VOL. 5
MODERNITY WITHOUT RESTRAINT

Acknowledgments ix
Editor's Introduction 1
THE POLITICAL RELIGIONS 19
  Preface 23
1. The Problem 27
     State 28
     Religion 30
2. Akhenaton 34
3. Hierarchy 42
     Ecclesia 44
     Spiritual and Temporal 47
     Apocalypse 50
4. The Leviathan 53
5. The Inner-Worldly Community 59
     Symbolism 64
     Belief (Glaube) 67
6. Epilogue 70
A Note on Sources 72



THE NEW SCIENCE OF POLITICS:   AN INTRODUCTION
[Note: The paging of the University of Chicago Press edition, 1952, which is still in print, is shown in brackets.
75
Forward 79         [v]
Acknowledgments 81         [vii]
INTRODUCTION 88         [1]
1. Political theory and philosophy of history. Decline of political science and restoration
2. The destruction of political science through positivism. Positivistic assumptions. The subordination of relevance to method. The nature of positivism. Manifestations of positivism. Accumulation of irrelevant facts. Misinterpretation of relevant facts. The movement of methodology. Objectivity through exclusion of value-judgments
3. The transitional position of Max Weber. Weber's value-free science. The demonism of values. The contradictions in Weber's position. The reintroduction of values. The taboo on classic and Christian metaphysics. Positivism with regrets
4. The restoration of political science. Obstacles and success
1. REPRESENTATION AND EXISTENCE 109       [27]
1. The Aristotelian procedure. Symbols in reality and concepts in science
2. Representation in the elemental sense
3. Insufficiency of the elemental concept of representation
4. Representation in the existential sense. Society in form for action. Representative and agent distinguished
5. Representation and social articulation. Magna Carta. Writs of summons to Parliament. Ferrers' case. Lincoln's dialectical formula
6. Western theory of representation. The consolidation of the realms in the fifteenth century. Fortescue's theory. Eruption and proruption. Corpus mysticum. Intencio populi
7. Migratory foundations. The myth of Troy. Paulus Diaconus
8. Disintegration. Maurice Hauriou. The idée directrice. Power and law. Constitutional and existential representative
9. Summary. Definition of existence. Of representative institutions. Provincialism of contemporary theory of representation.
2. REPRESENTATION AND TRUTH 129      [52]
1. Social symbolization and theoretical truth
2. Society as the representative of cosmic order. Truth and Lie. The Behistun Inscription. The Mongol Order of God. The monadism of imperial truth
3. The challenge to imperial truth. Jaspers' axis time of human history. Bergson's closed and open society
4. Plato's anthropological principle. As a principle for the interpretation of society. As an instrument of political critique. The true order of the soul as a standard
5. The meaning of theory. Aristotle's theory of the mature man. Theory as an explication of experiences. The experiential basis of theory
6. The authority of theoretical truth. The opening of the soul. The psyche as the sensorium of transcendence. The theological principle. Plato on the types of theology
7. Tragic representation. Aeschylus' Suppliants. The meaning of action. Government through persuasion. The decision for Dike. Representative suffering
8. From tragedy to philosophy
9. Summary. Representation in the transcendental sense. Theory as the science of order. The criterion of truth in science
3. THE STRUGGLE FOR REPRESENTATION IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE 149      [76]
1. Theoretical issues. The competing types of truth. Anthropological and soteriological truth
2. Varro and Saint Augustine on the types of theology
3. The political function of the Civitas Dei. The attack on the Roman cult. The affair of the Altar of Victoria. The pleas of Symmachus and Saint Ambrose. Saint Augustine's imperator felix. The Roman cult as a living issue.
4. The existential issue in Roman civil theology. Saint Augustine's misunderstanding of Varro's position. Cicero's opposition of the princeps civis to the princeps philosophiae. Roman archaism. The truth of Rome against the truth of philsophy.
5. The princeps as the existential representative. The patrocinial principate. The principes as miltary and political leaders in the late republic. The triumvirs. The imperial principate
6. The sacramental weakness of the imperial principate. Experiments in imperial theology. The experiment with Christianity
7. Celsus on the revolutionary character of Christianity
8. The metaphysical monotheism of Philo. The political theology of Eusebius of Caesarea. The end of political theology through trinitarianism
4. GNOSTICISM: THE NATURE OF MODERNITY 175      [107]
1. The victory of Christianity. De-divinization of the political sphere and re-divinization. The chiliasm of Revelation and Saint Augustine's theory of the church. Spiritual and temporal representation. The survival of the Roman idea in Western society
2. The symbolism of re-divinization. The trinitarian speculation of Joachim of Fiore. The Joachitic symbols: (a) the Third Realm, (b) the leader, (c) the gnostic prophet, (d) the brotherhood of autonomous persons. The National-Socialist Third Realm. Moscow--the Third Rome. Western recognition of the Russian problem. The Russian type of representation
3. The theoretical content of the new symbols. Saint Augustine's meaning of transcendental history. Joachim's immanentization of the meaning of history. Secularization. The eidos of history a fallacious construction. The types of fallacious immanentization of the eschaton: progressivism, utopianism, revolutionary activism
4. Motives and range of gnostic immanentism. The desire for certainty and the uncertainty of faith. The social success of Christianity and fall from faith. The recourse to gnostic self-divinization. The psychological range of types: contemplative, emotional, activist. The range of radicalization: from paraclete to superman. The civilizational range: from monasticism to scientism
5. The course of modernity. Origins in the ninth century. The problem of simultanous progress and decline. The premium of salvation on civilizational action. Immortality of fame and the holes of oblivion. Spiritual death and the murder of God. Totalitariansim as the end form of progressive civilization
5. GNOSTIC REVOLUTION: THE PURITAN CASE 196      [133]
1. The Periodization of Western history. Modernity as the growth of Gnosticism. Modern age as a gnostic symbol. Modern age as gnostic revolution
2. Hooker's portrait of the Puritan. The cause and the movement
3. The revolt against intellectual culture. Scriptural camouflage. The codification of gnostic truth. The taboo on the instruments of critique. The prohibition of theoretical argument. Hooker's reaction. The Islamic solution. Appeal to governmental authority
4. The angel of Revelation and the Puritan army. A Glimpse of Sion's Glory. The common man. The gnostic realm of the saints. The program of the revolution. The Queries of Lord Fairfax . The liquidation of the Old World. The war between the worlds. Methodological reflections
5. Hobbes's theory of representation. Public order against gnostic revolution. The revival of theologia civilis. The opening of the soul reconsidered. The essential tension between truth of society and truth of the soul. Plato's solution. Christian vacillations. The Hobbesian idea of the everlasting constitution.
6. THE END OF MODERNITY 220      [162]
1. The truth of cosmic order reasserted. Gnosticism as a civil theology. Its tendency to repress the truth of the soul. The advent-recession cycle. Future dynamics of Western civilization
2. Gnostic disregard for principles of existence. Creation of a dream world. Its motivations. The pneumo-pathological result. Attack on dianoetic virtues and propaganda for moral insanity. The causes of continuous warfare. The impossibility of peace
3. Liberalism and communism. The plight of the liberal intellectuals. Dynamics of the gnostic revolution. The Communist danger. The causes of Western paralysis.
4. Hobbes. Radical immanence of existence. The life of the spirit as libido dominandi. The abolition of the summum bonum. Passion and fear of death. The person and the Leviathan
5. The Hobbesian symbolism. The psychology of disoriented man. Disease as the nature of man. The Leviathan as the fate of the intellectual
6. Resistance against Gnosticism. The relation of Western national revolutions to Gnosticism. English and American conservatism. The restoration of traditions
Index [1952 ed]           [191]

SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND GNOSTICISM: TWO ESSAYS 243
Preface to the American Edition 247
Part I
Science, Politics, and Gnosticism
1. Introduction 251
2. Science, Politics, and Gnosticism 257
3. The Murder of God 278
Note on Hegel's "Philosophy of World History" 290
Part II
Ersatz Religion: The Gnostic Mass Movements of Our Time
Ersatz Religion 295
INDEX 315





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