VOL 4   The Authoritarian State

AN ESSAY ON THE PROBLEM OF THE AUSTRIAN STATE


Contents

Editor's Introduction 1
Historical Commentary on the Period by Erika Weinzieri 10
 
Part I. "Total" and "Authoritarian" as Symbols
 
1. The Elements of Meaning Contained in the
    Symbols "Total" and 'Authoritarian"
57
 
Part II. The Austrian Constitutional Problem after 1848
 
2. The Foundation of Austrian Constitutional Theory: Baron Eötvös 109
3. The Constitutional Situation of 1848-1849 126
4. The Cycles of the Constitutions 139
5. The Founding of the State in 1918-1920 147
 
Part III. The Authoritarian Constitution since 1933
 
6. Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law and the Problem of
    an Austrian Theory of the State
163
7. The Constitutional Transition (March 1933 to
    May 1934)
213
8. The Core of the Authoritarian State 249
9. The Authoritarian Chambers 275
10. The Relationship of the Executive to the
     Agencies of the Federal and Provincial Legislatures
309
11. Emergency Powers Granted the Administration
     and Their Control
332
12. The Directly Democratic and Constitutional
     Mechanisms
357
Bibliography to Part III 363
Appendix: The Changes in the Ideas on Government and Constitution in Austria since 1918 367
Index 381
 

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Foreword 47
Introduction 49
 

Part I. "Total" and "Authoritarian" as Symbols

 
1. The Elements of Meaning Contained in the
    Symbols "Total" and "Authoritarian"
57
  §1. Political Symbol and Theoretical Concept 57
  §2. Carl Schmitt's Concept of the Total State 58
  §3. Economic and Political Phases of the Reality of
        the State (Lorenz von Stein, Maurice Hauriou)
63
  §4. The Economic Element in the Reality of the
        Total State
66
  §5. The Averroist Factor in Speculations on Totality 72
  §6. State and Volk as Total Substances (Fascism and
        National Socialism)
75
  §7. The Substances as Symbols in the Situation of
        Struggle
79
  §8. The Historical Significance of the Symbols 81
  §9. The Relative Emphasis Placed on the Elements
        in the Overall Picture of the State. I: The
        French Race Idea (Hauriou, Martial)
83
§10. The Relative Emphasis of the Elements in the
         Overall Image of the State. II: The French Idea
         of the People (Rousseau)
85
§11. The Element of Education in the Reality of the
         Total State
87
§12. Elite and the Masses: Authoritarian Leadership 89
§13. Blanqui's Theory of the Elite (1869) 90
§14. Elite and Authority in Renan (1871) 93
§15. The Institutionalist Theory of Authority
         (Renan, Hauriou)
98
§16. The Austrian Theory of Authority (Dollfuss) 102
§17. The Activist Element in the Reality of the Total
         State
103
§18. Summary 105
 

Part II. The Austrian Constitutional Problem after 1848

 
2. The Foundation of Austrian Constitutional Theory:
    Baron Eötvös
109
 
3. The Constitutional Situation of 1848-1849 126
 
4. The Cycles of the Constitutions 139
 
5. The Founding of the State in 1918-1920 147
 

Part III. The Authoritarian Constitution since 1933

 
6. Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law and the Problem of an
    Austrian Theory of the State
163
  §1. The Guiding Idea of the Presentation: Kelsen's
        Positivist Metaphysics
163
  §2. The Neo-Kantian Demand for Purity of Method 165
  §3. The Positivist Trait in the Neo-Kantian
        Critique of Method
166
  §4. The Unity of Object and the Unity of Being 167
  §5. The Unity of the Object and the
        Self-Constitution of Social Reality
169
  §6. Vacillation between Scientific Context and the
        Structure of Reality
170
  §7. The Legal Order as a Unit from the Standpoint
        of the Practitioner of Law [ Rechtsanwender ]
        and the Dogmatist of Law
171
  §8. The State as Relevant Unit of Order—the "Act"
        as Second Object beside the "Norm"—the
        Context of Delegation
172
  §9. The Breach of the Positivist System through
        Recognition of the "Ideology"of the Norm
174
§10. The Metaphysical Function of "Sociology" 175
§11. The Legal Order as a Context of "Norms" and
         "Acts"; the "Basic Norm"
176
§12. The System of Metaphysical Battle Concepts
         [ Kampfbegriffe ]
177
§13. Eliminating the Reality of the State from the
         Object of the Theory of the State
179
§14. The Problem of Ordering Being by Establishing
         Norms of Human Behavior
180
§15. The Disintegration of the Person 182
§16. The Disintegration of the State 184
§17. Kelsen's Positive Metaphysical and Political
         Demands; the Law as Compulsory Order
         [ Zwangsordnung }; Privatization of the
         Constitution
184
§18. Kelsen's Metaphysics of Progress; the Order of
         Universal Law [ Weltrechtsordnung ]
188
§19. Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law in the Tradition of
         Austrian Theory of the State
189
§20. Joseph Ulbrich 192
§21. Ludwig Gumplowicz 194
§22. Felix Stoerk and Friedrich Tezner 198
§23. The Consequences of Pure Theory of Law for
         the Interpretation of Positive Law
206
 
7. The Constitutional Transition (March 1933 to May
    1934)
213
  §1. The Legal Continuum—Legality and Legitimacy 213
  §2. The Practice of the Wartime Economic Decrees
        from March 1933 to the Enactment of the
        Constitution of 1934
223
  §3. The Federal Regulation of April 24, 1934,
        Concerning the Constitution of the Federal
        State of Austria, BGBl I, No. 239
235
  §4. The Enabling Act of April 30, 1934, BGBl I, No.
        255
236
  §5. The Complete Act of Constitutional Legislation 246
 
8. The Core of the Authoritarian State 249
  §1. The Anonymity of Power; The Systematics of
        the Constitution
249
  §2. The Enabling Act of April 30, 1934, and the
        Constitutional Transition Act of 1934
254
  §3. The Core of the Authoritarian State of the 1934
        Constitution
255
  §4. The Federal President and the Federal
        Government
257
  §5. The Provincial Governor and the Provincial
        Government
266
  §6. The Mayors and the Election of the Federal
        President
271
 
9. The Authoritarian Chambers 275
  §1. Corporative Society and the Corporative State;
        Seipel's Ideas; the Encyclicals
275
  §2. Hegel's Critique of the English Reform Bill of
        1831
283
  §3. Grey's Reform Proposals 287
  §4. Principles and Methods for a Solution 293
  §5. The Austrian Solution: Advisory Chambers and
        the Bundestag
296
  §6. The Provincial Diets and the Municipal Diets 306
 
10. The Relationship of the Executive to the Agencies
      of the Federal and Provincial Legislatures
309
  §1. The Term of Office of the Federal Legislature 309
  §2. The Organization of the Federal Legislature 312
  §3. The Position of the Members of Agencies of the
        Federal Legislature
314
  §4. The Participation of the Agencies of the Federal
        Legislature in Federal Legislation: Procedure
        Concerning Laws in the Material Sense
317
  §5. The Participation of the Federal Legislative
        Agencies in the Federal Executive
320
  §6. Concluding Considerations Concerning the
        Relationship between the Authoritarian
        Chamber and the Executive
323
  §7. The Relationship between the Executive and
        the Provincial Legislative Institutions
330
 
11. Emergency Powers Granted the Administration and
     Their Control
332
  §1. Ordinary and Extraordinary Constitution 332
  §2. The Elements of the Tenth Section Alien to the
        System
334
  §3. The Substance of the Emergency Powers 336
  §4. Checks on the Emergency Regulations 338
  §5. Checks by the Bundestag 339
  §6. Review of Regulations by the Federal Court 344
  §7. Control Through Accountability of the Federal
        President and the Federal Government as
        Provided in Article 173
349
 
12. The Directly Democratic and Constitutional
     Mechanisms
357
  §1. The Plebiscite or Referendum 357
  §2. The Elements of the 1934 Constitution That
        Embody the Rule of Law
359
 
Bibliography to Part III 363


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