ORDER AND HISTORY


Vol 1  Israel and Revelation 
(CW VOL 14)

Table of Contents

[ Note: Paging for the original 1956 edition is shown in brackets. In the Analytical Table of Contents there are shown page numbers in parentheses as they appeared in the original edition. These are ommitted in the new Collected Works edition.]
Editor's Introduction 1
Preface 19   [ix]
Acknowledgments 25   [xv]
Introduction: The Symbolization of Order 39   [1]
PART ONE:  THE COSMOLOGICAL ORDER OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST        [15]
Chapter 1: Mesopotamia 55   [16]
Chapter 2: The Achaemenian Empire 85   [46]
Chapter 3: Egypt 91   [52]
PART TWO:  THE HISTORICAL ORDER OF ISRAEL       [111]
Chapter 4: Israel and History 157 [116]
Chapter 5: The Emergence of Meaning 176 [134]
Chapter 6: The Historiographic Work 188 [145]
PART THREE:  HISTORY AND THE TRAIL OF SYMBOLS       [185]
Chapter 7: From Clan Society to Kingship 233 [188]
Chapter 8: The Struggle for Empire 265 [219]
Chapter 9: The Mundane Climax 303 [256]
Chapter 10: The End of Israel's Worldly Existence 361 [311]
PART FOUR:  MOSES AND THE PROPHETS       [353]
Chapter 11: The Deuteronomic Torah 405 [355]
Chapter 12: Moses 431 [380]
Chapter 13: The Prophets 481 [428]
Indexes       [517]
Biblical References 571 [517]
Modern Authors       [520]
Subjects and Names 577 [522]

Analytical Table of Contents

Preface

19 [ix]

Acknowledgments

25 [xv]

Introduction: The Symbolization of Order

39 [1]
Being and Existence. The Community of Being: God, Man, World, Society. Participation through Existence. The Order of Being in Perspective. Essential Ignorance and Anxiety (1). Experiences of Order. The Experience of Consubstantiality. The Experience of Lasting and Passing. Degrees of Durability. Hierarchy of Existents. The Attunement of Man to the Lasting Existents. The Experience of Obligation (2). Forms of Symbolization: Society as Microcosmos and Macroanthropos. The Breakdown of Cosmological Empires and the Orientation toward Transcendent Being (5). The Nature of Symbols. Conflicts of Analogues and Early Tolerance. The Oneness of Being and the Plurality of Symbols. Attempts at Rationalization. The Radical Inadequacy of Symbols to their Task (6). The Love of Being and Existence. Intolerance through Love of Being. Conversion. The Leap in Being. The Levels of Attunement. Tolerance through Love of Existence (8).

Part One: The Cosmological Order of the Ancient Near East

     [13]
The Order of Society and the Order of Mankind. Cosmological Order as a Type. Historical Variations within the Type. The Organization of Materials (13).

Chapter 1: Mesopotamia

§ 1. THE CREATION OP GOD AND THE DOMINION OF MAN 55 [16]
Hybris and Chastisement. The Rivalry of God and Man in Genesis (16). The Myth of Adapa (18).
§ 2. THE SYMBOLIZATION OF POLITICAL ORDER 61 [21]
Political Order in Cosmological Symbols. From City State to Empire. Divine Lordship and Earthly Kingship (21). Time, Space, and Substance (24). The Omphalos (27). The Zodiac and the Number Twelve (29). The Sun and the Cycle of Renewal (32). Rationalization (34).
§ 3. THE SYMBOLIZATION OP COSMIC ORDER 78 [38]
Cosmic Order in Political Symbols. The Mesopotamian, Chinese, and Mycenaean Cases. The Aptitude of Civilizations for the Leap in Being. Comparison of the Three Cases (38). The Enuma Elish. The Blend of Cosmogony, Theogony, and Politics. Generations of Gods and Civilizational Crises (41).

Chapter 2: The Achaemenian Empire

85 [46]
The Parallel of God and King. Influence of Zoroastrianism (46). The Dual ism of Good and Evil. The Behistun Inscription. The Empire of Truth(47). Polytheism and Pluralistic Construction of the Conquest. Dynastic Consciousness (49). Rationalization Monistic and Dualistic (50).

Chapter 3: Egypt

§ I. THE STRUCTURE OP CIVILIZATIONAL COURSES 91 [52]
The Toynbee-Frankfort Debate. The Phases of Egyptian History. The Issue of Osirian Religiousness (53). Analysis of the Conflict. Institutions, Experiences, Civilizational Form. The Climate of Experience and Stability of Form (56). The "Song of the Harper." Skepticism and Hedonism (57). Types of Civilizational Form. Compactness and Differentiation of Experiences. The Chinese Case. Civilizational Form and the Super-Civilizational Drama of Mankind (60).
§ 2. THE COSMOLOGICAL FORM 102 [63]
The Birth of the Two Lands. The Experience of the Nile (64). The Sun Hymns. Conflict with the Nile Symbol. The Visible and the Invisible God. Conflict with Cosmological Symbolism. The Transcendental Component in Pharaonic Order (67). Divine Kings and Animals. Divine Manifestation in the Pharaoh. Manifestations in Celestial Bodies, in Animal Species, in Representative Men. Probable Causes of the Egyptian Peculiarity (72). The Radiation of Cosmic Order over Society. The Son of God in the Pyramid Texts, in the Middle and New Kingdoms. The Meaning of Maat. The Transmission of Maat (75).
§ 3. THE DYNAMICS OF EXPERIENCE 121 [81]
1. The Egyptian Type of Differentiation. Egyptian Cosmogony and Ionian Speculation. The Structure of the Myth: Component Blocks of Experience; the Experience of Consubstantiality as the Binding Force. The Value of Mythical Compactness (82). Speculation within the Range of Consubstantiality. Evolution toward Monotheism. The Amon Hymns of Dynasty XIX. Theologia negativa and Analogia entis (85). 122
2. The Memphite Theology. The Mythical Drama of Order from Chaos. Unification of Egypt and Foundation of Memphis (88). Theogonic Speculation. Ptah as the Creator ex nihilo . Divine Creation Royal Foundation. The Epistemological Footnote. Rational Consciousness in the Creation of the Myth. Comparison with the Christian Logos Speculation (90). 127
3. The Response to Disorder (95). The Coffin Text on a Community of Equals (96). The "Dispute of a Man, Who Contemplates Suicide, with His Soul" (98). 135
4. Akhenaton. The New Position of the Pharaoh. The Ascendancy of Thebes. The "Instructions" for Meri-ka-re. The "Admonitions of Ipu-wer." The "Prophecies of Neferrohu" (101). The Amarna Revolution. A Sun Hymn of Amenhotep III. The "Hymns of Akhenaton." The Reactionary Monopoly of Pharaonic Mediation. The Impasse of Pharaonic Order (105). 141

Part Two: The Historical Order of Israel

      [111]
The House of Bondage and the Freedom of God (111). The Symbols of the Break with Civilization: Sheol, Exodus, Desert, Kingdom of God (113). The Chosen People and the Promised Land (113).

Chapter 4: Israel and History

1. Israel and the Civilizational Courses. Three Tables of Events: The Biblical Narrative, Migrations and Dominations, Toynbee's Cycle of Syriac Civilization (116). Pragmatic and Paradigmatic History. The Leap in Being as the Source of True Order. The Chosen People as the Carrier of Truth. Paradigmatic History as the Confirmation of Truth. The Historical Form of Existence (121). The Eclipse of God. The Spengler-Toynbee Theory of Civilizational Cycles (124). 157 [116]
2. The Meaning of History. Equivocations: The Objective Time of the Civilizational Courses The Inner Form of Society. Compact History in Cosmological Form. Differentiated History in the Present under God. The Origin of Meaning in the Historical Present. The Radiation of Meaning over the Compact Past (126). Problems in the Radiation of Meaning: The Ontological Reality of Mankind The Origin of History in a Moving Present The Loss of Historical Substance (128). 167

Chapter 5: The Emergence of Meaning

176 [134]
Psalm 136. The Emergence of Meaning: Creation, Covenant, Canaan. World-History (154). The Range of Motives: Exodus, Sinai, Shechem. The Expansion of Motives: Events, Experiences, Cults, Cult Legends, Historiographic Elaboration (136). The Pattern of Emergence: Advance and Relapse. The Sacred Line and Mankind. The Rhythm of the Book of Judges. The Kingdom and the Prophets. Exile and Return. Retrospect from the Rabbinical Position (139). The Ambiguity of Canaan. Judaism and Christianity (143).

Chapter 6: The Historiographic Work

The Biblical Narrative. The Layers of Meaning. The Historiographic Stratum (145). 188 [145]
§ I. THE SOURCES OF THE NARRATIVE. A NOTE ON THE STATE OF THE PROBLEM 190 [146]
The Nature of the Problem (146). The Wellhausen School. The Conception of Sources. Rising Dissatisfaction. Criticism (149). The Position of I. Engnell. The Tradition-Historical Method. The Collections of Traditions. Traditionist Circles. J. Pedersen. The Plurality of Motivating Centers (156).
§ 2. THE SYMBOLS OF HISTORIOGRAPHY 206 [162]
Justification of the Term "History." Compactness of Israelite Experience (162). Toroth (Instructions) and Sepher (Book) (164). Toldoth (Generations). Expansion of Genealogies from Clan to Mankind. Separation of the Remnant (165). Speculative Use of Toldoth. The Toldoth of Adam and the Toldoth of Heaven and Earth. Generative Descent from God (168). Berith (Covenant). Expansion from Clan Agreements to the Mosaic Berith. Institutional Use of the Symbol. The Historiographic Use. The Four Ages of World-History. The Four Ages in Christian Speculation (171).
§ 3. THE MOTIVATIONS of HISTORIOGRAPHY 218 [174]
The Range of the Narrative. Its Contents: History, Myth, Enactment of the Myth. The Narrative a Symbolic Form sui generis (174). The Motivations: The Foundation of the Kingdom and the Covenant (176). The Two Foci of Construction and the Compact Experience of Order. The Mortgage of World-Immanent Existence. The Targets of Attack. The Basis of the Attack. Comparison with Christian Problems. The Struggle for Spiritual Freedom (179).

Part Three: History and the Trail of Symbols

      [185]
Pragmatic Existence and the Order of the Covenant. The Complexity of Israelite Symbols. History as a Symbol of Revelation. Organization of Sub- ject Matter (185).

Chapter 7: From Clan Society to Kingship

§1. THE ABRAM STORY 233 [188]
1. Yahweh's Berith with Abram. The Story of Genesis 14. The Nature of the Source. The Political Scene before 1500 B.C. The Baal Berith. The Transformation of the Berith Symbol. The Berith with Yahweh. The God of the Fathers (188). 233
2. The Continuity of the Political Situation. The Scene in the Amarna Period at the Time of the Conquest (196). 241
§2. THE DEBORAH SONG 245 [199]
1. The Transmission of Yahwism to the Time of Moses. The Israelite Confederacy (199). 245
2. The Deborah Song (201). Yahweh and War. The Ritual of the Holy War (204). War and Permanent Political Organization (208). 247
§3. THE KINGSHIP OF GIDEON 258 [212]
Amalgamation of Hebrews and Canaanites. The New Israel (212). Gideon and the Midianite Wars (213). The Sanctuary of the Yahweh of Ophrah (215). The Marriage Policy. The Function of the Harem. Abimelech's coup d'etat (216). "The Fable of the Trees in Search of a King" (217).

Chapter 8: The Struggle for Empire

§1. THE AMPLITUDE OF YAHWISM 265 [219]
Assimilation to Canaanite Gods. Summodeism in statu nascendi . The Formation of Personality through the Spirit of Yahweh (219).
§ 2. THE KINGSHIP OF SAUL 270 [224]
1. The Rise of Saul. The Philistine Expansion. The National Kingship of Saul (224). The Royalist Version of Saul's Kingship. The King and the God (226). Prophetism Collective and Solitary. Populist Yahwism. The Bands of Prophets. Ecstaticism and Articulation (228). 270
2. Spiritual Order of the Soul. Saul and the Witch of Endor. The Prohibition of the elohim (232). The Soul in Israel and Hellas (234). Historical Realism v. Philosophy. The Transfer of the Redeemer Function to Yahweh. The Return of God into History. David's Funeral Elegy for Saul and Jonathan (236). 279
3. Theocracy. The Antiroyalist Version of Saul's Kingship (242). Samuel and Theocracy (245). 289
§ 3. THE RISE OF DAVID 295 [249]
The Entrance of Judah into Israelite History (249). The New Social Forces. The Retinue of the War Leaders and the Rise of Professional Armies. The King's Clan. The War of the Generals. David Becomes King (251).

Chapter 9: The Mundane Climax

§1. THE DAVIDIC EMPIRE 303 [256]
The Empire and the Identity of Israel (256). The Economic Limitations (258).
§2. THE DAVID-BATHSHEBA STORY 306 [259]
"The Fable of the Poor Man's Lamb" (260). The Disintegration of the War Ritual. Israel as a Strategic Reserve in the Imperial Army (261). David's Character (265). Justice (266).
§ 3. DAVID'S KINGSHIP 315 [267]
The Two Unctions (268). David's Berith with Israel. The Succession of Solomon (269). Yahweh's Berith with the House of David (271).
§4. DAVID AND JERUSALEM 320 [273]
The Imperial Program. The Meaning of "David." Genesis 14. El Elyon. The Theophorous Names. The Priesthoods (274). Psalm no (279).
§5. THE IMPERIAL PSALMS. A DIGRESSION ON THE STATE OF THE PROBLEM 330 [282]
1. The Nature of the Psalms. Their Function in the Cult. Poetic and Religious Individualism as Causes of Misunderstanding (282). 330
2. Form-critical and Cult-functional Methods. H. Gunkel. S. Mowinckel (284). 332
3. Divine Kingship and Patternism. The Theoretical Issue. The New Year Rituals. S. H. Hooke. A. R. Johnson. The Literature on Kingship (287). 336
4. The Difficulties of the New Position. The Insufficient Philosophical Foundation (290). 339
5. The Resistance to Mythologization. The Sinai Cult. G. von Rad. The Nathan Prophecy. H.- J. Kraus. Literary Criticism v. Analysis of Order (293). 341
6. Conclusion. A. J. Wensinck on Cosmological Symbolism. The Relation of Cosmological and Historical Form. The Institutional Vacuum of the Covenant Order. The Completion through the Empire. The Pressure of Historical Form on the Meaning of the Psalms (298). 347
§6. THE IMPERIAL SYMBOLISM 353 [303]
The Cosmological Symbols. The Nathan Prophecy. Egyptian Influences. The Imperial Psalms (303). Eschatological Transformation. Psalms of Solomon 17. The Epistle to the Hebrews (309).

Chapter 10: The End of Israel's Worldly Existence

§1. THE DIVIDED KINGDOMS 361 [311]
The Literary Outburst. Order beyond Mundane Existence. The Growth of Israel. The Trail of Symbols (311). The Destiny of Israel. The Archaic Revolt (315).
§2. THE PRAGMATIC SITUATION 367 [316]
The Internal Organization of the Northern Kingdom (316). The Egyptian Intervention. Egyptian Aspects of Solomon's Reign. Pharaoh's Daughter. The Temple. The Robe of the High Priest. The Cult Reform of Jeroboam (317). The Rise of Assyria. The Omride Policy. Jehu's Revolt (322).
§3. THE BOOK OF THE COVENANT 375 [325]
The Interest in the Law. Hosea. The Response to the Crisis of Mundane Existence (325). The Sinaitic Legislation. Debharim and Mishpatim (328). The Decalogic Form (330). The Decalogue and Social Order (332).
§4. THE PROPHET ELIJAH 385 [334]
The Malachi Texts (33$). The Experience of Judgment (337). The Vision on Mount Tabor (338). The Day of Yahweh (340). The Stages of Eschatology (343). Elijah. Moses and Elijah. The Omrides and Elijah. The Attack on the Baal. Elijah in the Desert. The Prophetic Succession (345).

Part Four: Moses and the Prophets

      [353]

Chapter 11: The Deuteronomic Torah

1. The Prophets and the Order of Israel. Assimilation and Nationalism. Universalism and Parochialism. The Judaite Will to Existence. Deuteronomic "Theology" (355). 405 [355]
2. The Speeches of Moses. Period of their Creation. Suppression, Discovery, and Enactment (359). 410
3. The Instructions of Yahweh and the Torah of Moses. The Myth of Mosaic Authorship of the Word of God (362). 412
4. The Regulation of Revelation. Motivations in the Prophetic Revolt. The Inclusion of the Circumstances in the Contents of Revelation. The Regulation: The King, the Priests, the Prophets. The Dividing Line between the Histories of Israel and the Jews (367). 418
5. Deuteronomy and the Beginnings of Judaism. Israelite and Jewish Aspects of the Torah. G. von Rad and W. Eichrodt. Flattening of Existence and Peace of Mind. The Experience of "Today." Military Reform and Religious Wars. Religion Defined. The Institutional Model of Divine Order. Imperial Pressure, Repristination, and Preservation of Order (372). 423

Chapter 12: Moses

§I. THE NATURE OF THE SOURCES 431 [380]
The Permitted Questions and Answers (381). Form and Historical Substance. The Form of the Torah. The Form of the Prophetic Legend. The Historical Substance: Yahwist v. Pharaonic Order. The Form of the Paschal Legend (383).
§ 2. THE SON OF GOD 439 [388]
The Summary of leitmotifs. Exod. 4:21 23. Israel: The New Son of God. Service to Yahweh v. Service to Egypt. The Historical Demotion of Egypt (389). The Name of Moses. The People and the Leader. Egyptization. Mosheh: "The One Who Draws Out and Who is Drawn Out." The Red Sea Miracle (392). The Transfer of the Mosheh Symbol to David. Psalm 18. The Royal Son of God and the Order of Mankind. Transition to Messianism. The Transfer of the Mosheh Symbol to Jesus. Heb. 13:20 (395). Moses as the Prcfiguration of the Son of God. The Tentative Symbol of Moses the God (398). Yahweh Tries to Kill Moses. The Uncircumcized Lips and the Mouth of God (400).
§ 3. THE GOD 453 [402]
The Yahweh of Moses (402). The Spiritual Biography of Moses in Exod. 2 (403). The Revelation from the Thornbush. Literary Structure of the Epi- sode. The Interpretation of the I-AM-WHO-I-AM. St. Thomas on the Thorn- bush Episode. The Hidden and the Revealed God. Revelation and Historical Constitution of the People (405). Relation of the Thornbush Episode to the Amon Hymns. The Date of Moses (412).
§4. THE NEW DISPENSATION 466 [415]
Revelation and Human Response. The Construction of the Exodus Drama (416). The Construction of the Berith Drama (418). The Message from Sinai. The Kingdom of Priests. The Order of Mankind with its Center in the Royal Domain (421). The Covenant (423). The Decalogue. The Constitution of the Theopolity. The Suppression of Rebellion Anti-Divine and Anti-Human. The Flow of the People through the Rhythm of Time (424).

Chapter 13: The Prophets

§I. THE PROPHETIC EFFORT 481 [428]
The Continuum of Historical Form. Recall of the Past and Call in the Present. Derailment into the Torah. Prophetic Resistance. Universalism and Personalism. Relegation to the Past (428).
§2. THE UNFOLDING Of THE PROBLEM
I. The Decalogue. Jeremiah's Temple Address. The Decalogue as the Meas- ure of Conduct. Prophetic and Public Authority (431). The Trial of Jeremiah. Comparison with Socrates (434). The Call of Isaiah (436). 484 [431]
2. The Covenant. Law v. the Order of the Soul. The Normative Form of Existential Issues (438). Jeremiah's Attack on the Alien Gods (440). Complaints about Conduct Amos, Hosea, Isaiah (442). The Demand of Virtues (444). The Prophets' Ontology. Isaiah and Warfare. Metastasis (447). Metastatic Operations (453). Metastatic Experience and the Existential Issue. The Covenant Written in the Heart (455). 491
3. The Message. The Critique of the Sinaitic Symbolism (458). The In- effective Revelation (460). The Dialectics of Divine Foreknowledge and Human Decision. The Dual Symbolism of the Prophets (461). Ontology and History (464). Jeremiah's Enactment of Israel's Fate. The Contraction of the Chosen People into the Chosen Man (465). Jeremiah's Call. The Prophet as the Royal Son of God, as the New Moses, as the Servant of Yahweh, as the Lord of History (467). The Prophet to the Nations. Amos. The Literary Form of the Prophets (470). The Messianic Problem. The Last Words of David. The Image of the Ruler (471). The Institutional Phase of the Mes sianic Problem Amos, Hosea (470. The Metastatic Phase. Isaiah. The Kabhod of Yahweh. The Call. The Political Intervention. The Immanuel Prophecy. The Disciples and the Sealing of the Message. The Prince of Peace Prophecy. The Metastatic Vision (475). The Existential Phase. Jeremiah (481). Jeremiah's Spiritual Autobiography. Suffering, Complaint, Revenge. The Justice of God. The Mystery of Iniquity. The Dialogue with God. Prophetic Existence as Participation in God's Suffering (484). 511
§3. THE SUFFERING SERVANT 542 [488]
The Problem of Israelite Order. The Positions of Isaiah and Jeremiah. The Movement beyond the Order of the Concrete Society. The Exodus of Israel from Itself (488). Deutero-Isaiah (491). The Work a Symbolic Drama. Errors of Interpretation. The Logoi of Philosophy and Revelation. The Time of Experience, of the Composition, of Salvation (494). Organization of the Work. Substance and Form of Revelation. A New Type of Prophecy (498). The Prologue in Heaven. The leitmotifs : The Former Things and the New Things. The Redeemer God. God as the Creator of the World, of Israel, of Salvation. Theology of History. The Fall of Babylon and the Experience of Redemption. The God of All Mankind (501). The Servant and His Work of Redemption. The Ordination of the Servant in Heaven. The Servant in History as the Light to the Nations, as the Disciple of God. His Suffering and Work. The Representative Sufferer for Mankind (507).

		

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