 472, 492
Book of the Wars of Yahweh, 362
Book of Yashar, 362
Bore (Creator), 558
Bottéro, Jean, 321n8
Breasted, James A., 91n1, 94,
    118n49, 128n59, 134,
    136n67, 145n75, 147, 150n7
Buber, Martin, 156n3, 167n6, 192,
    192n23, 213, 290n12, 359, 381, 431n1,
    445-46, 451-53, 455n13, 457, 459n17,
    464n224, 467, 467-69n331, 474nn32-
    33, 479-80nn38-40, 529n9, 532,
    538n14, 548n15, 562n17, 565
Buddha, 44
Bultmann, Rudolf, 506n6
Buttenwieser, M., 331n35
Byblos, 243

Cain and Abel, 212, 226
Calvinism, 292
Cambyses, 88-89
Canaan: aborigines in, 235, 235n4;
Abraham's exodus to, 182, 216, 238; and Amarna Letters, 242-45, 244n14, 353, 369; in Amarna Period, 241-45; ambiguity of, 186; conquest of, by Israel, 153, 154, 160, 161, 164, 177, 182, 184, 186, 221, 224, 348; and Deborah Song, 247-57, 259; Egyptian sovereignty over, 183, 241-45; events before conquest of, 152; festivals of harvest and ingathering in, 381; gods of, 258, 261-62, 265-68; Hebrew settlements in, 225, 247; historiography of, 222; Israelite-Canaanite syncretism, 258-59, 261-62, 265-68, 363, 394; kingship in, 353; political situation
Cavaignac, Eugene, 53n1
Gazelles, Henri, 431n1
Celsus, 45
Chaberim (allies), 235
Charisma, 313, 367n2
Charles, R. H., 359n84
Chedorlaomer, 233
Chemosh, 266, 268, 411
Cherem (ban), 254, 291, 383, 387
Chicago Oriental Institute, 91
Childs, B., 12
China: and Buddhism, 44; chung
kuo symbol of, 69, 475n34; Confucianism in, 44, 80, 100- 102, 141; as cosmological civilization, 52, 75, 78-79, 80, 100-102; and Jainism, 44; and Lao-tse, 44; and omphalos, 68-69; political order in, 78-79, 80; and Taoism, 100; in, 79, 80, 101, 141; Time of Troubles in, 44, 96, 100; yin-yang symbolism in, 90
Chosen People: and Christ, 348;
contraction of, into chosen man, 520; and Davidic empire, 318-19; and Day of Yahweh, 395; defections of, from Yahweh to false gods, 225-26, 472, 479, 493-95; destiny of, 366, 483; and Deutero-Isaiah, 554-55; and dislike of being chosen, 495, 5 14; and Exodus, 153, 164, 414, 448, 470, 545; and fall from being, 396; and Holy War, 502; idea of human perfection versus, 377; and Isaiah on will of God, 504-5; and Kingdom of God, 394; and Moses, 6, 378-79, 414, 448, 470; as omphalos, 511, 545; and prophets, 481-84, 505, 513, 517, 544, 545; and Sinai covenant, 4-6, 153, 179-80, 414, 5H-12; and spiritual universalism versus patriotic parochialism, 407, 560-61; and theocracy, 294-95; and Yahweh as God of the nations, 525. See also Covenant; Exodus of Israel from Egypt; and headings beginning with Israel
Christ. See Jesus
Christianity: and antinomian heresies,
508; and birthday of Christ, 73; Celsus' attack on, 45; and civitas Dei, 475; compared with Memphite Theology, 134-35; and cosmological civilizations, 114; and Deutero-Isaiah tradition, 569-70; and ecstaticism, 178; and eschatological events beyond history, 508; and essence of God, 460, 462-63; and experience of God, 182; and gnosis, 508; and gnostic heresies, 508; and historia sacra , 171, 343n60; historiography of, 217-18; and Judaism, 187, 211; and Law, 425; and life of the spirit, 172; Logos of, 134-35, 287; and Marcionism, 508; and meaning of history, 396n19; and Messianic problem, 525-26; and New Testament, 418; and one mankind under God, 187; Paul on Christians, Jews, and Gentiles, 173; and prophets, 500n1; and rationalization, 76-77; and Reformation, 508; and relationship between life of the spirit and life in the world, 227; resistance to mythologization of, 341-42; rise of, and Hellenistic world, 44; and Roman empire, 47, 93; and social status of man, 227; and Suffering Servant, 548n15; and thornbush dialogue between Yahweh and Moses, 461-63; Toynbee on, 161; and trinitarianism, 126-27, 521. See also Jesus
Christos, 526
Ch'un, l01
Chung kuo, 69, 475n34
Ch'un-tse, 101
Circumcision, 216, 451, 452
City of God, 520
City-states: in Mesopotamia, 61-62,
    61-62n4, 77, 103; of Philistines,
    270-71
Civilizational courses: and Egypt,
    91-102; and Israel, 157-67
Civilizational cycles, 166-67, 174-75
Civilizational form, 95, 96, 99-102
Civitas Dei, 475
Clements, R. E., 12
Code of Hammurabi, 63-64, 65, 67, 72,
    103, 376n12
Coffin Text, 136-38, 141
Collins, J. J., 12
Communism, 418
Community of being, 39, 41, 48, 124
Community of equals, 137-38, 141
Compactness: and history, 169, 206-8;
    Israelite compactness, 207-8, 224-25,
    378, 462, 555; of myth, 123-24; and
    order, 99-100
Comparative history of religion
    methods of Bible criticism, 200-201
Comte, Auguste, 418
Confederacy of Israel, 246-47, 250, 258,
    265,294,303,358
Confucius and Confucianism, 44, 80,
    100-102, 141
Constantine, 47, 73
Consubstantiality, 3-4, 41, 55, 123-25,
    123n57, 132, 133, 135, 395n19
Conversion, 48-49, 90
Cook, S. A., 155n3
Coppens, J., 548n15
Cosmogony. See Cosmological prder
Cosmological order: and Achaemenian
empire, 85-90; breakdown of, 44-45; creation of God and dominion of man, 55-61; definition of, 4; and Egypt, 91-150, 165; and Enuma elish, 81-84, 103, 127; and "eternal recurrence," 168-69; historical variations within, 52-53; and Mesopotamia, 4, 55- 84; and omphalos, 67-69, 72, 84; and recurrence of symbolism, 340; relation of cosmological and historical form, 348-50; symbolization of cosmic order in Mesopotamia, 78-84; and symbolization of political order in Mesopotamia, 61-78; as type, 51-53
"Counter-king," 439
Covenant: of Abraham, 183, 186, 216,
217, 233-41, 323-24, 441; berith as symbol, 215-16; covenant written in the heart, 6-7, 419, 493, 510-11; Davidic Covenant, 9, 301, 317, 318- 20, 344, 347, 349, 364; and Decalogue, 376-78n37, 472-73, 476-80, 491-93, 511-13; and Deuteronomic Torah, 411-12; of Ezra, 216; of Hezekiah, 216; and historical narrative of Old Testament, 216-17; institutional vacuum of covenant order, 349- 50; of Jeremiah, 6-7; of Joshua, 216; of Josiah, 216, 349, 411-12; as motivation for historiography, 223-24; of Nehemiah, 216; of Noah, 216-17; pragmatic existence and order of covenant, 229-31; and prophets, 491-511; prophets as messengers of, 386-88; and revelation, 514; with Sheol, 510; Sinai covenant, 4-6, 153, 179-80, 182, 207, 211, 215-16, 221, 342-44, 347, 349, 350, 379-80, 396-97, 471-80, 511-12; tension between Davidic Covenant and Sinai Covenant, 347, 349. See also Berith Covenant Festival of Shechem, 180
Covenant written in the heart, 6-7, 419,
    493, 510-11
Creation: Adapa myth, 57-61, 83; and
Aton, 148; and Enuma elish, 81-84, 103, 127; in Genesis, 55-56, 131, 213-15; God as Creator, 548, 557-58; in Psalm 136, 176-77; Ptah and Memphite Theology, 130-34
Crenshaw, J. L., 12
Cross, E, 11
Cult-functional method for Psalms,
    333-36, 333n4I, 343, 351
Cult patterns, 340-41
Cults and cult legends, 180-81, 204, 275
Cumont, Franz, 77n18
Cyaxares, 411
Cycles. See Civilizational cycles
Cyrus (king of Babylon), 88, 89
Cyrus (liberator of Israel), 546, 547, 549,
    559, 563

Da'ath (knowledge [of God]), 349, 499,
    510, 514, 517, 534, 566
Dabar (word [of God]), 320, 344, 349,
    383, 407
Damascenus, Johannes, 462
Damascus, 300, 304, 305, 502
Dan, 271, 372
Danby, Herbert, 475n36
Daniel, 217
Darius I, 85, 86, 88-89
David: and Bathsheba, 299, 307-15;
character of, 312-14, 408; clan's support of, 299; death of, 368; death of child of, 307, 312; escape of, from Saul, 299, 300; and four ages of world history, 218; funeral elegy for Saul by, 288-89; and Goliath, 322n10; as governor for province of Judah, 271; historiography on, 222; last words of, 526-27; meaning of "David," 321-23; Michal as wife of, 275-76, 301, 313, 318, 319, 320; as military hero, 299; Mosheh symbol for, 447-48; music of, 279; outlaw existence of, 297, 298; and Philistine wars, 302, 303, 364; and "Poor Man's Lamb," 308, 309, 314-15; and priesthood, 327; rise of, 262, 295-302; Saul's relationship with, 279, 299, 300; as Saul's rival, 279, 299, 303; as servant of Yahweh, 522; and Sheba's revolt, 317-19; sons of, 305, 317, 326, 327; and war of the Generals, 301-2; and Yahweh, 276, 307, 312, 313, 314, 316, 318-20
—kingship of: and Absalom crisis, 297, 317, 318; acceptance of kingship by David, 302; anointing of David as king of Israel, 316, 318, 526, 527; and ark, 251, 276, 313, 320; and census, 312, 312n3; and conquest of Jerusalem, 296, 303, 317, 320-30; dance of, before Yahweh, 276, 320; Davidic empire, 296, 303-6, 318-20, 346-47, 350-51, 358-59, 361, 364; glory of, 269-70; and imperial symbolism, 6, 9, 320-30, 350-51, 353-60; in Judah, 300, 315-16; and motive for writing history, 181; and Nathan, 218, 307-8, 313, 314, 319-20, 344-46, 354, 360, 436, 528; and paradigm of rulership, 527; and Psalm 110, 327-30, 328n33; revenue sources for, 300; and warfare for glory of king, 269-70; Yahweh's covenant with House of David, 9, 318-20, 344, 347, 349, 364
Davidic Covenant, 9, 301, 317, 318-20,
    344, 347, 349, 364
David Memoirs, 206, 206n20, 277,
    361-62
Dawidum (general or troop
    commander), 321-23
Day of Yahweh, 387-92, 391n18, 394,
    507
D-circle, 202
Dead Sea scrolls, 569
Dearman, J., 11
Debharim (words [of Yahweh]), 379-84,
    415, 419, 420, 421n2, 434-35, 440,
    472-73, 488
Deborah (prophetess), 248, 252, 253,
    311, 358
Deborah (Rebekah's nurse), 284
Deborah Song, 247-58, 259, 269, 297,
    435
Decalogue, 366, 379-83, 417, 471-73,
    476-80, 476-78037, 484-93, 511-13
Delphi omphalos, 67
Desert: Elijah in, 400-401, 405; Moses
    in, 441, 454, 456; as symbol, 153, 164,
    177. See also Exodus of Israel from
    Egypt
Deus absconditus, 454
Deutero-Isaiah: and berith written
in the heart, 419; compared with Jeremiah, 521, 536; date of, 535; and Enthronement Songs, 345n69; errors of interpretation of, 549-50; on fall of Babylon and experience of redemption, 560-61; on "former things" and "new things," 557-58, 560; and identification of Suffering Servant, 547-48n15, 549-50; and interchangeability of symbols, 522; leitmotifs in, 557-61; multiplicity of time levels running through the work, 550-52; nature of text, 545-49; and new type of prophecy, 553-55; and ordination of servant in heaven, 562-63; organization of the work, 552; and political particularizaton of Yahweh, 262; and prologue in heaven, 556-57; on servant and work of redemption, 561-62; on servant as disciple of God, 564-67; Servant Songs by, 546, 552, 562-70; and substance and form of revelation, 552-55; and Suffering Servant, 7, 348, 407, 547-48n15, 549~50, 567-70; symbolic language of, 547-49, 551; and theology of history, 558-60; and time of experience, 550; and time of salvation, 551-52; and time of the composition, 551
Deuteronomic Torah: and beginnings
of Judaism, 423-30; compared with Book of the Covenant, 413-14, 420, 426; compared with Memphite Theology, 413, 414; creation and suppression of, 411; Decalogue's expansion into, 492; derailment into, 482-83; discovery and enactment of, 411-13, 418; and dividing line between histories of Israel and the Jews, 422-23; Eichrodt on, 428-29; and experience of "today," 425; form of, 420, 433-35; and imperial pressure, repristination, and preservation of order, 429-30; instructions of Yahweh and Torah of Moses, 412-18; Israelite and Jewish aspects of, 423-24; myth of Mosaic authorship of, 379, 414-18, 423; prophets and order of Israel, 405-9; regulation of kingship in, 420-21; regulation of priesthood in, 421; regulation of prophets in, 421-22; and regulation of revelation, 418-23; "relaxed theology" of, 424-25; speeches of Moses, 163, 219, 395, 410-15, 434-35; two strata of contents of, 420; von Rad on, 424-27; and warfare, 425-27, 429; as word of God, 8, 416-18, 425; Yahweh's nature in, 409
Deuteronomist (D) narrative, 193-95,
    202-3, 223, 258, 259, 292, 295, 366,
    380
Deuteronomy: and beginnings of
Judaism, 423-30; compared with Book of the Covenant, 216, 413- 14; compared with Memphite Theology, 413, 414; date of, 412n1; and Deuteronomic Code, 219; form of, 412, 412n1; myth of Mosaic authorship of, 414-18, 423; origin of name of, 421n2; prayer formula of, 178-80; purpose of, 8. See also Deuteronomic Torah
De Vaux, R., u, 61n3
Dever, W., 12
De Wette, W. M. L., 412n1
Diaspora, 475n36
Dies dominicus (day of the Lord), 73
Diet of Shechem, 179-80
Differentiation: Egyptian type of,
    122-27; and history, 169, 206-8; and
    order, 99-100; Voegelin's use of term
    generally, 3
Dike of Zeus, 80
Dinah, clan of, 244
Dionysos cults, 275
"Dispute of a Man, who Considers
    Suicide, with His Soul," 136n66,
    138-41, 1401.169
Divine kingship, 63-66, 111-17, 149-50,
    336-38, 341, 342-47
Divine revelation. See Revelation
D narrative. See Deuteronomist (D)
    narrative
Dodekaoros , 69, 71
Dodo, 322nn
Dualism: of Egypt, 105-6; monistic
    versus dualistic religions, 89-90; of
    Truth and Lie, 87, 89, 119-20; and
    Zoroastrianism, 86-87, 88, 89
Duhm, B., 329n34, 546, 547n15
Durability and transiency, 41-43
Durée, 551
Dynastic consciousness, of
    Achaemenian empire, 89

Ea, 58-60, 82, 83
East Africa, 114
Ebed Yahweh (servant of Yahweh), 439,
    521-22
Eclipse of God, 167
Ecstaticism, 275-78
Ecumenic Age (Voegelin), 1, 9
Eden. See Adam
Edom, 266, 300, 304, 305, 368
Egypt: Abraham's temporary settlement
in, 182; administration in, 120; and "Admonitions of Ipu-wer," 143-44; agriculture in, 104-5; Akhenaton in, 4, 99n12, 141-50; Amarna period of, 444; and Amarna Revolution, 7, 119, 141, 146-50, 152; Amon Hymns from, 125-27, 152, 178, 371, 464-66; capital city of, 105, 142; and civilizational courses, 91-102; and Coffin Text, 136-38, 141; compared with Mesopotamia, 103; coronation ritual from, 116-17, 345-46; cosmogony of, compared with Ionian speculation, 122-23; and cosmological form, 4, 102-21, 165; dates of dynasties in, 92; and differentiation, 122-27; and "Dispute of a Man, who Considers Suicide, with His Soul," 136n66, 138-41, 140n69; divine kingship in, 111- 17, 149-50, 353; and dynamics of experience, 121-41; empire of, 103-5, 270;gods of, 107-13, 122-27, 142-50, 170, 173; Hyksos invasion of, 92, 93, 142, 241-42; Hyksos period of, 444; influences of, on Psalms, 353-58, 354n82, 370; and "Instructions" for Merikare, 142-43; invasion of Northern Kingdom and Jerusalem by, 368, 372; Israelites in, 444-45; Judah's proposed alliance with, 10, 501; and Memphite Theology, 4, 46, 121, 127-35, 413, 414; Moses and plagues in, 437-38, 439, 441, 442, 452; Moses' encounters with the pharaoh, 436-37, 441-43, 452, 456-57, 469-70; and Nile Valley, 104-6, IO7; Osiris religiousness in, 93-94, 96, 97-98, 149; pharaohs in, 112, 113-20, 141-50, 152, 269, 319, 346, 355, 415, 436-37, 439, 441-43, 452; phases of Egyptian history, 92-96; and "Prophecies of Neferrohu," 144-45; pyramids of, 98; and Red Sea disaster, 443, 446, 447, 452, 470; and response to disorder, 135-41; and Savior-Pharaoh, 535; scholarship on history of, 91; as Sheol, 153, 154, 401; and Solomon's reign, 368-72; "Song of the Harper" from, 96-99, 100, 121; sun symbol and sun-god in, 106-11, 122, 130, 136, 146-47, 346, 355, 358; Time of Troubles in, 44, 92, 93, 95, 95n10, 96, 142; Toynbee-Frankfort debate on, 91, 92-96, 95n10; "Two Lands" of, 103-6, 107, 129-30; Yahweh's destruction of first-born of, 442, 454, 470. See also Exodus of Israel from Egypt
Egyptian Book of the Dead, 477n37
Ehyeh asher ehyeh (I am who I am),
    459-65,459n17, 479, 515
Eichrodt, Walter, 155n3, 424n3, 428-29
Eidos , 131
Eisler, Robert, 72n16
Eissfeldt, Otto, 156n3, 195-96, 271n4,
    547n15
Ekron, 267
Elah, 367
Elam and Elamites, 184, 234, 252
Elchanan, 322nn10-11
Eleazar, 322nn
Eleazarb. Pedat, Rabbi, 500n1
El Elyon, 236-38, 245, 321, 325-26, 441
Eleph (a thousand), 246
Eli, 272
Elijah: abrupt appearance of, 397-98;
and Ahab, 398-99, 436, 528; ascent of, to heaven in fiery chariot, 402, 502; and Baal, 398-400; compared with Moses, 396-97, 401-2; contest between prophets of Baal and, 399-400, 437; creation of legends of, 437; and Day of Yahweh, 387-91; death of, 401-2, 502; in desert, 400-401, 405; despair of, 400-401, 405; establishment of prophetic succession, 401-2; historical Elijah, 385, 387, 388; and Jezebel, 398-99; legends of, as source material for Kings, 194, 397; and Malachi texts, 386-89, 395-96; and Mount Tabor vision, 389-91, 396; and prophetic revolt of ninth century, 362, 366, 385; as prototype of messenger and precursor, 386-88, 396-97; and Rechabite nomads, 225, 366; stature of, 385, 393-94; warnings on judgment of Yahweh, 387-89, 396-400; Yahweh's appearance to, on Mount Horeb, 401, 405; Yahwism of, 401
Elisha: compared with great prophets,
277; creation of legends of, 437; death of, 502; and Elijah's ascent to heaven in fiery chariot, 402, 502; legends of, as source material for Kings, 194, 397; and prophetic revolt of ninth century, 362, 366, 385; and Rechabite nomads, 225, 366; as successor of Elijah, 401-2; sympathetic magic of, 503, 504, 506n6; and war with Mesha of Moab, 503; and war with Syrians of Damascus, 502-3
Elohim (ghosts of the dead), 280-85
Elohim (God): and afterlife, 377, 419;
compared with Olympian gods, 79; and creation of world and man, 55-56, 213-15; and daemonic negativity within Yahweh, 451-52; expulsion of man from garden of Eden, 282; and race of mighty men, 57-58; as singular versus plural noun, 7-8. See also God; Yahweh
Elohist (E) narrative, 192-95, 199n10,
202-3, 220, 234, 362, 364, 375, 379, 380-85, 412, 414, 415, 441, 455, 457, 459, 471, 473
Emergence and recession in Israel's
    history, 182-85
Empire: Achaemenian empire, 4, 85-90;
Davidic empire, 296, 303-6, 318-20, 346-47, 350-51, 358-59, 361, 364; expansion of cosmological empires beyond their boundaries, 430; Hittite empire, 270, 372; in Mesopotamia, 62-66, 77-78, 103; Mongol empire, 75; powers of, as mortal flesh, 558-59; Roman empire, 47, 68, 73, 75, 93, 99, 157, 186-87, 561; vicissitudes of, 560. See also Babylonia; Egypt; Philistines
E narrative. See Elohist (E) narrative
Endor, witch of, 279-80, 292, 295
Engel-Janosi, Friedrich, 167n5
Engnell, Ivan, 156n3, 192, 192n2,
200-205, 200n11, 205n19, 321n6, 323, 32,51124, 326n28, 338, 340n55, 438-39, 445n9, 457n16, 529n10, 547-48n15, 562n17
Enki, 63
Enkidu, 70
Enlil, 62, 63-64, 77, 78, 81, 151, 251-52
Ensi, 62
Enthronement Songs, 333, 334, 342,
    345, 345n69, 350-52
Enuma elish 81-84, 103, 127
Ephraim, tribe of, 271, 367
Ephron the Hittite, 182
Epinomis (Plato), 50
Equality and community of equals,
    137-38, 141, 428
Erman, Adolph, 9ini, 128n59
Eschatology, 74, 348, 352, 359, 385,
    394-96, 503, 506n6, 508
Essarhaddon, 410
"Eternal recurrence," 168-69
Ethbaal, 374, 375n11
Ethiopia, 570
Ethnography, 71-72
Evil, 8, 86, 89, 90, 111, 136-37, 143,
    378, 523
Evolutionism, 339
Existence: and being, 39-41, 48-49;
    tolerance through love of, 50
Existentialism, 23
Existential issue and metastatic
   experience, 509-10
Existential phase of prophetism, 528,
    536-42, 555
Exodus of Israel from Egypt: authorship
of narrative, 466, 473; construction of Exodus drama, 468-71; date for, 158, 160-61, 444; and Decalogue, 366, 379-83, 417, 471-73, 476-80, 476-78n37, 511-12; golden calf episode, 472; historical perspective on, 152-53; and Israel as new Son of God, 440-44, 452, 470, 474-75; Israelites' ceremony of berith, 471, 472, 475-76, 499; magical activities of Moses before pharaoh, 436-37, 441; and Moses, 152, 172, 216, 245, 257, 265, 401, 435, 440-43, 468-71, 545; Moses' encounters with the pharaoh, 436-37, 441-43, 452, 456-57, 469- 70; Moses' first ascent of Mount Sinai for Yahweh's instructions, 471, 473-75; Moses' resistance to divine command, 450-53; pharaoh's setting Israelites free, 442-43, 448; plagues on Egypt, 437-38, 439, 441, 442, 452; and prayer formula of Deuteronomy, 178-79; in Psalm 136, 177; Red Sea miracle, 443, 446, 447, 452, 470; and Sinai covenant, 4-6, 153, 179-80, 182, 207, 211, 215-16, 221, 342-44, 347, 349, 350, 379-80, 396-97, 471-80, 511-12; symbols in narrative of, 440-48; thornbush dialogue between Yahweh and Moses, 452, 454, 456-66, 470, 515, 521; Wensinck on, 348; and Yahweh, 257, 453-66; Yahweh's attempt to kill Moses in night episode, 451-53, 453n12, 470; Yahweh's destruction of first-born of Egypt, 442, 454, 470
Exodus of Israel from itself, 545, 549,
    555, 567
Ezekiel, 8, 68, 193, 283, 510, 524
    Ezra, 216, 407

Faith: metastatic faith, 23-24; of
    prophets, 10-11 504-7, 506n6,
514-15, 518-19
Faust (Goethe), 557
Feast of Tabernacles, 337-38
Fellahim, 166
Fides caritate formata, 427
Finet, Andre, 322n8
Floods, 56, 70, 212, 218
Form: characteristics and motivations
of, 433-34; of civilization, 95, 96, 99-102; cosmological form of Egypt, 102-21; of Deuteronomy, 412, 412n1; literary form of prophets, 524-25; of Paschal legend, 438-39; of prophetic legend, 435-38; prophets and continuum of historical form, 482; relation of cosmological and historical form, 348-50; of Torah, 420, 433-35
Form-critical method for Psalms,
    332-36
Four as number, 65, 72, 217, 218
France, 72
Frankfort, H. A., 53n1
Frankfort, Henri, 53n1, 63n5, 74n20,
91, 91111, 92-96, 94n6, 95n8, 99, 100, 105nn15-16, 106, 112-13, 113n29, 116, 118n48, 119n50, 119n54, 120n55, 128n60, 130n61, 132n62, 133n63, 134n65, 338
Freudianism, 22
Furlani, Guiseppe, 53n1, 61n3

Garden of Eden. See Adam
Gattungen of Psalms, 332-34, 340
    Geb, 129
Genealogies in Old Testament, 209-12,
    217-18
Gentiles: Paul on, 173
Gershom, 456
Gibborim (warriors), 289, 322nn
Gibeon, 244, 301
Gideon, 257, 258, 275, 293n14, 294
Gilboa, battle of, 279, 288-89, 292, 295,
    303
"Gilgamesh and Agga," 61-62n4
Gilgamesh epic, 59-60n2, 70, 103
Gilson, Etienne, 462
Ginsberg, H. L., 159n2, 237n6
Glatzer, Nahum N., 500n1, 506n6
Glauben (belief), 345
Gnosis, 505, 508
Gnosticism, 11, 23, 418, 508
God: Bible as word of God, 416-18;
characteristics of Israelites' God, 287; contemporary revolt against, 518; and creation in Genesis, 55-56, 213-15; as Creator of the world, 548, 557-58; disobedience to, 279-80, 287; Eclipse of, 167; experience of, in Christianity, 182; faith in, 10-11, 257, 257n22, 504-7, 506n6, 514-15, 518-19; foreknowledge of, and human decision, 515-16; fundamental aspects of, 181-82; hidden and revealed God, 463-66, 479; and Jacob's ladder, 67; and Job, 75-76; as Lord and judge of history, 548; and Mount Tabor vision, 389-91; presence of, in history, 285-86; as Redeemer, 7, 285-86, 548, 554, 556, 557-60; rivalry between God and man in Genesis, 55-58, 60; splendor of, compared with man, 57; suffering of, 541-42, 545, 555; transcendent God versus "God-with-us," 9, 281-82, 352, 425; universal God of mankind, 407, 409, 483, 525, 560-61; and world history of Old Testament, 177-78, 181-82. See also Covenant; Elohim; Kingdom of God; Monotheism; Revelation; Son of God; Word of God; Yahweh
Godley, A. D., 68n14
Goel (Redeemer), 285, 548, 556, 557-58
Goetze, A., 376n12
Golden calf episode, 472
Goliath, 235n4, 322n60
Gomorrah, 233, 235
Good and evil, 86, 89, 90, 111, 136-37,
    143, 378, 523
Goodspeed, E. J., 389-90nn16-17
Gordon, Cyrus H., 159n2, 237n6
Goyim (nations), 289, 420, 421, 426, 520
Goy qadosh (holy nation), 511-13, 523
Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, 416
Granet, Marcel, 101n13
Gray, G. B., 85n1
Gray, John, 353
Greece and Greeks, 157, 281, 282, 286-
    87, 377, 492, 500. See also Aristotle;
    Herodotus; Plato; Polis; Socrates
Gressmann, Hugo, 431n1, 547n15
Groenbech, Vilem, 335, 335n44
Gunkel, Hermann, 200, 234n1, 332-36,
    333n40, 345

Hadad, 237, 368
Hagar, 226, 226n23
Ham, 210, 212; sons of, 183, 210
Hammurabi, 61n3, 65, 69, 70, 234; Code
    of, 63-64, 65, 67, 72, 103, 376n12
Hannah, 274
Han som kommer (Mowinckel), 338,
    338n53
Harakhte, 149
Harem, 262, 317, 318, 369-70
Haremhab, 146
Harper, Robert Francis, 64n6
Hathor, 112
Hatshepsut, Queen, 118
Hayom (today), 425
Hebron, 315-16, 317, 325, 326
Heckel, Ursula, 354n82
Hedonism, 99
Hegel, G. W. F., 388, 518
Heidel, Alexander, 57n1, 72n16, 81n21
Hellenization, 186, 187. See also Greece
    and Greeks
Heraclitus, 282. 492-03
Herodotus, 68, 71, 112, 561
Heros eponymos, 282
Hero worship, 283-84
Hershman, A. M., 270n2
Hesed (mercy), 498, 499
Hesiod, 47, 159
Hexateuch, 193, 196, 205, 206, 339
Hezekiah, 216, 283, 488
Hierarchy: of being, 47; of existence, 42;
    of gods, 74
High priests. See Priesthood
Hilliers, D., 12
Hinneberg, Paul, 333n40
Hinrichs, J. C., 271n4
Hippocrates, 72
Hiram of Tyre, 306
Historia sacra, 171, 343n60
Historical-critical method of Bible
    criticism, 13
Historical disciplines, 22
Historical realism versus philosophy,
    283-85
Historical subject matter, 189, 218-20,
    223
Historic myth, 343n61
Historiography: and berith (covenant),
215-16; Christian historiography,217-18; and content of Old Testament, 218-20; and difficulties with Biblical narrative, 188-92; Engnell's approach to Bible criticism, 192, 192n2, 200-205, 200n11; Israel and complexity of historiographic work, 223-28; Israel and motivations of, 218-28; Israel and symbols of, 206-18; and Israel's response to crisis of mundane existence, 378-79; and Messianic problem, 525-26; narrative, imagination and memory in, 12-13; and sepher (book), 208, 212-13, 214; and sources of Biblical narrative, 190-206, 199n9; and toldoth (generations), 208-18; and toroth (instructions), 208, 209. See also History
Historization, 352
History: beginning of modern history,
173-74, 173n7; compactness and differentiation in, 169, 206-8, 224-25, 462, 555; definition of, 1; Deutero-Isaiah and theology of, 558-60; different meanings of, 168- 69; dividing line between histories of Israel and the Jews, 422-23; emergence and recession in Israel's history, 182-85; historical disciplines, 22; historical subject matter, 189, 218-20, 223; Israel's conception of, 5, 176-87, 206-8, 405, 470-71; of the Jews, 422-23; justification of term regarding Israel, 206-8; and leaps in being, 172; and loss of historical substance, 174; mythical history, 343n61; and ontological reality of mankind, 170-71; and ontology, 517-19; order and meaning of, 13-14, 19-22, 470-71; origin of, in historically moving present, 171-74; and origin of meaning in historical present, 169-70; paradigmatic versus pragmatic history, 5-6, 162-65, 184, 229-31, 414; philosophy versus historical realism, 283-85; and radiation of meaning over the past, 169-75; relation of cosmological and historical form, 348-50; revelation and historical constitution of the people, 463-64; Spengler-Toynbee theory of, 166-68, 174-75; stages of development of, 460-61; subjectivity of, 172; world history in Old Testament, 177-78, 181-84, 212, 216-17, 219-20, 223. See also Historiography
Hittite Code, 376n12
Hittites and Hittite empire, 161, 234,
    270, 305, 307, 309-10, 372
Hivites, 306
Hobab, 245
Hoelscher, G., 412n1
Holiness Code (H), 193, 416
Holiness of Israel, 475n36
Holy Spirit, 425, 535nl3
Holy war. See War
Homer, 46, 79-80, 191, 217n22, 281
Homonoia, 287
Hooke, S. H., 322n9, 337-38, 337n48
Horus, 41, 107, 109-11, 112, 129, 130,
    130n61
Hosea: and berith written in the
heart, 419; complaints about Israel's misconduct, 496; date of, 362; and Decalogue, 486; existential issue and metastatic experience, 509-10; on foreign gods, 494; and institutional phase of prophetism, 528-29, 534, 537, 538; and Israelites' ignorance of Yahweh's law, 376-78; juxtaposition of rejection and demand by, 499, 500; kingship condemned by, 272n5, 496; on need for kindness, 384; prophecies of punishment and salvation by, 516, 5 42; prophecy of, on separation of Yahweh and his people, 463-64, 465; on virtues, 499, 500
Huldah, 411, 417
Humanism of Israel, 288-89, 377
Humans. See Man
Hurrians, 161
Huwawa, 70
Hyksos, 92, 93, 142, 242, 244n14

Ideology, 22-24, 340, 341
Ignorance and anxiety, 40-41, 43, 48
Ikhnaton, 46
Imitatio Moysis, 435
Imlah, 276
Immanence, 124, 425
Immanuel prophecy, 531, 531n11, 534
Immortality, 42-43, 281-83, 377, 419
Imperial Psalms: cosmological
symbolism of, 348, 351-52; difficulties of new position on, 339-41; divine kingship in, 336- 38, 342-47, 447-49; Egyptian and Babylonian influences in, 353-58, 354n82, 370; Gunkel's form-critical approach to, 332-36, 333n40; Mosheh symbol and David, 447; Mowinckel's cult-functional approach to, 333-36, 333-34nn41-42, 343, 351, 352; nature of, 330-32; and New Year festivals, 335-38, 356; pressure of historical form on meaning of, 351- 52; resistance to mythologization of, 341-47; scholarship on, 191; terminology regarding, 350
Imperial symbolism, 6, 9, 320-30, 339,
    350-51, 353-60, 474-75, 511-13, 562
Incarnation, 391, 395-96, 395n19, 550
In Search of Order (Voegelin), 13
Institutional phase of prophetism,
    528-29, 534, 537, 538
"Instructions" for Merikare, 142-43
Intolerance through love of being, 48-50
lonians, 122-23, 125, 183
Irwin, William A., 53n1
Isaac, 183, 241, 246
Isaac of Toledo, Rabbi, 416
Isaiah: and Ahaz, 10-11, 530-31, 534,
537, 544; on berith with Death, 510; call of, 530-31; complaints about Israel's misconduct, 497; dates of, 362, 411; and Deuteronomic Torah, 410; disciples of, and sealing of prophecies, 516, 531, 543, 546; on divided kingdoms, 408; on faith in God, 10-11; on fear of God, 500; Immanuel prophecy by, 531, 531n11, 534; lapse of time in prophetic tradition following, 535-36; and leap in being, 10, 505-6; literary form of, 524; metastatic prophecies of, 10-11, 529-35, 543, 545; and order in history, 536-37, 544, 545, 555;Prince of Peace Prophecy by, 532-33, 534;prophecies of punishment and salvation by, 516, 542; and purification, 490-91; and ruach of Yahweh, 502, 503; as servant of God, 522; trust of, in will of God, 504-7, 506n6; and vision of world peace, 533-34; on warfare, 10-11, 501-4; on women's misconduct, 497; Yahweh's revelation to, 490-91 Isaiah (book of Bible): structure of, 535-36
Ishakhu, 62
Ishbaal, 300, 301, 302, 316
Ishmael, 226n23, 479
Ishtar, 70, 88
Israel: Abram story, 233-45;
assimilation and nationalism of generally, 406; and Canaan as the promised land, 154; Canaanite- Israelite syncretism, 258-59, 261-62, 265-68, 363; characteristics of God of, 287; chronological tables of, 157-65; and civilizational courses, 157-67; complications in study of, 154-55; confederacy of, 246-47, 250, 258, 265, 294, 303, 358; dates for Biblical narrative, 158, 162-65; dates for migrations and dominations, 158-60; Deborah Song, 247-57, 259, 269, 435; defections of, from Yahweh to foreign gods, 225-26, 258, 472, 479, 493-95; and Desert as symbol, 153; destiny of, 365-66, 483; and Diaspora, 475n36; dividing line between histories of Israel and the Jews, 422-23; Egyptization of clans and leaders of, 444-45; emergence and recession in history of, 182-85; ethical and social concerns of, 9-10; ethnic groups in, 161, 303; Exodus of, from itself, 545, 549, 555, 567; humanism of, 288-89, 377; and institutional vacuum of covenant order, 349-50; and leap in being, 2, 164-65, 239-40, 365-66, 377, 393, 419, 439, 453-66, 505-6; as macroanthropos, 44-45; and meaning of history, 5, 176-87, 206-8, 405, 470- 71; and motivations of historiography, 218-28; "national" consciousness of, 272; political organization of generally, 6, 9, 349-50; pragmatic existence of, and order of covenant, 229-31; punishment of, by Yahweh, 258, 377, 387-95, 507, 515-17; and rationalization, 75-76; rites and liturgies of, 179-81; and sacred line of godly carriers of meaning, 183-84, 212; as servant, 563-64; significance of generally, 153-54, 157, 164-65; as son of God, 346, 440-44, 448, 452, 470, 474-75, 513; and symbols of historiography, 206-18, 364-65; and theopolity, 290, 290n12, 293-95, 467, 467n29, 471, 472, 476, 482, 495, 506-7, 527, 543, 545, 555; and Toynbee's cycle of Syriac civilization, 159-62, 166-67. See also Abraham; Chosen People; Covenant; Exodus of Israel from Egypt; Israel (kingship); Israel (Northern Kingdom); Moses; Prophets; Yahweh; Yahwism; and specific prophets and kings
Israel (kingship): Abimelech's coup
d'etat, 262-63, 298; Anointed of Yahweh, 526, 530, 559; antiroyalist version of Saul's kingship, 289-95; and Chosen King, 319; clan of king, 299-300; Davidic empire, 296, 303-6, 318-20, 346-47, 350-51, 358-59, 361, 364; David's kingship, 269-70, 315-30, 344-46; David's rise to kingship, 295-302; divine kingship in Psalms, 336-38, 342-47; Egyptian model of Israelite kingship, 353-58, 354n82; general discussion of, 9, 184, 272, 341; Gideon's kingship, 258-63, 293n14, 294; glory of kings, 269-70; and harem, 262, 317, 318, 369-70; Hosea's condemnation of kingship as institution, 272n5; king as son of God, 345-46, 355-56, 410, 447-49; and marriages of kings, 262, 369-70; and motivations of historiography, 220-24; and "Poor Man's Lamb," 308, 309, 314-15; and pretender's use of hired troops, 262; and Psalms, 336-38; and respect for royal institution, 272, 272n5; royalist version of Saul's kingship, 273-74; and Samuel, 179, 252n20, 273-75, 279-80, 284, 289-93, 295, 313; Saul's kingship, 270-95, 2y2n5, 296, 299-300, 320, 364, 36yn2; tension between prophets and kings, 436, 488-89, 528; and theocracy, 289-95, 364; "Trees in Search of a King," 263-64, 272, 293, 315; and war, 256-57; Yahweh and kingship, 273-74, 289-91, 319, 327-30. See also Israel (Northern Kingdom); Prophets; and specific kings and prophets
Israel (Northern Kingdom): archaic
revolt of, 366; capital of, 373; cult reform of Jeroboam, 372; division of Davidic empire into, 159, 264, 300, 304, 318, 361-66, 368; Egyptian invasion of, 368, 372; end of, 304, 361, 365, 367, 373, 408, 429, 542, 561; growth of, 363-64; internal organization of, 367, 367n2, 373-74; Jeroboam as king of, 367, 36702, 368, 372; kingship in, 367, 372-74; literary flowering of, 361-64; Omride dynasty in, 225, 262, 347, 362, 365, 366, 367, 372-73, 375, 375n11, 385, 395, 397, 406, 435, 528; prophets' concerns about, 221; wars between Judah and, 368, 373; Yahwism of, 372
Israelite compactness, 207-8, 224-25,
    378, 462, 555
Israelite humanism, 288-89, 377

Jaagersma, H., 11
Jacob, 67, 70, 183, 241, 243, 244n14,
    246, 284
Jacob-el, 244n14, 284
Jacobsen, Thorkild, 53n1, 62n3, 64n6,
    81n21
Jael, 249
Jahwist (J) narrative, 192-95, 199-200,
199.010, 202-3, 205n19, 206, 220, 222, 234, 257, 362, 364, 375, 379, 380, 381, 384, 412, 414, 415, 441, 455, 457, 459, 471, 473
Jainism, 44
James I, 292
Jamnia synod, 185
Japhet, 210, 212; sons of, 183, 210
Javan: sons of, 183
Jebusites, 306, 353, 353n81
Jehoash, 502
Jehoiakim, 428, 488-89
Jehoram, 374
Jehoshaphat, 374
Jehu, 362, 367, 372, 374, 375, 406
Jephthah, 258, 265-67, 298, 411
Jepsen, Alfred, 376n12
Jeremiah: attack on alien gods, 493-95;
compared with Moses, 521; compared with Socrates, 489; complaints about Israel's misconduct, 496-97; and covenant written in the heart, 6-7, 510-11; dates of, 411; death of, 406; and Decalogue, 484-91; and Deuteronomic Torah, 406; enactment of Israel's fate by, 519-20; and existential phase of prophetism, 510, 513, 536, 538-42, 555; and false prophets, 516, 539; and justice of God, 540; juxtaposition of rejection and demand by, 498; and lack of family, 519; on letter of law versus spirit of God, 417; literary form of, 524; as lord of history, 522-23; and movement beyond order of concrete society, 544, 545, 555; and mystery of iniquity, 540-42; and omphalos, 520; oracles of his call, 520-23; ordination of, as prophet, 521-22; and participation in God's suffering, 542, 545, 555; plots against life of, 539-40; prophecies of punishment and salvation by, 516; as prophet to the nations, 523, 543-44; return of, to Sheol of Egypt, 154; spiritual autobiography of, 538-39; squabbles of, with Judaite refugees in Egypt, 493; suffering, complaint, and revenge of, 539-42, 545, 555; Temple Address of, 484-85; trial of, 488; on virtues, 498
Jeremias, Alfred, 53n1, 72n16, 77n19
Jericho, battle of, 244
Jeroboam, 367, 367n2, 368, 372
Jerubbaal, 259. See Gideon
Jerusalem: as "city of David," 362,
373; cult of Baal in, 374; David's conquest of, 296, 303, 320-30; Egyptian invasion of, 368; escape from conquest by Sennacherib, 410; fall of, 223, 361, 365, 406, 542, 558, 561; Melchizedek as priest-king of, 234-37, 327; as omphalos, 68; as seat of high-god El Elyon, 321, 325-26; Solomon's Temple in, 194, 229, 261, 362, 370-71, 371n8, 372, 375 Jesus: apostles of, yi; birthday of, 73; Christ and Davidic Messiah, 286; Christ as Messiah, 364; as culmination of prophecy, 500n1; and eternal present of history, 395-96; genealogy of, 211, 218; historicity of Christ, 550; history of Chosen People and Christ, 348; and Incarnation, 391, 395-96, 395n19, 550; Logion of, 389-91; Logos of Christ, 24, 46, 134-35; Moses linked with, 449; Mosheh symbol for, 449; and Sermon on the Mount, 227, 390; as Son of God, 389-91, 449, 521; as Suffering Servant, 548n15, 549; Toynbee on, 161; transfiguration of, on Mount Tabor, 389-91, 396
Jethro, 245
Jezebel, 276, 374, 398-99
J narrative. See fahwist (J) narrative
Joab, 270, 299, 301-2, 307, 311, 312,
    313, 317
Joachitic movement, 535n13
Job, 75-76
Jochebed, 454
John, Saint, 75, 134-35, 508
Johnson, Aubrey R., 322n9, 325n23,
   332n39, 33812049-51, 338n53, 345n69
John the Baptist, 390, 391
Jonah, 407
Jonathan, 279, 288, 298
Joseph, 243, 244n14, 283, 284, 444
Joseph-el, 284
Josephus Flavius, 467, 467n29
Joshua, 164, 179-80, 194, 216, 244, 522
Josiah: berith of, 216, 349, 411; death of,
540; and Deuteronomic Torah, 411, 4123.11, 416-17; purification by, 410; reform of, 362, 424, 426, 429; and warfare, 425-26
Jotham, 262
Judah: assimilation of, to Assyrian
pantheon, 406, 410-11; and Assyria, 10, 406, 410-11, 425, 429; capital of, 297; David as governor of province of, 271; David as king of, 300, 315-16; Davidic Covenant versus Sinai Covenant in, 347; and divided kingdoms, 159, 264, 361-66, 368; end of, 361, 365, 424, 561; as goy qadosh, 513; inclusion of, in national Israel, 296-97, 303, 363-64; and Jehu's revolt, 375; kingship in, 374, 420-21; literary flowering of, 361-64; origin of, 297-98; Philistine rule over, 271, 296-97, 300-301; and right order and Sinaitic revelation, 231; settlement of, 247; and Solomonic administration, 303-4; and symbolism of Israel, 408-9, 487; and warfare, 10, 266, 368, 373, 425-27, 543; and will to existence, 408-9; Yahwism of, 193, 297, 316, 319
Judah, tribe of, 222
Judaism: and apocalyptic literature,
507-8; beginnings of, and Deuteronomic Torah, 423-30; and Christianity, 187, 211; dividing line between histories of Israel and the Jews, 422-23; Israelite and Jewish aspects of the Torah, 423-14; Paul on Jews, 173; Talmudic Judaism, 186-87, 500n1
Junge, Eberhard, 426n6
Junker, Hermann, 95, 95n9, 128n59,
    138n68
Justice, 3U-15, 356-57, 498, 499, 540

Ka, 149
Kabhod (glory), 529-31, 533-34, 548,
   555, 556, 560, 565
Kalama, 63, 67
Kalokagathos, 299
Karkar, battle of, 160, 372, 374
Kat'exochen, 469
Kees, Hermann, 91n1
Kenites, 245, 246n15, 248, 249, 254-55,
    297, 454
Kenizzites, 297
Khnuni, 122
King, L. W., 86n2
Kingdom of God, 154, 208, 364, 394,
    395, 483-84, 495, 505, 506-7, 510,
    518
Kingship: and Achaemenian empire,
85-89; in Assyria, 62, 65-66, 72, 326; in Babylonia, 527; and Behistun Inscription, 86-89; in Canaan, 353; and Chosen King of Israel, 319; and clan of king, 299-300; in Code of Hammurabi, 63-64, 65, 67, 72, 103, 376n12; and coronation ritual, 116-17, 345-46; and "counter-king," 439; of David, 315-30, 344-46; David's rise to, 262, 295-302; divine kingship, 63-66, 111-17, 149-50, 336-38, 341, 342-47; in Egypt, 111-17, 353; and Enuma elish 84; and Feast of Tabernacles, 337-38; of Gideon, 258-63, 293n14, 294; hereditary kingship in Israel, 272; and image of rulership, 527-28; in Judah, 374, 420-21; king as son of God, 345-46, 355-56, 410, 447-49, 527; Moabite kings, 265-67; and New Year ceremonies, 73-74, 75, 77-78, 84, 334n42, 335-37, 335-36n46, 356; in Northern Kingdom, 367, 372-74; Plato's philosopher-king, 101; and "Poor Man's Lamb," 308, 309, 314- 15; and Psalms, 336-38; regulation of, in Deuteronomic Torah, 420-21; and Samuel, 179, 252n20, 273-75, 279-80, 284, 289-93, 295, 313; of Saul, 270-95, 272n5, 296, 299-300, 320, 364, 367n2; scholarship on, 338; "Sumerian King List," 64n8; and sun symbol, 72-74, 106-7, 346, 355; as symbolic mediation between cosmic and social order, 341; theocracy, 289-95, 364, 467, 467n29; "Trees in Search of a King," 263-64, 272, 293, 315; Voegelin's negative appraisal of, 9; and Yahweh, 273-74, 289-91, 319, 327-30; of Yahweh, 351-52, 356n83, 357, 529-30. See also Israel (kingship); and specific kings
Kingu, 439
Kish, 273
Kishar, 82
Kittel, Rudolf, 155-56n3, 477-78n37
Knowable versus unknowable, 41, 43
Knowledge: knowable versus
    unknowable, 41, 43; of order of
    being, 40-41; of Yahweh's law, 376-78
Kohanim (royal aides, priests), 474, 512
Kohelet, 284
Kramer, S. N., 62n3, 151n1, 376nl2
Kraus, Hans-Joachim, 332n39, 336,
    342n56, 343nn59-61, 344nn63-65,
    345, 345n69, 346, 347n71, 353n81
Kubban Stela, 132n62,
Kultepe Texts, 325
Kurkur, 63, 67

Lahamu, 82
Lahmu, 82
"Lamentations over Destruction of Ur,"
    151, 252
Landon, Stephen H., 53n1
Lao-tse, 44
Last Judgment, 396
Law codes. See Book of the Covenant;
   Code of Hammurabi
Law of Moses, 387-88
Laws (Plato), 49-50, 71, 73
Leaps in being: and Abraham, 239-40;
aptitude of civilizations for, 80-81; conversion resulting in, 90; and Egypt, 111; and history, 172; and Isaiah, 10, 505-6; and Israel, 2, 164-65, 239-40, 365-66, 377, 393, 396, 419, 439, 453-66, 505-6; and man as human and mortal, 281-82; and Moses, 396, 439, 453-66; and order of mundane existence, 49; Voegelin's use of term generally, 3
Ledawid, 323, 328
Leeser, Isaac, 156n3
Lefèvre, A., 312n3
Levi, tribe of, 244, 421
Lévy-Bruhl, L., 477n37
Lewy, Immanuel, 478n37
Lewy, Julius, 239-40n7, 323, 325n25,
    326n27
Liberal ideology, 22
Limmud (disciple), limmudim
    (disciples), 78, 531, 543, 546,
    548n15, 564, 565-66
Lindeskog, Goesta, 331n36
Literary criticism, 334, 346-47, 350
Lods, Adolphe, 155n3, 191-92, 244n14, 271n3, 273n6, 274, 281n10, 292, 307n1, 331n35, 331n37, 332n39, 366, 376n12, 380, 381n13, 412n1, 445n8, 461, 466n27, 477n37
Logion of Jesus, 389-91
Logos: of Christ, 24, 46, 134-35; of God,
    550; Incarnation of, 550; of psyche,
    550. See also Word of God
Lot, 233, 236, 324
Love: of being, 48-50; in Deuteronomic
    Torah, 428; of existence, 50
Lucifer of Cagliari, 292
Luckenbill, D. D., 66n10, 520n7
Lugal, 62
Lugalzaggisi, 63, 67
Lydia, 560


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