INDEX

VOL 11   PUBLISHED ESSAYS
1953-1965



Achaemenid empire, 136
Achilles, 233
Acton, Lord, 73
Acts, Book of, 23
Adam, 130, 168, 173
Adamites, 33, 98-99
Advertising, 48
Aeschylus, 188
Affiliation, 104-5
Africa, 187, 189, 222, 224
Agamemnon, 233
Agathon, 48, 102
Age of empire, 134-55
Age of Enlightenment, 17, 84-85, 151, 166, 234, 239
Age of Reason, 56
Agnoia (ignorance), 232n2
Agnosticism, 20, 228, 234
Agriculture and agrarian society, 67, 68, 96, 208, 214
Aition (ground; cause), 225-26, 233. See also Ground
Albigensians, 42
Alexander, 135, 139, 201
Alfred Weber School, 98
Alienation, 172
Altmann, Ruediger, 217
Altruism, 56
America: adaptability and flexibility
  of, 69; and American Way of Life,
  117; anti-complexes in, 220, 221; Bill
  of Rights in, 63, 63n3; Constitution
  of, 95; creation of republic in, 65;
  democracy in, 6, 7, 8, 29, 60-61, 67;
  entrepreneurs in, 209-14, 222, 223;
  industry in, 68, 179, 208-12, 214-16,
  222, 223; labor income in, 68, 208-11;
  labor movement in, 209-13, 215, 222,
  223; liberalism in, 86-87; Mabbott on,
  29; in NATO, 25; New Deal in, 71, 99;
  as part of Western civilization, 122;
  pioneer society in, 96; presidential
  elections in, 64; Puritans in American
  colonies, 62; recession in, 68; religion
  in, 8; and Revolutionary War, 7, 71;
  university students in, 5-6, 77; as
  world power, 52, 137, 185
Americanism, 41
Amor Dei (love of God), 10, 35, 36, 54, 230
Amor sui (love of self), 10, 35, 54
Analytical, 114
Anamnesis (Voegelin), 3n5, 6n13
Anatolia, 135
Ancilla theologiae, 43
Anderle, O., 129-30, 132-33
Anthropology, 106
Anthropomorphism, 241
Anti-Christian complex, 218
Anti-church complex, 218
Anti-complexes, 217-20, 221
Antinomians, 35, 182
Anti-philosophical complex, 217-18
Antisemitism, 16-17, 31
Anti-world complex, 218-20
"Anxiety and Reason" (Voegelin), 232n2
Anxiety of empty life, 50
Apocalypse: in Bible, 151; cathartic
  function of, 155; and Christianity,
  151-53; disappointment of
  apocalyptic expectation, 205; as
  gnosis, 205; and ideologies, 246;
  intramundane apocalypse and revolt
  of society, 154-55; Jewish apocalypse,
  168, 204; and metastasis, 205;
  d Middle Ages, 11; and modern
  gnosticism, 4, 153; and Paul, 165-67;
  and Third Realm, 3; Voegelin's
  dismissal of, 249
Aporein (questions), 232n2
Apparentation, 104-5
Arab countries, 189
Archaeology, 239
Archetypes, 248
Arendt, Hannah, 3-4, 16-23
Areopagitica (Milton), 36
Aristocracy, 199, 200
Aristotle: on aition, 226; on analytical,
  114; on episteme politike, 227;
  failure of, 114-15; on God, 201-2; on
  homonoia, 231; ignorance of, 242; on
  institutions, 3, 196-203; Lindsay on,
  38-39; on philia politike (political
  friendship), 231; philosophical
  anthropology of, 26, 32, 39, 128,
  130, 191-92; on polis, 29, 39, 45-46,
  114-15, 128, 132, 184, 200-22;
  on politeia, 197-98; politics of, 11,
  29, 41, 43, 44, 76, 114-15, 181; on
   politikon anakyklosis, 199-200; on
  quest of the end, 227; on reason, 116;
  on self-love, 230; on stasis, 196-99,
  202; on ultimate purpose, 227-28
  —Works: Constitution of Athens, 201;
  Ethics,
73; Nicomachean Ethics, 5,
  196; Politics, 5, 73, 196-98, 200-202;
  Rhetoric,
251
Arminians, 35
Arnold, Winston, 247
Aron,Raymond, 86, 113n, 117-18,
  120-21, 123, 125, 127, 130-33
Art, 124, 240, 241
Asia, 25, 187, 188, 201, 204, 224. See
  also
specific countries
Asiachina, 139
Asoka empire, 136
Atheism, 35, 120
Athene, 233
Atomic bomb, 179, 189
Atomism, 247
Augustine, Saint, 10, 35, 54, 101,
  109-12, 115, 230, 241
Austria, 7n16, 249-50
Authority: of civil government, 62; of
  philosophers, 5, 40, 46
Autobiographical Reflections
  (Voegelin), 2
Axis-time of mankind, 135

Baal of Emesa, 136
Babylon, 103
Bacon, Francis, 128
Bagehot, Walter, 95
Balance of power, 140, 235
Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 39
Balzac, Honoré, 143
Barbarians, 42, 105, 122, 186-87
Barker, Sir Ernest, 28
Barnato, 19
Basileia (king), 197, 198
Bavarian Academy for Political
  Education, 59, 59n, 69
Beatific vision, 31, 116-17
Beckett, Samuel, 247
Being: hierarchy of, 229, 246; leap in,
  243; transcendent Being, 116-17, 119,
  150, 154,229-31,233-34
Bellum justum, 193
Beloff, Max, 28
Bentham, Jeremy, 28, 235
Bergson, Henri-Louis, 39, 43, 121, 135, 230, 247
Berkeley, Bishop George, 246
Bible: Arendt's quote from, 23;
  Bultmann on Old Testament's
  relevance to Christianity, 156-77;
  Epistles in, 151, 165, 166, 168, 169,
  203, 218, 230, 230n1; eschatology in
  New Testament, 151-53, 165, 167-77;
  Gospels in, 151, 156, 158-59, 165,
  169; homonoia as "likemindedness"
  in, 231; Law in Old Testament,
  158-60, 203; methods of allegorical
  interpretation and scriptural proof,
  164-65, 175-76; New Testament
  in, 162-70; Nietzsche on, 164,
  175; openness to transcendence in,
  241-42; Paul's interpretation of Old
  Testament, 165-66; prefiguration of
  Christ in Old Testament, 175-76;
  prophets in, 135, 148, 159, 164, 166,
  203, 204; Wycliffe's translation of, 8,
  61
Bildung (cultural formation), 219-20
Bildungsideal, 9, 219
Bill of Rights, 63, 63n3
Bios theoretikos, 30, 39
Bismarck, Otto von, 66
Bodin, Jean, 29, 182
Boers, 19
Bolsheviks, 3
Bomb, 179, 189
Bosanquet, Bernard, 28
Bossuet, Jacques-Benigne, 103, 116, 131
Bourgeoisie, 19, 213. See also Middle
  class
Bouvard et Pécuchet (Flaubert), 243
Brave New World (Huxley), 237
Britain. See Great Britain
Buber, Martin, 203, 240
Buddha and Buddhism, 111, 135, 136,
   148, 164, 174
Bukunin, Mikhail, 236
Bultmann, Rudolf, 6, 9, 156-77
Bundesverfassungsgericht, 75
Burckhardt, Jakob, 37n12, 73
Bureaucracies, 17, 19
Burke, Edmund, 10, 22
Byzantine civilization, 130

Camus, Albert, 54, 237-38, 243
Canada, 25
Capitalism, 128-29
Carritt, E. F., 28, 34, 37n12
Catholic Church, 10, 30, 35, 44, 51, 53,
  54, 62, 87, 182, 217
Causae, doctrine of, 226
Causa efftciens, 226
Causa finalis, 226
Causa formalis, 226
Causa materialis, 226
Central Europe, 19, 24-25
Change: of human nature, 21-22,
  125-26, 133, 174, 241; individuals'
  purposeful action into the future, 249-
  51; peaceful change and liberalism,
  88; tension between established
  institutions and phenomena of
  motion or change, 193-206. See also
  
Metastasis
Charles I, 54-55
Chateaubriand, François-Auguste-René,
  86
China, 135, 136, 140, 188, 189, 203, 222,
  224, 236, 238
Chosenness, 204, 220
Christ: and apocalyptic view of history,
  168; Incarnation of, 168, 172-74;
  Logos of, 10, 55, 56, 161, 180, 231;
  prefiguration of, in Old Testament,
  175-76; Second Coming of, 115-16,
  152, 169, 245; symbols of, in Old
  Testament, 176. See also
  Christianity
Christian-Democratic parties, 5 3
Christianity: anti-Christian complex,
  218; and apocalypse, 151-53; and
  beatific vision, 31, 116-17; Bultmann
  on, 156-77; and civil government,
  8; and civil theology, 40-41;
  and Communism, 53; compared with
  socialism, 132; and contemptus mundi,
  154, 245; and conversion, 130;
  and equality, 26; and good society,
  184; and grace, 21, 41, 130; and
  history, 109-10, 112, 168-77; and
  immanentism, 41; and liberalism,
  94, 96-97, 99; and meaning of
   world, 142-44; national existence
  and Christian community, 220-21;
  Nietzsche on, 164-65; and orthodoxy,
  32-33, 35; philosophical anthropology
  of, 32; and politics oriented toward
  sanctiflcation of life, 30; relevance
  of Old Testament to, 156-77; and
  Second Coming of Christ, 115-16,
  152, 169, 245; and society, 55-56;
  solution offered by, 151; and soul's
  cure, 48; special religiones within,
  33; and spiritual renewal, 9-10;
  Toynbee on, 107; and understanding
  of existence, 158; and world-empire,
  151-53. See also Catholic Church;
  Church; Protestantism; Religion;
  Theology
Chrysalis function, 105
Church: anti-church complex, 218; as
  community of saints, 169; ecumene
  and institutionalized church, 115-16;
  of "elect," 40-41; as institution of
  salvation,169; separation of church
  and state,94, 152-53,218; universal
  church,105. See also Catholic
  Church; Christianity; Protestantism;
  Religion; Theology
Churchill, Winston, 66, 250
Citizenship: apolitical citizens of
  constitutional governments, 9,
  219-20; and civic virtues, 59-60, 70;
  and misunderstandings regarding
  prnciples of social order, 76-82;
  political citizens in ancient polis, 9
Civic virtues, 59-60, 70
Civil government, 8, 62, 65, 182-83
Civilization: categories for comparing
  orders in various civilizations, 224-
  25; and choice of not participating in
  crisis of one's time, 249, 249n6; cycles
  of, 105-6, 107,110, 242, 246; decline
  of Western civilization, 120-21, 127;
  definition of, 43; disintegration of,
  105, 246; as dynamic, 249; preventive
  wars for protection of, 42; prospects
  of Western civilization, 113-33;
  and search for the ground, 224-51;
  societies identified as, 137; Toynbee
  on, 102-8, 113-14, 116, I27,129-30
Civil law. See Law
Civil liberties, 32
Civil theology, 11, 36-46, 174, 181-83
Civitas Dei, 115-16
Class struggle, 67-68, 96, 152, 212
Clausewitz, Carl von, 193
Collingwood, R. G., 28, 29, 33, 41-45
Colonial bureaucracy, 19
Common good, 231
Common law, 61, 74
Common sense, 2, 5-6, 6n13, 197,
  227-28, 246, 250
Common Sense Club, 6n13
Communication: existential, 48;
  intoxicant function of, 47-50, 58; as
   modus procedendi for society, 47;
  moral bases for, in democracy, 47-58;
  as Platonic persuasion, 10, 48, 54,
  57; pragmatic function of, 48-49, 50,
  57-58; substantive function of, 47,
  48; types of, 47-50
Communism: atrocities of, 22;
  Christians' response to, 53; and class
  struggle, 67-68, 96, 152; compared
  with American Way of Life, 117;
  compared with liberalism, 4; as
  enemy of democracy, 63; eschatology
  of, 179-80; and final realm of freedom,
  151, 205; formation of Communist
  world, 137; in France, 53, 64, 87;
  German banning of Communist
  Party, 63; as government of Russia
  and China, 236, 238; ideology of,
  189; and immanentism, 26, 179;
  and industrial society, 179-80, 185,
  186; intellectual climate fostering,
  81; in Italy, 53, 87; majority bloc of
  Communists, 97; resistance against,
  92-93; revolution of, 88, 89, 92, 139,
  149, 182; status quo of, 139; third
  wave of political movement, 52, 92;
  and world wars, 145-46
Communist revolution, 88, 89, 92, 139,
  182
Community of saints, 55
Compact symbolism, 26
Comte, Auguste, 5, 90-92, 149, 150,
  152, 174-75, 177, 182, 236, 241
Comte, Charles, 88-89
Concentration camps, 17, 18, 19, 20,
   153, 154, 155, 201, 219-20
Concert of Europe, 25, 140
Condicio humana, 144
Condorcet, Marquis de, 89, 148-49
Confucius and Confucianism, 135, 136,
  148, 164, 243
Congress of Vienna (1815), 52, 140
Conscience: convenient reference to,
  78, 79; definition of, 33, 57, 78; fallible
  nature of, 33-34; freedom of, 30-40,
  44-45, 46, 62, 98-99; of philosopher,
  44; Protestants on, 44-45; questions
  on, 44; theory of, 46
  Consciousness, 3, 5, 202, 205, 228
Consentement coutumier (consent of
  the people), 195
Conservateur (Chateaubriand), 86
Conservatism, 52, 84, 86, 90-91
Constitutional democracy, 183, 186-87
Constitutional model of government,
   95-96, 183, 186-87, 195, 199, 200,
  219-20
Constitution of Athens (Aristotle), 201
Contemptus mundi, 154, 245
Conversion, 130
Corinthians, Letter to, 168, 230n1
Corpus mysticum, 220
Cosmion, 145, 240
Cosmological empire, 154
Cosmology, 153
Cosmos, 233, 240
Counter-Reformation, 51, 53, 83, 92
Cromwell, Oliver, 244
Culte de la raison, 90
Culture: future of, 129-30; questions
  on, 133; and society, 124, 133; types
  of, 232-33
Cusanus, 33
Cycles of civilization, 105-6, 107, 110,
   242, 246
Cycle symbol, 110

Daniel, 151, 168, 244
Dante Alighieri, 182
Darkness and Light, 41-42
Darwin, Charles, 235
Das Dasein übernimmt sich silbst, 159,
  159n2
Das deutsche Risko (Altmann), 217
Daseinsverständnis (understanding of
  existence), 158
Death, fear of, 55
De Civitate Dei (Augustine), 109, 110
Defensor fidei, 217
De Gaulle, Charles, 64
Deicide, 10, 54-55
Deism, 90
De Laudibus (Fortescue), 220
Democracy: Carritt on, 37n12; and
  Christianity, 8; civic virtues needed
  for, 59-60; and common sense, 6; and
  Communist Party, 5 3; constitutional
  democracy, 183, 186-87; in cycle
  of political forms, 200; danger to,
  81; enemies of, 63; in England, 7, 8,
  29; freedom and responsibility in,
  70-81; functioning-conditions of, 62;
  future of, 67-69; Germany's problems
  in democratization, 2, 70-75;
  importance of, for Germany, 3; and
  industrial society, 207-23; intolerance
  of, 62-63; Jefferson on, 67; Lincoln
  on, 8, 6o-61; Lindsay on, 28, 37-41;
  and misunderstandings regarding
  principles of social order, 76-82;
  moral bases for communication
  in, 47-58; national state as, 25;
  in new Europe, 2-3, 59-69; and
  propaganda, 49; propaganda and "re-
  education" for, 26; transformations
  from oligarchy to and from, 198; in
  United States, 7, 8, 29, 60-61, 67;
  viability of, in mid-twentieth-century
  Europe, 2-3; and voting behavior, 49;
  and Weimar Republic, 63-64, 97. See
  also
Government

"Democracy and Industrial Society"
  (Voegelin), 9, 207-23
"Democracy in the New Europe"
  (Voegelin), 59-69
Demonization, 213, 222
Demythologizing, 156
Denkunarten (mindlessness), 77
D'Entrèves, A. P., 28, 30-32
Descartes, René, 31, 128
Despotism, 186-87
Deutero-Isaiah, 166, 175, 176
Deutsche Geschichte im 19.
  Jahrhundert
(Schnabel), 84, 93- 94
Deux sources de la morale et de la
   religion (Bergson), 43, 230
Devil, 26
Dewey, John, 189, 231
Diadochic, 135
Dianoetic excellences, 46
Discourses (Turgot), 147-48
Disorder versus order, 192-93, 197. See
   also War
Divertissements, 49-50
Dogmatomachy, 2
Doktor Faustus (Mann), 124
Doxa (opinion), 78
Dreyfus affair, 18
Dritte Kraft (Heer), 84-85
Dualism, 32-33, 41-45
Dutch Arminians, 35
Duties. See Obligations and duties

Eastern Europe, 24-25
Eastern Greek Christian empire, 137
Ecclesiastical Polity (Hooker), 35, 220
Eckhardt, Meister, 33
Economy: economic model of
  liberalism, 94,95; freedom and
  responsibility in, 70-82; of Soviet
  Union, 209
Ecumene, 115-16, 124, 139-41, 146-51,
  154
Ecumenic empire, 154
Ecumenism, 115-16
Eddy, Mary Baker, 244
Education: in the classics, 248; of
  elite of underdeveloped countries,
  189-90; in Germany, 8-9, 219-20;
  in ideologies, 237; and ignorance of
  past, 242; Plato on, 48, 54, 57, 219; in
  political science, 76-82; purpose of,
  248
Egypt, 106, 135, 136, 154, 232
Eidos (essence or form), 44, 200-201
Einstein, Albert, 110
"Elect," church of, 40-41
Elections, 64
Eliade, Mircea, 232
Elites, 19
Elizabethan Age, 220
Empire: ancient form of, 116, 135-37;
  British, 19, 137; end of age of, 155;
  first period of, 135-37; French, 19,
  66; history of world-empire, 116,
  135-37; instrumentalist conception
  of, 138-40, 142; meaning of world-
  empire, 137-45; orthodoxy of, 137;
  overview on, 16—19; parallelism of
  spiritual efflorescence and, 135-37;
  second period of, 137; third period
  of, 137; types of, 154; universal order
  through, 155; world-empire and unity
  of mankind, 134-55. See also
  
specific empires
Empiricism, 8o, 132-33, 247
England. See Great Britain
English Constitution (Bagehot), 95
Enlightenment, Age of, 17, 84-85, 151,
  166, 234, 239
Entrepreneurs, 207-14, 221-23
Entweltlicht, 169
Epanodos, 102
Epigones, 238, 243, 247
Episteme (knowledge), 78, 82
Episteme politike (political science),
  227
Epistles. See Bible
Equality, 26, 199
Erasmus, 84-85
Eschatology: Aron on, 130-31;
  Bultmann on, 165, 167-77; of
  Communist Party, 179-80; and
  constitutional government, 96;
  domination of actions of men
  and governments by, 117; and
  existentialism, 171; history and
  "eschatological existence," 174, 175,
  177; and liberalism, 89; and myth,
  245; in New Testament, 151-53,
  165, 167-77; philosophy of, 133;
  and Plato, 127; socialist conception
  of, 132; and telos , 151-53, 155; and
  totalitarianism, 5, 21, 31-32
Eschaton, 151, 153, 179
Essay on Liberty (Mill), 37n11, 186-87
Ethical and Political Thinking (Carritt),
  37n12
Ethics, 73, 77-79, 80
Ethics (Aristotle), 73
Etiology, 225-26
Être et le néant (Sartre), 243
Être suprême (supreme being), 90
Europe. See specific countries
Europeanism, 41
European unification, 65-69
Eu zen (good life), 196
Evangelium de Christo, 163
Evangelius Christi, 163
Evil: good and evil, 33; humans' capacity
  for, 46; power as, 73-74, 218-19
Evolution of mankind, 147-48
Exhaustion of ideologies, 236-38
Existentialism, 73, 80, 138, 159n2,
  160-61, 167, 170-71, 173, 177, 243
Existential rhetoric, 48, 124, 126, 138
Exodus, Book of, 242
Experience and Judgment (Husserl), 114

Faith: Bultmann on, 156, 159-62;
  Christian, 21; Heraclitus on, 230;
  lack of, 50; metastatic, 152-53; and
  philosophy, 159-60; Protestants on,
  44-45; and reason, 156; tensions
  between reason and, 31
Faith and Understanding (Bultmann),
  159n1
Fascism, 92-93
Fathers of the Church, 39
Fear, 199
Fear of death, 5 5
Federalist, 28
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 119
Fides quaerens intellectum, 156,
  160-61
Fifth Monarchy, 204, 244
Fil des progrès, 147
Flaubert, Gustave, 243
Ford Foundation, 187
Fortescue, Sir John, 220
France: Bodin on, 29; centralization of
  national state in, 17; civil wars in,
  51; Communist Party in, 53, 64, 87;
  Hauriou on French state, 194-96, 197;
  and Hitler's occupation of Austria,
  250; imperialism of, 19; liberalism
  in nineteenth century, 87-92; and
  Napoleonic empire, 66; nobility
  in, 17; parliament under de Gaulle
  constitution, 64; political parties in
  West Germany after World War II, 87,
  99; Revolution of 1789, 7, 52, 53, 55,
  71, 88, 90, 92, 182; wars of religion in,
  218; in World War II, 66
Francis, Saint, 33
Freedom: Buber on, 240; and civil
  government, 182; Communist final
  realm of freedom, 151; of conscience,
  30-40, 44-45, 46, 62, 98-99; in
  economy and democracy, 70-82;
  philosophy on, 159; of the press, 36,
  54; of thought and discussion, 62,
  77-78
"Freedom and Responsibility in
  Economy and Democracy" (Voegelin),
  6, 70-82
"Free world," 52, 137, 143. See also
  
specific countries
Fremdherrschaft (alien rule), 64
French Revolution, 7, 52, 53, 55, 71, 88,
  90, 92, 182
Freud, Sigmund, 235, 236, 237, 244, 246
From Hegel to Nietzsche (Löwith), 237
Furse, George, 241

Geisteswissenschaft, 38
Gelasian system, 182, 218,259
Gelasius, 182, 218
Germans, 42
Germany: agriculture in, 214;
  anti-world complex in, 218-20;
  banning of Communist Party in, 63;
  constitutional history, 71; democracy
  for, 3, 59, 71-72; difficulties of
  historical-political situation of, 2,
  6, 70-75, 216-23; education and
  students in, 5-6, 8-9, 219-20; Federal
  Republic of, 217; ideologies in, 77-79;
  industry in, 216-20, 223; Jewish
  problem in Berlin, 18; and jurists'
  positivism, 74-75; labor's wage
  increases in, 210-11; lack of national
  revolution in, 71-72; pietism in, 8,
  72-73, 74, 78, 218-19; political parties
  in West Germany after World War
  II, 87, 99; political-spiritual vacuum
  in, 216-17, 219-20; Reich of 1871,
  66; religion in, 7, 8; reparations paid
  by, 250; twentieth-century revolution
  in, 7; tyranny in, 4; vulnerability of,
  to modern gnosticism, 6-9, 27; wars
  of religion in, 218; Weimar Republic
  in, 63-64, 97. See also National
  Socialism
Gesinnungsethik (ethics of intention),
  78,79
Gestapo, 60n1
Gettysburg Address, 6o
Giddings, Franklin Henry, 231
Gilson, Etienne-Henry, 39, 57
Glauben und Verstehen (Bultmann),
  156
Globe, 88
Glorious Revolution, 71, 95
Gnosis, 120, 133, 156-57, 160, 169,
  171-72, 205. See also Gnosticism
Gnosticism: apocalypse and modern
  gnosticism, 4, 153; characteristics
  of, 156-57, 172; and Comtean fallacy,
  175; and demonization of
  partners, 213, 222; and dualism,
  33, 41-45; Flaubert's knowledge
  of, 243; Germany's vulnerability
  to, 6-9; and history in Bultmann's
  works, 156-77; and ideologies, 244;
  and intramundane process, 149; of
  Johannine writings, 169, 171-72; and
   libido dominandi, 9, 35, 36, 150, 154;
  and Oxford political philosophers, 4;
  and revolutions, 26; rise of modern
  gnosticism, 137
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur de, 56
God and amor Dei, 10, 35, 36, 54,
  230; Aristotle on, 201-2; Augustine
  on, 10; Christians and grace of, 21,
  41; as Creator, 234; and hierarchy
  of being, 45; Israelites' relationship
  with, 11, 167-68, 204; Law of,
  110-11; Old Testament as Word of,
  164-65; as puppet-master, 232n2;
  revelations of, 144, 163, 166, 173,
  203, 234; revolt against,10, 54-55;
  world-transcendent God, 144. See
  also
Christianity; Religion; Theology;
  Transcendence
Going, Cathleen, 245
Goldmann, L., 118-20, 125-27, 130, 132
Good: common good, 231; and evil,
  33, 46; good life, 196; good society,
  183-90
Goods, hierarchy of, 229
Gospels. See Bible
Gough, J. W, 28, 34-35, 37121
Gouhier, Henri, 90, 91
Governance of England (Fortescue), 220
Government: Aristotle's politikon
  anakyklosis,
199-200; authority of
  civil government, 62; Christianity
  and civil government, 8; civil
  government, 8, 62, 65, 182-83;
  constitutional form of, 95-96, 183,
  186-87, 195,199,200, 219-20; Locke
  on government by consent, 35;
  Mill on types of, 186-87; political
  leadership of, 9. See also Democracy;
  National state
Grace, 21, 41, 130, 169
Grand-Etre, 149
Gratia praeveniens, 243
Great Awakening, 8
Great Britain: anti-complexes in,
  22O; Catholics in, 54; common
  law in, 61; constitution in, 95;
  creation of civil government in
  England, 65; democracy in, 6, 7, 8,
  29; freedom of the press in, 36, 54;
  Glorious Revolution in, 71, 95; and
  Hitler's occupation of Austria, 250;
  imperialism of, 19, 137; industry in,
  67; institutions in, 27; Mabbott on, 29;
  nationalism of, 42; Puritan revolution
  in, 35-36, 44, 51, 55, 61-62, 71, 220;
  religion in, 8; revolution of 1688 in,
  7; Second Reformation in, 72; and
  spiritual order, 220-21; Toynbee on,
  83; wars of religion in, 218. See also
  Oxford political philosophers
Greeks and Greco-Roman civilization,
  11, 103, 104, 105, 107, 122, 135, 164,
  167, 181, 188, 217. See also Aristotle;
  Plato; Socrates
Green, T. H., 28
Grotius, Hugo, 93
Ground: and exhaustion of ideologies,
  236-38; Leibniz on, 225; meanings
  of aition, 225-26; metaphysical
  questions on, 225; misplacements of,
  234-36; and myth, 232-34; openness
  of soul toward, 230, 241-42; and
  rationality in action, 226-27; reason
  as, 226; search for, 224-51; and
  tension toward transcendent Being,
  229-31, 23202, 234-35; transcendent
  divine Ground, 225, 233-34; and types
  of cultures, 232-33; and ultimate
  purpose in life, 227-29, 232; of
  Voegelin, 243-44
Güterausstattung (consumer and
  capital goods), 68

Haeckel, Ernst, 243
Hamilton, Alexander, 74
Harriman, Edward Henry, 209
Harrison, W, 28
Hauriou, Maurice, 194-96, 197, 200,
  202, 203
Hayek, Friedrich A. von, 86
Hebert, Jacques-Rene, 90
Hebrews. See Israel and Israelites; Jews
Hebrews, Letter to, 151
Hedonism, 229
Heer, Friedrich, 84-85
Hegel, G. W. F., 5, 55, 123, 127, 130,
   160, 161, 236, 237, 244
Heidegger, Martin, 156, 157, 159n2,
  160-61, 225
Heilsanstalt (institution of salvation),
  169
Heilsgeschichte (history of salvation),
  170, 173
Hellenic civilization. See Greeks and
  Greco-Roman civilization
Henry VIII,220
Heraclitus, 230
Héréesie et cruauté, 243
Heretics, 31, 33, 36
Hermits, 33
Herodotus, 139
Heroic age, 105
Hierarchy: of being, 45, 229, 246; of
  goods, 229; ontological, 56-57; of
  society, 181, 184
Higher education. See Universities; and
  specific universities
Hinduism, 107, in, 137
Histoire de la tolérance au siècle de la
  réforme
(Lecler), 84
Historia contra Paganos (Orosius), 109
Historia sacra, 112
Historicism, 237
Historicity, 115, 171, 172
Historiography, 18, 109
History: Augustinian conception of,
  109-10, 112; Christian view of,
  109-10, 112, 165-77; Collingwood's
  philosophy of, 28, 33, 41-45, 42n16;
  definition of,100; and "eschatological
  existence," 174, 175, 177; and
  gnosis in Bultmann's work, 156-77;
  gnostic-Manichaean vision of, 41-45;
  Greek view of, 167; human nature
  and historical conditioning, 128-29;
  humans' ignorance of past, 242; of
  individuals versus people's history,
  168-70, 173, 174; Israelites' view of,
  167-68; Jews' view of, 168; man in
  society and, 191-205; meaning or
   eidos of, 44; nonapocalyptic structure
  of, 152; Paul's theology of, 165-69,
  175, 177; Polybius on, 115; profane
  history, 170, 171, 173; as progressus
  of mankind in time, 160; Third Realm
  of, 3, 11, 181; Toynbee's Study of
  History,
10, 100-114
"History and Gnosis" (Voegelin), 6,
  156-77
History of Political Ideas (Voegelin), 1
Hitler, Adolf, 9, 44, 66, 235, 242, 243,
  250
Hobbes, Thomas, 33, 35-36, 41, 43, 55
Homer, 233
Homme revolté (Camus), 54, 237-38
Homo faber, 188
Homonoia (like-mindedness), 55,
  231-32
Hooker, Richard, 35, 55, 220
Hope, 230
Huber, Kurt, 6oni
Hubris, 421115
Humanism, 30, 42ni5
Humanitas, 147
Human nature: Arendt on, 21-22;
  Aristotle and Plato on, 114, 128,
  130; and best or happiest life, 39;
  and change, 125-26, 133; classical
  philosophers on, 26, 32, 39; classical
  politics on, 43; as constant, 4, 125-26,
  174, 241; and definition of mankind,
  152,153,155; and desire for striving,
  246-47; and ecumene, 115-16, 124;
  and equality, 199; and evil, 46; and
  evolution of mankind, 147-48; full
  actualization of, in polis, 45-46; and
  historical conditioning, 128-29; and
   imago Dei, 97, 138; institutions as
  manifestation of, 25; Kant on, 138;
  and life of reason, 229; and masse
  totale,
148-50, 152; metamorphosis
  of, 118; and modern gnosticism,
  153,157; and obstacles in path to
  paradisiacal goal, 89; Paul on, 115,
  116, 130; perfection of humanity
  in history, 117; and potential for
  becoming good, 73-74; potentialities
  of, and conduct of individuals, 20; and
  psyche, 229; and rationality of action,
  226-27; and relation to transcendent
  reality, 32; representative humanity,
  155; right to different opinions
  about, 77-78; and self-love, 230-31;
  in society and history, 191-205;
  and tension toward transcendent
  Being, 229-31, 232n2; transformation
  of, by totalitarianism, 21-22; and
  ultimate purpose in life, 227-29, 232;
  understanding and acceptance of,
  144; understanding of, 125-126; world-
  empire and unity of mankind, 134-55.
   See also Individuals; Philosophical
  anthropology
Human rights, 95, 96
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 9, 219-20
Husserl, Edmund, 114
Huxley, Aldous, 237

Ibn Khaldun, 110
Ideals and ideal states, 38-39, 40
Idée directrice, 194, 195, 197, 202
Identifications, 160, 161, 170
Ideologies: as attempts to establish civil
  theology, 11; criteria for rejection of,
  245-46; destruction of culture by, 77;
  elements of, 244, 246; exhaustion
  of, 236-38; and German students,
  6, 77-79; irrationality of, 188-90,
  250-51; as not based on common
  sense, 5; power of, 236-37, 238;
  and pragmatic pressure of industrial
  society, 179; as revolt against God,10;
  science as apologist for, 98; secularist
  ideologies and middle class, 72;
  society's susceptibility to, 7; and
  totalitarianism, 5; and transcendent
  ground, 234. See also specific
  ideologies, such as Communism
Ideologieunfug (ideological nonsense),
  65
"Imaginary Museum," 123
Imago Dei, 97, 138
Immanentism: and Christianity, 41;
  and Communism, 26, 179; creed
  movements involving, 25-26, 27;
  and hierarchy of being, 45; and
  ideologies, 244; and liberalism,
  22; and mass belief, 11, 181; and
  National Socialism, 26; and self-
  salvation, 41; and state cults, 182;
  and totalitarianism, 21-22, 32, 41
Immanent reason, 97, 119, 234-35
Immanent world, 234
Immortality, 228
Imperator, 217
Imperialism. See Empire
Imperium mundi, 140
Incarnation, 168, 172-74
Income, 68, 208-11
Indeterminacy, 161, 170
India, 135, 137, 140, 187, 188, 189, 222, 224
Individualism, 9
Individuals: and "accident of birth,"
  242-43; best or happiest life for,
  39; and capacity for evil, 46; and
  choice of not participating in crisis
  of one's time, 249, 249n6; common
  humanity of, 4-5; conduct of, 20;
  and definition of mankind, 152, 153,
  155; and desire for striving, 246-47;
  equality of, 199; full actualization
  of, in polis, 45-46; history of, versus
  people's history, 168-70, 173, 174;
  and ignorance of past, 242; Jews' view
  of community of, 168; and leap in
  being, 243; and life of reason, 229;
  and masse totale, 148-50, 152; as
  objects of dominion, 138; as "political
  animal," 114; and psyche, 229; and
  purposeful action into the future,
  249-51; and rationality of action, 226-
  27; representative humanity, 155;
  revolt of, and libido dominandi, 154;
  salvation of, 168; and self-love, 230-
  31; in society and history, 191-205; as
  superfluous to totalitarian regimes,
  17, 18, 20-21; and tension toward
  transcendent Being, 229-31, 232n2;
  and ultimate purpose in life, 227-29,
  232; unconditional commitment
  to particular individuals, 240-41;
  world-empire and unity of mankind,
  134-55. See also Human nature
Indus, 135, 139
Industrial Revolution, 56, 72
Industrial society: and anxiety of
  empty life, 50; and civil theology,
  181-83; complexity of, 49, 122;
  and democracy, 207-23; and
  entrepreneurs, 207-14, 221-23; and
  European unification, 66-69; founding
  of, 122; and good society, 183-90;
  inhumanity of, 123; Jefferson's
  resistance to, 67, 68, 96; and labor
  movement, 209-13, 215; pragmatic
  pressure of, 178-79; and proletariat,
  67, 72; and propaganda, 49; questions
  on, 187; reason and society, 180-81;
  in Russia, 179-80, 209; and search
  for reason, 178-90; and social welfare
  legislation, 67-68; and spiritual
  order, 220-22; and technology, 66-69;
  unemployment and industrial crisis,
  17-18
"Industrial Society in Search of Reason"
  (Voegelin), 10-11, 178-90
Inequality, 199
In rebus divinis, 170
"In Search of the Ground" (Voegelin), 5,
  224-51
Institute for Political Science, Munich,
  2-3, 73
Institutions: Aristotle's theory
  of, 196-203; breakdown of, and
  totalitarianism, 17, 18, 20-21; church
  as, 115-16, 169; in civil law, 192-93;
  as concept, 191-94; for cooperation,
  22; and dissemination of knowledge,
  190; in England, 27; Hauriou's theory
  of, 194-96, 197, 2OO, 202, 203; as
  manifestation of human nature,
  25; and man in society and history,
  191-205; political institutions as
  incarnation of principles, 32; for
  political order, 3, 6; science of,
  194; tension between established
  institutions and phenomena of
  motion or change, 193-206; war as,
  193
Instrumentalism, 138-40, 142
Intentio animi, 10, 101
Interest groups, 198
International affairs, 51-52, 54, 137,
  140, 143, 188-90, 235, 249-50. See
   also War; and specific countries
Intolerance. See Tolerance and
  intolerance
Intoxicant communication, 47-50, 58
Intramundane process, 31, 149, 151,
  153, 154-55, 168
Invasion from Mars (Welles), 141
Iranian conquest, 115, 135
Irrationality and international debate,
  188-90
Isaiah, Book of, 166, 175, 176
Islam. See Muslims
Israel and Israelites: Bultmann on,
  156-77; as Chosen People, 204; and
  covenant type of ruler, 173; "fall"
  of people away from true God, 11;
  history of, 167-68, 172; and kingship,
  193, 203; prophets in, 135, 148, 159,
  164, 1 66, 203, 204; theopolity of, 8,
  61-62. See also Jews
Israel and Revelation (Voegelin), 1
Italy: city-states of, 65; Communist
  Party in, 53, 87; and Hitler's
  occupation of Austria, 250; political
  parties in West Germany after World
  War II, 87, 99

Jackson, Robert H., 63, 63n3
Jacobsen, Richard, 242, 246
Jaspers, Karl, 39, 48, 135, 163
Jefferson, Thomas, 67, 68, 96
Jeremiah, 11, 181
Jesus. See Christ
Jeunesse d'Auguste Comte (Gouhier), 90
Jews: antisemitism against, 16-17,
  31; and apocalypse, 168, 204; in
  concentration camps, 17, 18, 19; 20;
  as state bankers, 17. See also Israel
  and Israelites
Joachim of Fiore, 11, 181
John, Epistles of, 169, 171-72,
John, Gospel of, 169, 171-72
Judaeo-Christian tradition, 8, 61-62,
  122, 133. See also Christianity
Judaism. See Israel and Israelites; Jews
Judgment of the Dead, 151
Jung, Carl, 248
Jus divinum el naturale, 74, 95
Justice, 5
Justinian, 217

Kampffront (struggle-front), 68
Kant, Immanuel, 72, 89, 138, 218
Karpfen, Felix, 249
Kennedy, John F., 210, 211-12, 216
Kennedy, Joseph, 209
Khrushchev, Nikita, 139
Kinesis,
18, 197, 203
Kingship, 193, 197, 198, 203
Kipling, Rudyard, 19
Kosmos, 143

Labor movement, 209-13, 215, 222, 223
Laotse, 135, 164
Lasswell, Harold, 197
Latitudinarians, 35
Law: Bultmann on, 158-60; civil and
  criminal, 62, 192-93; codified, 74;
  common, 61, 74; constitutional, 195;
  German jurists' positivism, 74-75;
  of God, 110-11; Gospel as "end of
  the Law," 158-59; Hauriou's theory
  of, 194-95; and institutions, 192-93;
  Justinian on, 217; natural, 93,110-11;
  in Old Testament, 158-60, 203;
  Roman, 31, 217
Lawrence of Arabia, 19
Laws (Plato), 182, 232n2
Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (Hooker),
  220
League of Nations, 25
Leap in being, 243
Lecler, Joseph, 84
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 225
Lenin, V. I., 139, 180
L'Être et le néant (Sartre), 243
Letter Concerning Toleration (Locke),
  35, 36
Levelers, 182
Leviathan (Hobbes), 33, 36, 55
Levy-Bruhl, L., 188
Lewis, John L., 209
Lex aeterna, 116
L'Homme révolté (Camus), 54, 237-38
Liberales party, 85
Liberalism: of Arendt, 22; of Aron,
  132; and Christianity, 99; compared
  with Communism, 4; compared
  with totalitarianism, 4, 22; and
  constitutional model, 95-96; content
  of, 93-98; as countermovement,
  52; difficulties in, 94-98; diversity
  among liberals, 53; economic
  model of, 94, 96; in France in
  nineteenth century, 87-92; history
  of, 83-99; and immanentism, 22;
  methodological questions on, 83,
  84-85; of nineteenth-century Europe,
  86; origin of term, 85-86; and peaceful
  change, 88; political model of, 94,
  95-96; and Protestantism, 72; and
  Reformation, 26; regional phases of,
  83; religious model of, 94, 96-97;
  and revolution, 87-92, 98; scientific
  model of, 94, 97-98; secular and
  Christian liberals, 53; in United
  States, 86-87
"Liberalism and Its History" (Voegelin),
  6, 83-99
Liberty. See Freedom
Libido, 235, 236
Libido dominandi, 9, 35, 36, 150, 154
Liddell, Henry George, 143
Lie, 41, 58
Light and Darkness, 41-42
Lilienthal, David E., 222
Limited Objective, Principle of, 42-43
Lincoln, Abraham, 8, 60-61
Lindsay, Lord A. D., 28, 37-41
Literalism, 140-42
Litterae sacrae, 162
Littré, Émile, 91
Locke, John, 28, 34-37, 37n11, 40, 43,
  54, 62, 96, 182, 220
Logical atomism, 247
Logos, 10, 55, 56, 161, 180, 231
Louisiana State University, 1
Love: altruism, 56; amor Dei (love
  of God), 10, 35, 36, 54, 230; amor
  sui
(love of self), 10, 35, 54; noetic
  love, 231; self-love, 230-31; as
  unconditional commitment to the
  particular, 240-41
Löwith, Karl, 237
LSU. See Louisiana State University
Lubac, Henri de, 39
Ludwig Maximilian University,1, 2-3,
  7, 73, 76
Lunatic fringe, 63
Lutheranism, 8
Lysenko affair, 189

Mabbot, J. D., 28-29
Macedonian empire, 65, 115, 135
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 195, 196-97
Machnik, Stanislaus, 240, 249, 251
Madaule, J., 113, 117, 120, 127-28,
  131-33
Magic, 120
Mahayana, 107
Malraux, André, 123
Manichaean dualism, 33, 41-45
"Man in Society and History"
  (Voegelin), 191-206
Mankind. See Human nature;
  Individuals
Mann, Thomas, 124
Marcus Aurelius, 46
Marx, Karl: on classless society, 20;
  on entrepreneurs and bourgeoisie,
  213; and eschatological conception
  of history, 127; as great thinker, 236;
  on industrial society generally, 208,
  221; positivism of, 5; "pre-analytical"
  discussions of, 114; on productive
  relations, 235; on proletariat, 67, 193,
  221; and revolution, 139, 149, 246;
  and scientism, 244; on socialization of
  work, 178; superman of, 55; as taught
  in Western universities, 189; and
  technological forces of production, 56
Marxism, 4, 72, 91, 97, 128-29, 179,
  187, 189, 205, 213, 218
"Mass belief," 11,181
Masse totale, 148-50, 153
Mass media, 48, 50-51, 189, 190
Materialism, 185-86
Mathematics, 93, 97
Matthew, Gospel of, 151, 165
Maurya empire, 135
McCallum, R. B., 28, 37n11
Meaning and History (Löwith), 237
Means-end relation, 226-27
of mass communication. See
  
Mass media
Mesopotamia, 135, 136, 153, 232
Messianic Age, 20
Messianisms, 20, 117-20, 125, 131
Metabole, 197, 203
Metanoia, 130
Metaphysics, 175, 225
Metastasis: and apocalypse, 205; of
  man, 117, 118, 133, 246; of world, 151
Metastatic faith, 152-53
Methexis, 188
Methodism, 8, 72
Meyer, Eduard, 103
Middle Ages, 33, 74, 95, 122, 130, 181, 245
Middle class, 18,72. See also Bourgeoisie
Middle East, 204
Military orders, 33
Mill, James, 235
Mill, John Stuart, 28, 37, 37n11, 56, 85,
  91, 96, 186-87, 236
Millenarianism, 21, 41, 117-18, 131
Milton, John, 36, 54
Mind of the Moralist (Rieff), 237
Minimum dogma in civil theology, 182
Mobs, 19, 22
Modern Democratic State (Lindsay),
  37-41
Mohammedans, 35, 182
Monarchy, 50-51, 193, 197-200
Mongol empire, 138-39
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de
  Secondat, Baron de la Brede, 95
Morality, 28, 47-58
More, Thomas, 42n15, 141
More mathematico, 93
Mores, 147
Morgenröte (Nietzsche), 164
Mormons, 99
Moses, 61
Movies, 48, 50-51
Mundus, 140, 143
Munster Treaty, 54
Mure, G. R. G., 28, 45
Murphy, Frank, 63n3
Music, 124        .
Muslims, 111, 115, 137
Mussolini, Benito, 44
Mysticism, 33, 248
Myth,11, 144, 181, 232-34, 245
Myth and Reality (Eliade), 232

Napoleon, 66
Narcissism, in Germany, 9
Nationalism, 19, 26, 41, 42, 44, 66, 146
National Socialism: alliance against,
  53; atrocities of, 3, 22, 75; concealing
  of problem of, 75; and concentration
  camps, 17, 18, 19, 20, 219-20; and
  conquest of France, 66; as difficulty
  for German democracy, 75; as enemy
  of democracy, 63; expansion of, 25;
  and immanentism, 26; intellectual
  climate fostering, 81, 219-20;
  majority voting bloc of National
  Socialists, 97; and middle class, 72;
  resistance to, 60n1; and resistance to
  Communism, 92-93; revolution of, 7,
  182; roots of, in religious experience,
  7n16; and tactics of revolution,
  149; understanding of, 242; and
  universities,1; and waves of political
  movements, 52
National state: and civil theology,
  181-83; consolidation of, in fifteenth
  century, 24, 137; as democracy, 25;
  end of, 65-69; Hauriou on, 194-96;
  and hierarchy of being, 45; Mure
  on, 28, 45; obsolescence of, 17; as
  prototype of political organization,
  24-25; and Reformation, 25-26;
  Renaissance pathos on, 29-30;
  separation of church and state, 94,
  152-53, 218; symbols of, 26; and
  technology, 66-69
NATO, 25
Natural law, 93, 110-11
Natural theology, 159-60, 181
Nazi Party. See National Socialism
"Necessary Moral Bases for Communication in a Democracy"
  (Voegelin), 10, 47-58
"Negative Utopia," 237
Negativism, 81
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 187
Neo-Confucian empire, 137
Neo-positivism, 80-81, 91, 98
Neo-Thomism, 226
Nero, 143
New Deal, 71, 99
New Leviathan (Collingwood), 33,
  41-45
New Science of Politics: An
  Introduction
(Voegelin), 1, 7
Newspaper strike, 213
New Testament. See Bible
Nicholas of Cusa. See Cusanus
Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 5, 196
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 37n12, 55,164-65,
  175, 231
Nineteen Eighty-Four (Orwell), 237
Noetic experience, 204
Noetic reason, 187, 188
Noetic self, 46, 230-31, 247
Noirceur (blackness of soul), 50
Nominalism, 33
Nous (Reason or Spirit or Intellect), 10,
  55, 180, 226, 230-31, 232n2, 233


Oakeshott, Michael, 36n10
Obligations and duties, 34
Occasionalism, 246
Occidentalism, 41
O'Connor, Eric, 239, 250, 251
Oecumene, 115. See also Ecumene
O'Hara, Martin, 244
Okeanos, 139
Old Testament. See Bible
Oligarchy, 198, 200
Ontology, 46, 55, 56-57, 97, 98, 136,
  160, 165
Open Society and Its Enemies (Popper),
  45n20
Operative ideals, 38-39, 40
Opinion générale, 149
Opinion publique, 149
Opsis, 174
Orbis terrarum, 138, 140, 143
Order: and human's purposeful action
  into the future, 249-51; and industrial
  society, 220-22; institutionalization
  of political order, 3, 6; kosmos
  as, 143; and love in noetic self,
  231; misunderstandings regarding
  principles of social order, 76-82;
  ontological reduction of substance
  of, 56-57; and power, 73-74; Reason
  as substitute for divine order, 56;
  universal order through empire,
  155; versus disorder, 192-93, 197; in
  Western world, 217
Order and History (Voegelin), 1, 239-40
"Ordered power," 195-96
Organic State (Mure), 45
Origins of Totalitarianism (Arendt), 3, 16-23
"Origins of Totalitarianism" (Voegelin),3-4, 15-23
Orosius, 109
Orthodox empire, 154
Orthodoxy, 32-33, 35, 137
Orwell, George, 237
Osnabruck Treaty, 54
Ousia (essence or nature), 114
Oxford political philosophers:
  characterization of, 28-30;
  conflict between civil theology
  and philosopher, 37-46; as
  incarnationists, 4; on liberty of
  conscience, 30-40; overview of
  Voegelin's critique of, 3, 4-5

"Oxford Political Philosophers"
  (Voegelin), 4-5, 24-46

Papacy. See Popes
Pareto, Vilfredo, 43
Parousia, 152, 169, 245
Pascal, Blaise, 49-50
Paul, Saint: and apocalypse, 165-67;
  and "eschatological existence," 172;
  on homonoia, 231;on human nature,
  115, 116, 130; interpretation of Old
  Testament by, 165-66; on love,
  hope, and faith, 230; as not useful
  for organization of society, 203; on
  Second Coming, 116, 152; theology of
  history by, 165-69, 175, 177
Peace, 51-52, 54, 88, 140, 235
Pelagianism, 37n11
Pensées (Pascal), 50
Perfecti, 166
Periagoge, 219
Pericles, 201
Persecutions, 32, 33, 34, 61
Persian empire, 65
Persian Wars, 18, 139
Persuasion, 10, 48, 54
Phenomenology (Hegel), 55
Philia, 10, 101
Philia politike (political friendship), 231
Philodoxie, 126
Philology, 176, 177, 239
Philosophes, 138
Philosophia perennis, 39, 48
Philosophia peri ta anthropina, 191. See
  also
Philosophical anthropology
Philosophical Analysis (Urmson),
  247-48
Philosophical anthropology: and best or
  happiest life, 39; of Christianity, 32;
  destruction of, 26; distinguished from
  prudential measures for attainment
  of highest good, 32; immanentist
  philosophical anthropology, 32;
  and man's potential to become
  good, 73-74; need for, to categorize
  political phenomena, 16; of Plato
  and Aristotle, 26, 32, 39, 114, 128,
  130, 191-92; scholars' inattention to,
  3-4; as science, 39. See also Human
  nature; Individuals
Philosophus, 161
Philosophy: as ancilla theologiae, 43;
  anti-philosophical complex, 217-18;
  authority of philosophers, 5, 40, 46;
  common sense as basis of, 2, 5-6;
  compared with revelation, 233-34;
  conflict between civil theology and,
  36-46; conscience of philosopher, 44;
  and faith, 159-60; and freedom, 159;
  Marcus Aurelius on philosopher, 46;
   philodoxie versus, 126; and search for
  the ground, 225-26; vocabulary of,
  248. See also specific philosophers
Phronesis, 201
Physics, 42, 43, 129, 141, 226
Pietism, 8, 72-73, 74, 78, 218-19
Plato: on aition, 226; dialogues of,
  241, 243; on education, 219; and
  historicity, 115; ignorance of, 242;
  on Judgment of the Dead, 151;
  Lindsay on, 38-39; opsis of, 174;
  on persuasion, 10, 48, 54, 57; on
   philodoxie versus philosophy, 126;
  philosophical anthropology of, 26, 32,
  39, 130; on polis, 29, 39, 102, 184;
  politics of,11, 29, 43, 44, 76, 181; and
  popular myth, 11,181; and reason,
  112, 116, 188; on sophon, 101; on
   zetema, 10, 32n2;
—Works: Laws, 182, 232n; Republic,
  
102
Plato and Aristotle (Voegelin), 1
Pluralistic society, 51, 52-54, 55, 57,
  183, 190, 228
Pneuma, 205
Pneumatic experiences, 202, 204
Polis: Athenian, 18; full actualization
  of human nature in, 45-46; Plato
  and Aristotle on, 29, 39, 45-46, 102,
  114-15, 128, 132, 184, 200-202; size
  of, and good society, 183, 184-85;
   theoi eleutherioi of, 136
Politeia, 197-98
Political philosophy: diversification in,
  27; focus and tasks of, 24-27; Lindsay
  on, 37-41; and national state, 24-26;
  Oxford political philosophers,3, 4-5,
  28-46. See also Political science;
  Politics
Political Religion (Voegelin), 7-10,
  7nl6, 10n21
Political science: and classical
  politics, 10-11, 43-44, 79, 81-82, 227;
  definition of, 227; distinction between
   doxa and episteme, 78; education
  in, 76-82; narrow boundaries of, 27;
  nature of, 76. See also Politics
Politics: classical politics, 10-11,
  43-44, 79, 81-82, 180-81, 183-84;
  Collingwood's study of, 28, 33,
  41-45; D'Entrèves' types of political
  principles, 30-32; and good society,
  183-90; and liberalism, 94, 95-96;
  organic and mechanical theories of,
  44-45; of Plato and Aristotle, 11,
  29, 41, 43, 44, 76, 114-15, 181, 127;
  postulates of classical politics, 10-11,
  180-81; and Principle of Limited
  Objective, 43-44; theory of, 38; of
  Thomas Aquinas, 30-32; waves of
  political movements, 9-93, 51-53.
   See also Democracy; Government;
  National state
Politics (Aristotle), 5, 73, 196-98,
  200-202
Politikon anakyklosis (cycle of political
  forms), 199-200
Polybius, 115, 116, 133, 150-51, 154
Polygamy, 99
Polytheism, 11
Popes,10, 54, 245
Popper, Karl, 45n20
Popular Front, 53
Popular myth, 11, 181
Positivism, 4, 5, 26, 74-75, 97, 146, 152,
  205, 213, 218, 236, 241
Poverty, 198, 202
Power: balance of, 140, 235; as evil,
  73-74, 218-19; Hauriou on "ordered
  power," 195-96; material power from
  science and technology, 131-32, 138;
  and order, 73-74
Pragmatic communication, 48-49, 50,
  57-58
Pragmatic pressure of industrial society,
  178-79
Pragmatic reason, 187-88
Pre-analytic level, 114, 124, 127
Précis de droit constitutionnel
  (Hauriou), 194-96
Preventive warfare, 42, 42n15
Primary civilizations, 106-7
Primitive societies, 106, 188
Principia Mathematica (Russell and
  Whitehead), 242, 247
Principle of Limited Objective, 42-43
"Problem of Natural Theology"
  (Bultmann), 159-60
Profane history, 170, 171, 173
Progress, 131-32, 138, 147-48, 152, 160,
  180, 186
Progressivism, 26, 41, 89, 146, 205, 218
Projection, 119
Proletariat, 19, 67, 72, 105, 180, 193
Propaganda, 48, 49, 60, 129
Prophets, 135, 148, 159, 164, 166, 203,
  204
"Prospects of Western Civilization"
  (Toynbee), 113-14
" Prospects of Western Civilization"
  (Voegelin), 113-33
Prostasia, 201
Protestantism, 72-73, 87.
   See also Reformation
Psyche, 229, 230-31
Psychoanalysis, 97, 235, 237, 244, 246
Psychology, 48, 56, 119, 213, 246-47,
  248
Puritans, 35-36, 44, 55, 62, 71, 220

Quest for the ground, 224-51

Race relations, 19, 235-36
Radio, 48, 5O-51
Ratio, 93, 97
Ratio aeterna, 56
Rationality: of action, 226-27; and
  morality, 55-56, 57; for whole life,
  227. See also Reason
Realism, 33
Reason: Age of Reason, 56; definition
  of, 232n2; faith and reason, 156; and
  freedom of thought and discussion,
  62; and good society, 187-88; and
  human nature, 229; immanent,
  97, 234-35; industrial society in
  search of, 178-90; and international
  debate, 188-90; and mass beliefs,
  11; misplacement of ground in
  immanent reason of man, 234-35;
  and morality, 55-56, 57; noetic, 187,
  188; as openness toward the ground,
  226, 232, 241-42; Plato and Aristotle
  on, 112, 116; pragmatic, 187-88; and
  society, 10-11, 180-81; as substitute
  for divine order, 56; tensions between
  faith and, 31; Toynbee on, 112;
  transcendent, 234-35; Voegelin on,
  119
Reason, Age of, 56
Reformation, 7, 25-26, 44, 51, 52, 53,
  72, 83, 84, 92, 217, 22O
Refugees, 17, 18
Regicide, 10, 54-55
Relativism. See Value relativism
Religion: and civil government, 8;
  comparative, 239; freedom of, 30-40,
  44-45, 46, 62, 98-99; and Great
  Awakening, 8; higher religions, 107;
  and liberalism, 94, 96-97; Methodism,
  8; modern crisis as religious crisis,
  7-8; and orthodoxy, 32-33, 35; and
  society's susceptibility to ideologies,
  7; and spiritual renewal, 9-10; and
  superhuman, 120; surrogate religions,
  241; toleration of, 35; Toynbee on,
  107, 109, 110-12. See also Catholic
  Church; Christianity; Church; God;
  Protestantism; Theology
Religiones, 33
Religiosissimus juris, 217
Religious freedom. See Freedom
Renaissance, 29-30, 95, 116
Renan, Ernest, 217
Republic (Plato), 102
Resistance movements, 53
Responsibility in economy
  and democracy, 70-82
Restauration der Staatswissenschaft
  
(Haller), 86
Restoration, 84, 86
Revelation, 144, 163, 166, 173, 203, 234
Revelation, Book of, 41
Revolutionary War, American, 7, 71
Révolution permanente, 88-89
Revolutions: American Revolution, 7,
  71; Aristotle on, 202-3; Communist
  revolution, 88, 89, 92, 139, 182;
  French Revolution, 7, 52, 53, 55,
  71, 88, 90, 92, 182; Germany's
  lack of national revolution, 71-72;
  Glorious Revolution, 71, 95; and
  gnosticism, 26; and good society,
  186; Industrial Revolution, 56, 72;
  as institutions, 193; intramundane
  character of, 154-55; and liberalism,
  87-92, 98; millenarian purposes of,
  41; of National Socialism, 7, 149,
  182; Puritan revolution, 35-36, 44,
  51, 55, 61-62, 71, 22o; revolutionary
  consciousness, 205; and rigidification,
  197, 198-99; and state cults, 182;
   stasis translated as, 197
Rhetoric (Aristotle], 251
Rhode Island, 99
Rhodes, 19
Richterliche Rechtsschöpfung (judicial
  creation of law), 74
Rieff, Philip, 237
Rigidification, 197, 198-99, 202
Robespierre, Maximilien, 90
Rockefeller, John D., 209
Roman Catholic Church. See Catholic
  Church
Roman empire, 42, 65, 115; 122, 135,
  136, 137, 140, 150-51, 217
Roman Law, 31
Romans, Letter to, 165, 166, 168, 218,
  230, 230n1
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 71, 250
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 43, 189
Ruggiero, Guido de, 84
Rulership, 217. See also Monarchy
Russell, Bertrand, 242, 247
Russia. See Communism; Soviet Union

Saints, 55, 169
" Salami tactics," 198
Santayana, George, 242
Saracens, 42
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 243
Sassanian empire, 135, 140
Schlosser, Friedrich Christoph, 73
Schnabel, Franz, 84, 93-94
Scholasticism, 39, 161, 226
Scholl, Hans, 60n1
Scholl, Sophie, 60n1
Scholl Siblings Memorial, 60
Science: and Collingwood's Principle of
  Limited Objective, 42-43; Comte on,
  175; cooperation in, 164; demiurgical
  power of, 118; development of, 185-
  86;in Germany, 9; and ideologies,
  237; and liberalism, 94, 97-98; and
  magic, 12O; material power from
  progress in, 131-32, 138; and objective
  criteria, 228-29; object of, 124; and
  space age, 140-41; and world-empire,
  140. See also Political science
Science, Politics, and Gnosticism: Two
  Essays
(Voegelin), 7, 7n14
Scientism, 244
Scott, 143
Scottish common-sense philosophy, 5
Search for the ground, 224-51
Sebag, L., 121-25, 126, 131
Secondary civilizations, 107
Second Coming of Christ, 115-16,
  152, 169, 245
Second Reality, 4
Second Treatise of Government (Locke), 96
Sectarianism, 21, 41
Secularism and secularization, 52, 53,
  54, 72, 171, 231
Self-interest of man, 56
Self-love, 230-31
Separation of church and state, 94,
  152-53, 218
Separation of powers, 95
Shakespeare, William, 143
Sinic civilization, 107
Slavery, 18, 183
Socialism, 84, 120, 132
Social sciences, 97-98
Social welfare legislation, 67-68
Society: classic and Christian
  conceptions of, 55-56; and culture,
  124, 133; good society, 183-90;
  hierarchical structure of, 181, 184;
  man in history and, 191-205; Marx's
  classless society, 20; "mass belief" of,
  11; metabole or kinesis of, 197, 203;
  pluralistic, 51, 52-54, 55, 57,183, 190,
  228; and reason, 10-11, 180-81; revolt
  of, and intramundane apocalypse,
  154; size of, 183-86; Toynbee on
  disintegration of, 105; Toynbee's
  classification of societies, 106-7;
  "unitary," 51; universal, 123. See also
  
Civilization; Industrial society
Sociology, 91, 192, 231
Socrates, 48
Sophon 10,48, 101
Sorites , 198
Soul: and amor Dei ,54; Christian
  view of,48; openness of soul toward
  transcendence, 230, 241-42; Pascal
  on blackness of, 50; right order of, 10,
  54; and transcendence, 121
Soviet Union: Bismarck on Russia,
  66; Churchill's warning about,
  250; coercion in, 69; Communism
  compared with American Way of
  Life, 117; Communist government of,
  236, 238; and Communist revolution,
  88, 89, 92, 139, 182, 186; conflicts
  with Western world, 25, 52, 137,
  143, 222; continuity of history in,
  66, 201; dictatorship in, 51, 187;
  economy of, 209; and Hitler, 66;
  imperial expansion of, 137; industry
  in, 179-80, 185, 209; international
  debate including, 189; Napoleon on
  Russia, 66; political vocabulary for,
  224; problems of, 4, 179-80, 185;
  propaganda of, 60; tensions with
  China, 203; and Western civilization,
  122. See also Communism
Soziale Marktwirtschaft, 99
Space age, 140-41
Spain, 85, 137
Spencer, Herbert, 235
Spengler, Oswald, 103, 106, 110, 121,
  130, 238
Spinoza, Baruch, 43, 182
Spoudaios (mature man), 45-46
Stabilization, 93
Stalin, Joseph, 53, 187
Stasis, 196-99, 202
State. See National state
Statesman, 251
Status quo of Communism, 139
Steel industry, 210, 211-12, 214-16
Stoics, 11, 26, 181
Strauss, Leo, 42n16, 184
Strikes, 210, 211-13, 215-16, 223
Study of History (Toynbee), 10, 100-114
Substantive communication, 47, 48
Suffrage. See Voting behavior and
  suffrage
Suggestio falsi, 58
Sumeric civilization, 106
Summum bonum, 55, 57, 97
Surnmum malum, 55
Superbia (pride), 35, 41
Superman, 55, 120
Suppressio veri, 58
Survival of the fittest, 235
Symbols: apocalyptic, 152; of Christ in
  Old Testament, 176; compact symbols
  for compact experiences, 176; of
  national state, 26; of objectifications,
  204; of transcendence, 138-40; of
  world, 145-46
Synoikismos, 202

Taoism, 136
Tao Te Ching, 243
Taubes, J., 130-31, 133
Technology, 66-69, 121,127-128, 131-
  32, 146, 185-86. See also Industrial
  society
Television, 48, 50-51
Telos (end), 115, 117, 150-53, 155
Temporalia, 220
Ten Commandments, 6, 77, 244
Tentation de Saint Antoine (Flaubert),
  243
Terminiello v. City of Chicago, 63n3
Theism, 120
Themistocles, 201
Theoi eleutherioi, 136
Theologia civilis, 11, 36, 37, 41, 174,
  181. See also Civil theology
Theologia naturalis, 11, 181
Theologia supranaturalis, 174
Theology: of Bultmann, 156-77;
  Bultmann's definition of, 162-64,
  170-71; civil, 11, 36-46, 174, 181-83;
  Comte on, 174-75; conflict between
  civil theology and philosophy, 36-46;
  natural, 159-60, i8i; Paul's theology of
  history, 165-69, 175, 177. See also
  
Christianity; God; Religion
Theology of the New Testament
  
(Bultmann), 162, 166-67
Theopolity, 8, 61-62, 203
Theoria, 115
Theorie de la fondation (Hauriou),
  194-96
Theory: of conscience, 46; Lindsay on,
  38; organic and mechanical theories
  of politics, 44-45
Third Realm, 3, n, 181
"Third world," 93, 137, 143
Thirty Years War, 51
Thomas Aquinas, Saint, 28, 30-33, 116
Thucydides, 18
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 37n12
Tolerance and intolerance, 35, 36, 37,
  54, 62, 63, 84, 98-99, 182
Topoi, 124, 125, 126, 127
Topos, 194
Torah, 160
Totalitarianism: Arendt on origins of,
  15-23; change of human nature by,
  21-22; compared with liberalism,
  4, 22; D'Entreves' anachronistic
  use of term, 30, 31-32; difficulty
  in exploration and theorization
  on, 15-16; and eschatology, 1, 21,
  31-32; and gnostic dualism, 41; and
  immanentism, 21-22, 32, 41; impact
  of, 15; institutional aspect of, 17,
  18; invitation to, 5; suppression of
  violence by, 152; victims of, 17, 18.
   See also Communism; National Socialism
Toynbee, Arnold J., 9, 10, 19, 83,
  100-114, 123, 127, 129-32, 135, 238
"Toynbee's History as a Search for
  Truth" (Voegelin), 10, 100-112
Transcendence: derailments of
  experience of, 204-6; Goldman on,
  119-20, 126; and Ground of existence,
  229-31; human existence as point of
  transcendental irruptions of history,
  172-73; human's relation to, 32;
  metastasis and elimination of, 133;
  openness of soul toward, 230, 241-42;
  and psyche, 229, 230-31; and soul,
  121; symbols of, 138-40; tension
  toward transcendent Being, 229-31,
  232n2, 234-35; transcendence-
  problematic, 76-77; transcendent
  Being, 116-17, 119, 150, 154, 229-31
  233-34; transcendent divine Ground,
  225; transendent Reason, 234-235;
  world-transcendent God, 144

Transcendentalists, 22
Träumer (dreamers), 61
Trésor commun, 147
Troisième monde, 137, 143
Trojan War, 201
Trotsky, Leon, 88, 89
Truth: and Lie, 41; philosopher's
  authority in profession of, 5;
  Toynbee's History as search for,
  100-112
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, 147-48,
  149, 152, 155
Two Treatises of Government (Locke),
  62, 2,20
Types: of communication, 47-50; of
  culture, 232-33; of empire, 154; of
  government, 186-87; of political
  principles, 30-32
Tyrannis (tyrant), 197-98
Tyranny, 197-98, 199

"Underdeveloped" countries, 122, 185,
  189-90
Unemployment, 17-18, 68, 69
Unglaube (unbelief), 159
Unions. See Labor movement
United States. See America
U.S. Supreme Court, 63, 71, 75
Universal church, 105
Universal History (Bossuet), 116
Universal History (Turgot), 147-48
Universal society, 123
Universal state, 105
Universities, 5-6, 9, 189-90, 219-20,
  237, 242. See also specific universities
Urmson, J. O., 247-48
USSR. See Soviet Union
Utah, 99
Utilitarianism, 56
Utopia, 237
Utopia (More), 42n15, 141
Utrecht, Peace of (1713), 52, 140, 235

Value relativism, 6, 77, 79-80
Value systems, 123-24, 126
Varro, Marcus Terentius, 36
Verantwortungsethik (ethics of
  responsibility), 78-79
Virtues: civic, 59-60, 70; and hierarchy
  of goods, 229; political, 231; virtuous
  people, 198, 202
Virtù ordinata, 195
   Visia beatiflca (beatific vision), 31, 116-17
Voegelin, Eric: commonsensical nature
  of essays of, 2, 5; early life of, 249;
  escape from Austria by, 77n16, 250;
  at Louisiana State University, 1;at
  Ludwig Maximilian University, 1;
  2-3, 7, 73, 76; motivations of work
  of, 2-3; optimism of, 247; personal
  standards of, 243-44; publication of
  works by, 1; themes of essays by, 2-11
Volksgemeinschaft (national community), 63
Voltaire, 103
Von Fritz, K., 128-29, 132
Vorverständnis (pre-apprehension), 159,
  160
Voting behavior and suffrage, 49, 64, 95

Waiting for Godot (Beckett), 247
War: bellum justum, 193; civil wars, 51;
  as institution, 193; of liberation, 139;
  movements and countermovements
  of, 51-53; of opinions, 51; and
  pluralistic society, 51-54; preventive
  warfare, 42, 42n15; religious wars,
  93, 218; and technology, 131; third
  world war, 131. See also Revolutions;
  specific wars
Wars of movement and countermove-
  ment, 51-53, 92-93
Wealth, 198, 202, 209-10
Weber, Max,1, 43, 78-79
Weimar Republic, 63-64, 97
Weisse Rose (White Rose), 60n1
Weldon, T. D., 28, 29, 44-45
Welfare state, 99
Welles, Orson, 141
Weltanschauungen (visions of the world), 64, 78, 127
Wesley, John, 8, 61, 72, 220
Western civilization: decline of, 120-21,
  127; and irrationality, 188-90; and
  order, 217; prospects of, 113-33;
  and "world wars, 145-46. See also
  Civilization
Western Europe: industrial society in,
  178-79; Mabbott on, 29. See also
  specific countries
Westernism, 41-42
Westphalia, Peace of (1648), 52
"What Is Political Reality?" (Voegelin),
  3
What is Politics! Who Gets What,
   When How! (Lasswell), 197
Wheels of civilization, 105-6, 107, 110
Whitehead, Alfred, 242, 247
White Rose (Weisse Rose), 60n1
Wight, Martin, 101-2, 111-12
Williams, Roger, 33, 99
Wilson, C. H., 28
Wilson, Woodrow, 75
Wissenschaft, Politik, und Gnosis
  (Voegelin), 7
Workers. See Labor movement;
  Proletariat
World: and-world complex, 218-20;
  creation of, by Divine Being, 234;
  meaning of, 142-45
World-empire: and Christianity, 151-53;
  end of, 155; history of, 116, 135-37;
  meaning of term, 137-45; meaning
  of term world, 142-45; pathological
  background of contemporary
  conception of, 145-50; questions on,
  152; and Roman empire, 150-51; and
  symbol of world, 145-46; types of,
  154; universal order through, 155; and
  wars, 145-46
"World-Empire and the Unity of
  Mankind" (Voegelin), 134-55
World of the Polis (Voegelin), 1
World War I, 44, 250
World War n, 44, 53, 64, 106, 250
Wycliffe, John, 8, 61

Yin and Yang, 105

Zaehner, R. C., 248
Zeitgeist, 170
Zetema, 10, 100-103, 106, 109, in, 112
Zetesis (search), 232n2
Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, 115, 135,
  136, 164


		

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